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Great Britain

Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with narrow temperature differences between seasons. England and Wales are on Great Britain. Politically, Great Britain and Northern Ireland together constitute the United Kingdom; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.

In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".

The first known written use of the word Britain was an ancient Greek transliteration of the original P-Celtic term in a work on the travels and discoveries of Pytheas that has not survived. The earliest existing records of the word are quotations of the periplus by authors, such as those within Strabo's Geographica, Pliny's Natural History and Diodorus of Sicily's Bibliotheca historica. Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland.

The latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC; the term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. According to Strabo, Pytheas referred to Britain as Bretannikē, treated a feminine noun. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island.

After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee". It was used again in 1604, when King Jame

Timeline of Cienfuegos

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Cienfuegos, Cuba. 1745 - Castillo de Jagua built. 1819 April 22: Fernandina de Jagua founded by Luis de Clouet in Spanish colonial Captaincy General of Cuba. December: Population: 231. 1829 - Town renamed "Villa de Cienfuegos." 1831 - Town coat of arms designed. 1844 - Governor's house built. 1880 - Cienfuegos becomes a city. 1890 - Tomás Terry Theatre opens. 1892 - Population: 27,430. 1898 - La Correspondencia newspaper begins publication. 1899 - Population: 30,038 city. 1903 - Roman Catholic Diocese of Cienfuegos established. 1907 - Population: 30,100 city. 1911 - Teatro Luisa opens. 1913 - Tivoli Gardens opens. 1919 - Population: 95,865. 1933 - Carlos Rafael Rodríguez becomes mayor. 1935 - Biblioteca Municipal established. 1939 - Orquesta Aragón dance band formed. 1957 - Political unrest. 1959 - Armed conflict between government and counterrevolutionaries begins. 1965 - Armed conflict between government and counterrevolutionaries ends. 1966 - Population: 89,000.

1976 November 2: Municipal election held, the first since 1959. Cienfuegos Province established. Archivo Histórico Provincial de Cienfuegos established. 1980 - Carlos Marx cement plant begins operating. 1983 - Juragua Nuclear Power Plant construction begins. 1984 - Population: 107,850. 1999 - Population: 137,513 city. 2005 July: Hurricane Dennis occurs. Historic Centre of Cienfuegos designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site. 2014 - Population: 149,129. Cienfuegos history Timelines of other cities in Cuba: Camagüey, Guantánamo, Holguín, Santiago de Cuba Items related to Cienfuegos, various dates "". Cuban Heritage Collection. USA: University of Miami Libraries. "" – via Digital Library of the Caribbean. Items related to Cienfuegos, various dates

Heinrich Escher

Heinrich Escher was mayor of the City and Republic of Zürich at the turn of the 18th Century. He is credited with introducing chocolate to Switzerland after learning about it in Brussels. At the beginning of his political career in 1652 he became a representative of the guild the Meisen to the large council of Zurich and between 1663 -1668 to the small council. In 1669 he became bailiff of Kyburg and from 1678 until his death he was mayor of Zürich, he was active as a merchant in the textile trade. As a representative of the buyers he was a member of the delegation for the renewal of the alliance of Zürich with Ludwig XIV. After the Threat of Geneva and the Waldenser taken up there and Huguenot by France, Escher in 1687 together with a representative of Berne came to the court of Ludwig XIV, he was sent to represent the interests of the Evangelist conditions in Zürich and Berne and the conditions Geneva allied with them. Swissworld