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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. On 12 July 927, the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan to form the Kingdom of England. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1707. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.

Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.

Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Engleterre.

By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.

During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... a

Todd Boulanger

Todd Boulanger is an American lobbyist. He was a figure in the Jack Abramoff scandal. Boulanger graduated from the University of New Hampshire with a degree in political science, served in the U. S. Army Reserves for eight years. In 1999 Boulanger followed Jack Abramoff to work for Preston Gates Ellis & Rouvelas Meeds, in 2001 to Greenberg Traurig as a member of "Team Abramoff", in 2004 to Cassidy & Associates. In 2000 Boulanger served on the Bush recount team for Broward and Duval counties during the Florida election recount, his Greenberg Traurig online profile heralded his involvement. Boulanger was a legislative aide to Senator Bob Smith. While working for Abramoff in 2002, Todd Boulanger drafted a letter to Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton on behalf of the Louisiana Coushatta against the Jena Band of Choctaws from Louisiana, who were hoping to build a casino near the Coushatta's own, his original draft said to Norton: "we hold you accountable" to shoot down "reservation shopping" by the Jenas.

In June, Norton received a toned-down letter, signed by House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, House Speaker J. Dennis Hastert and Majority Whip Roy Blunt. Billing records and emails indicate Boulanger had 31 instances of lobbying contacts with the White House while at Greenberg. On February 21, 2002, for example, Susan Ralston e-mailed Boulanger in reference to briefing materials opposing the construction of a casino in Louisiana by the Jena Band of the Choctaw: "Thanks for breakfast. I showed KR the binder.... He gave the binder to Mehlman to read cover to be prepared. Mehlman will be at the meeting."Emails show that Boulanger was involved with Abramoff, Kevin Ring, Shawn Vasell and Tony Rudy in the Team Abramoff efforts to secure $16.3 million in funding from the Department of Justice for the construction of a jail by the Mississippi Band of the Choctaw. Documents released with Boulanger's guilty plea include emails by Boulanger and Ring discussing giving "Staffer E"—identified by the Associated Press as Sen. Thad Cochran aide Ann Copland—tickets for ice skating and Paul McCartney and Green Day concerts.

The lobbyists believed Copland could assist the Mississippi Choctaw. Boulanger was identified as "Lobbyist D" in the plea agreement of Trevor Blackann, a former staffer for Rep. Roy Blunt and Sen. Kit Bond who pleaded guilty on November 20, 2008 to making false statements about thousands of dollars in gifts from Boulanger and fellow lobbyist James Hirni. Boulanger resigned from Cassidy & Associates the following day. On January 28, 2009 Boulanger was formally charged in the scandal. Boulanger pleaded guilty to bribing government officials the next day. Following the initial wave of the Abramoff scandal, Boulanger became a regular on Fox News and MSNBC, was named by Politico as one of the "50 Politicos To Watch" for his "nattily attired, outside-the-box staying power." Boulanger is married to Jessica Incitto, a Republican spokesperson who has worked for Tom DeLay, Roy Blunt and Progress for America. "Casino Bid Prompted High-Stakes Lobbying". Washington Post. March 13, 2005. "Jack of Clubs: Inner Circle of Abramoff, Delay and the Boys".

Fired Up! Missouri. October 5, 2005. Cassidy & Associates Todd Boulanger biography

Lionel Ranwala

Lionel Ranwala, was a musician and a singer in Sri Lanka and a legend in Sri Lankan folk music. Ranwala's main interest was Sinhala folk music of Sri Lankan, he brought Sinhala folk tunes and melodies to popular Sri Lankan music, preserving their originality. He studied music at the Panjab University, Chandigarh and has a sour knowledge of the field. Ranwala, who created a revolution in the local folk music scene along with his mentor W. B. Makuloluwa, started his teaching career at Arawwala MMV in 1959, he taught music at several leading schools including Ananda College, Royal College, Colombo during a 38-year career. He popularised local music in schools and formed the first'Hevisi' band in a school – at Pannipitiya Dharmapala Vidyalaya in 1964. Ranwala was a versatile actor and dramatist. One of his most memorable roles was in the first Sinhala opera'Depano' directed by Makuloluwa, he wrote and directed several children's dramas. He acted in several teledramas, his last teledrama was "Rangamadala Samugani", telecasted in Swarnawahini.

He travelled all over the island collecting folk songs for posterity. A staunch defender of indigenous music, he released several cassettes containing experimental folk music, notably'Ahase Innavalu' in 1999, he formed the'Thaalama Foundation' for preserving folk music. "Gama Ahulaggang", "May Awurudu kale" and "Wannam Sawudam" are some of his most famous songs. He has two sons and Sahan; the elder, Chirantha is a producer at Swarnavahini. Sahan is working at the Swarnawahini, but after his father's sudden death, has now taken the initiative to preserve and make people aware of Sinhala Folk Music, in the same way his father did. Ranwala died, in 2002 at Thalawathugoda, his wife too faced the accident and was injured. Eka gediyay pala gaththe Beeri Ali Nogiya gamana Ahase Innawalu Ahuwama Kan Pirena Akulagena Sonda Kelipodda Baledi Me Awurudu Kale Mithuru Sarouhura Pankiriththi Pasunu Karal Sanda Saawee Ma Sawanath Kinihara Soya Wannam Sawudam Yuddetath Awith