The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country. The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and it was known as Mukden province at the time, for the Manchu pronunciation of Shengjing, the former name of the provincial capital Shenyang. Under the Japanese-puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945, Liaoning is the southernmost part of Manchuria, the Chinese Northeast. The Yalu River marks its border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong in Liaoning and Sinuiju in North Korea, the characters forming the provinces modern Chinese name are 辽 and 宁. They are the forms of the traditional characters 遼 and 寧. The first character literally means far, distant but is actually a reference to the Liao River which flows through the territory. The second literally means peace, calm but in such Chinese place names actually has the sense of pacified, made peaceful, here in reference to the turbulent situation of Manchuria in the late 1920s.
In both English and Chinese, however, it is most common to gloss the name as the more literal Peace on the Liao, the provinces one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 辽. Liaoning is located in the part of Northeast China. In the past, it formed part of Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon and Balhae, as well as Chinese polities such as the Yan State and it was inhabited by non-Han peoples such as Xiongnu, Xianbei. In addition, the Khitan, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan ruled Liaoning, the Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a wall was constructed to defend the agricultural heartland of the province from a potential threat from the Jurchen-Mongol Oriyanghan from the northwest. Between 1467 and 1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this Liaodong Wall was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.
Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Manchus conquered Liaodong, or eastern Liaoning, in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled Later Jin, established its capital in 1616–1621 in Xingjing and it was moved to Dongjing, and finally in 1625 to Shengjing. Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, in the Governors words and Fushun only have a few vagrants. West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan and Guangning had any significant populations remaining, in the latter half of the seventeenth century, the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece. It is separated from the part of the country by the Gulf of Corinth. During the late Middle Ages and the Ottoman era, the peninsula was known as the Morea, the peninsula is divided among three administrative regions, most belongs to the Peloponnese region, with smaller parts belonging to the West Greece and Attica regions. In 2016, Lonely Planet voted the Peloponnese the top spot of their Best in Europe list, the Peloponnese is a peninsula that covers an area of some 21,549.6 square kilometres and constitutes the southernmost part of mainland Greece. It has two connections with the rest of Greece, a natural one at the Isthmus of Corinth. The peninsula has an interior and deeply indented coasts. The Peloponnese possesses four south-pointing peninsulas, the Messenian, the Mani, the Cape Malea, mount Taygetus in the south is the highest mountain in the Peloponnese, at 2,407 metres. Οther important mountains include Cyllene in the northeast, Aroania in the north and Panachaikon in the northwest, Mainalon in the center, the entire peninsula is earthquake prone and has been the site of many earthquakes in the past.
The longest river is the Alfeios in the west, followed by the Evrotas in the south, extensive lowlands are found only in the west, with the exception of the Evrotas valley in the south and in the Argolid in the northeast. The Peloponnese is home to spectacular beaches, which are a major tourist draw. Two groups of islands lie off the Peloponnesian coast, the Argo-Saronic Islands to the east, the island of Kythera, off the Epidaurus Limera peninsula to the south of the Peloponnese, is considered to be part of the Ionian Islands. The island of Elafonissos used to be part of the peninsula but was separated following the quake of 365 AD. Since antiquity, and continuing to the present day, the Peloponnese has been divided into seven regions, Corinthia, Arcadia, Messinia. Each of these regions is headed by a city, the largest city is Patras in Achaia, followed by Kalamata in Messinia. The peninsula has been inhabited since prehistoric times and its modern name derives from ancient Greek mythology, specifically the legend of the hero Pelops, who was said to have conquered the entire region.
The name Peloponnesos means Island of Pelops, the Mycenaean civilization, mainland Greeces first major civilization, dominated the Peloponnese in the Bronze Age from its stronghold at Mycenae in the north-east of the peninsula. The Mycenean civilization collapsed suddenly at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, archeological research has found that many of its cities and palaces show signs of destruction. The subsequent period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, is marked by an absence of written records
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century.
The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark.
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Qaasuitsup and it retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can refer generally to the study of the features of any terrestrial planet. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life. Geology plays a role in engineering and is a major academic discipline. The majority of data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These typically fall into one of two categories and unconsolidated material, the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three types of rock, igneous and metamorphic. The rock cycle is an important concept in geology which illustrates the relationships between three types of rock, and magma. When a rock crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock, the sedimentary rock can be subsequently turned into a metamorphic rock due to heat and pressure and is weathered, eroded and lithified, ultimately becoming a sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock may be re-eroded and redeposited, and metamorphic rock may undergo additional metamorphism, all three types of rocks may be re-melted, when this happens, a new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once again crystallize. Geologists study unlithified material which typically comes from more recent deposits and these materials are superficial deposits which lie above the bedrock. Because of this, the study of material is often known as Quaternary geology. This includes the study of sediment and soils, including studies in geomorphology and this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading, and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity. This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics provided a basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features could be explained as plate boundaries, mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, were explained as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart.
Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes were explained as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts under another, transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes. Plate tectonics provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift and they provided a driving force for crustal deformation, and a new setting for the observations of structural geology
Atafu, formerly known as the Duke of York Group, is a group of 42 coral islets within Tokelau in the south Pacific Ocean,500 kilometres north of Samoa. Covering 2.5 square kilometres, it is the smallest of the three islands that constitute Tokelau, and is composed of an atoll surrounding a central lagoon, the atoll lies some 800 kilometres south of the equator at 8°35 South, 172°30 West. According to the 2006 census 524 people officially live on Atafu, of those present, 95% belong to the Congregational Church. The main settlement on the atoll is located on Atafu Island at the corner of the atoll. The Presbyterian church was established on the island in 1858, the first village on Atafu was established at the southern end of the islet, and residents built houses along the lagoon shore to receive the cooling trade winds. The men on Atafu are highly skilled at fishing, and they use traditional methods that are passed on from fathers to sons. They make highly effective lures, fish traps and seines and they make well-crafted canoes, which are important vehicles for their fishing expeditions.
Atafu lies in the Pacific hurricane belt, in January 1914, a massive storm demolished the church and most of the houses on the islands, and wiped out many of the coconut palms. The atoll is roughly triangular in shape and encloses a lagoon some five kilometres north to south by four kilometres east to west at its widest point, lizards and seabirds are common on Atafu island. The atoll attracts a variety of fish in large numbers. The eastern side of the lagoon is a continuous thin strip of land with one small break halfway along its length. The smaller Tamaseko Island lies in the close to Alofi. The reef which connects the islands of the atoll is shallow enough that it is possible to walk between the islands at low tide and this means that there is no boat passage to the lagoon, although the ocean becomes deep very close to the reef. This allows for good anchorage, but makes for rough seas close to the reef, the flatness of the atoll and its location within the tropical cyclone belt has led to damage to island properties on occasion.
It is likely that Polynesians visited the island in ancient times, the European discovery of the atoll came on 21 June 1765, by John Byron, of the HMS Dolphin. Byron found no-one living on the island at time. Atafu was established by Tonuia and his wife Lagimaina, along with their seven children, between 1856 and 1979, the United States claimed that it held sovereignty over the island and the other Tokelauan atolls. In 1979, the U. S. conceded that Tokelau was under New Zealand sovereignty, on 26 August 2007, the attempt by Ralph Tuijn to row from South America to Australia crashlanded on Atafu
A river island or river archipelago is any landmass or fluvial landform within a river. The term towhead implies a little islet or sandbar within a river having a grouping or thicket of trees, many rivers, if wide enough, can house considerably large islands. The term towhead was popularised by Mark Twains Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, in England, a river island in the Thames is referred to as an ait. Majuli in India is recognised by Guinness Book of World Records as Worlds Largest River Island, Includes some river islands that have an ocean coast
Coronado, since the 1980s mistakenly known as Coronado Island, is a resort city located in San Diego County, California and around San Diego Bay from downtown San Diego. Its population was 24,697 at the 2010 census, up from 24,100 at the 2000 census and it is part of San Diego County, California. Coronado lies on the combination of an island and a tombolo connected to the mainland called the Silver Strand. Coronado is an island, connected by a tombolo. In 2012, Dr. Stephen Leatherman, Director of the Laboratory for Coastal Research, Coronado is Spanish for crowned one, and thus it is nicknamed The Crown City. Three ships of the United States Navy have been named after the city, Coronado was incorporated as a town on December 11,1890. The land was purchased by Elisha Spurr Babcock, along with Hampton L. Story and their intention was to create a resort community, and in 1886, the Coronado Beach Company was organized. By 1888, they had built the Hotel del Coronado, and they built a schoolhouse, and formed athletic and baseball clubs.
In 1900, an area just south of the Hotel del Coronado was established by John D. Spreckels. Over the years the tents gave way to cottages, the last of which was torn down in late 1940 or early 1941 and these streetcars became a fixture of the city until their retirement in 1939. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 32.7 square miles,20.5 km² of the city is land and 24.7 square miles of it is water. Geographically, Cornado is not an island and it is a tied island, connected to the mainland by a strip of land called the Silver Strand. This tombolo, along with Coronado and North Island, forms San Diego Bay, Coronado was mostly separated from North Island by a shallow inlet of water called the Spanish Bight, but just like Coronado, North Island was never completely surrounded by water. The development of North Island by the United States Navy prior to and during World War II led to the filling of the bight by July 1944, the Navy still operates Naval Air Station North Island on Coronado.
On the southern side of the town is Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, both facilities are part of the larger Naval Base Coronado complex. Though there has been localized development of the coastline, including some minor landfill, in 1969, the San Diego–Coronado Bridge was opened, allowing much faster transit between the cities than bay ferries or driving via State Route 75 along the Silver Strand. The city is currently weighing the options of additional construction on Highway 75 to alleviate congestion as traffic flows to and from San Diego, according to the Köppen climate classification system, Coronado has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated BSk on climate maps. The 2010 United States Census reported that Coronado city had a population of 24,697
The site was formerly an outer barrier island but became partially connected to the rest of Long Island by land fill. Coney Island is well known as the site of amusement parks, the attractions reached a historical peak during the first half of the 20th century, declining in popularity after World War II and years of neglect. Coney Island is the westernmost part of the islands of Long Island. At its highest it is 7 feet above sea level, the perimeter of Coney Island features man made structures designed to maintain its current shape. The beaches are not a natural feature with replenishing sand being cut off by the jetty at Breezy Point. Sand has been redeposited on the beaches via beach nourishment since 1922-1923, the first such project ever, Sheepshead Bay on the east side is, for the most part, enclosed in bulkheads. The original Native American inhabitants of the region, the Lenape and this name has been attributed the meaning of land without shadows or always in light describing how its south facing beaches always remained in sunlight.
A second meaning attributed to Narrioch is point or corner of land, the Dutch established the colony of Nieuw Amsterdam in that area in the early 17th century. The western most island was Coney Island, a 1.25 mile shifting sandspit with an island at its western end extending into Lower New York Bay. East of Coney was originally a peninsula called Coney Hook but in 1750 a canal was dug through the Coney Hook salt-marsh from Brown’s creek east to Hubbard’s creek. This connection to the waterways behind the islands allowed shipping traffic to travel from Jamaica Bay to New York Harbor without having to venture out into the ocean, the canal turned Coney Hook into a detached half mile long island called Pine Island, due to the woods on it. East of Pine was the largest section of island called Gysberts or Guisberts Island, containing most of the land and extending east through todays Brighton Beach. Each island was separated by an inlet that could only be crossed at low tide, Development of the island was slow over the period of the Dutch occupation up through the early 1800s due to land disputes and the intervening Revolutionary War and War of 1812.
By the early 1800s there were only a handful of farms across the entire island. There is no historical consensus on how the island got the name Coney Island, a name, in the form of Conyne Eylandt. Development on Coney Island has always been controversial, when the first structures were built around the 1830s, there was an outcry to prevent any development on the island and preserve it as a natural park. Starting in the early 1900s, the City of New York made efforts to all buildings. It was an effort to reclaim the beach which by had almost completely built over with bath houses, clam bars, amusements
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
A skerry is a small rocky island, usually defined to be too small for human habitation, it may simply be a rocky reef. A skerry can be called a low sea stack, the term skerry is derived from the Old Norse sker, which means a rock in the sea. The Old Norse term sker was brought into the English language via the Scots language word spelled skerrie or skerry. In Scottish Gaelic, it appears as sgeir, e. g. Sula Sgeir, in Irish as sceir, in Welsh as sgeri, a skerry may have vegetative life such as moss and small, hardy grasses. They also, in areas of the world, are rested upon by animals such as seals or birds. Skerries are most commonly formed at the outlet of fjords where submerged glacially formed valleys at right angles to the coast join with other cross valleys in a complex array. By this channel one can travel through a protected passage almost the entire 1,600 km route from Stavanger to North Cape, the Blindleia is a skerry-protected waterway that starts near Kristiansand in southern Norway, and continues past Lillesand.
The inside passage provides a route from Seattle, Washington to Skagway. Yet another such skerry-protected passage extends from the Straits of Magellan north for 800 km along the west coast of the South American continent, the Swedish coast along Bohuslän is likewise guarded by skerries. Even the east coast of Sweden, in the Baltic Sea, has many big skärgårdar, the southwestern coast of Finland has a great many skerries, so many, in fact, that they form an archipelago. This area is experiencing post-glacial rebound that connects the islands as they break sea level, revealing till deposits. The skerries exist as small islands before uplift of adjacent terrain changes the classification of this landform into a tombolo. The most southerly skerries are perhaps the Skrap Skerries off South Georgia