Hong Kong Polytechnic University
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University is a public university located in Hung Hom, Hong Kong. The history of PolyU can be traced back to 1937, it assumed full university status in 1994, it is one of the funded institutions of the territory's University Grants Committee. PolyU has an international faculty and student community and has developed a global network with more than 440 institutions in 47 countries and regions. PolyU offers 220 postgraduate and sub-degree programmes for more than 32,000 students every year, it is the largest UGC-funded tertiary institution in terms of number of students. The Government Trade School was founded in 1937. Situated at Wood Road, Wan Chai, the school was the first publicly funded, post-secondary technical institution in Hong Kong. After World War II the school became the Hong Kong Technical College, in 1957 opened new premises in Hung Hom. In 1972 The Hong Kong Polytechnic was formally established, its mandate was to provide professionally oriented education to meet the need for qualified staff.
It gained approval from the University and Polytechnic Grants Committee for self-accreditation of degree programmes on 25 November 1994, assuming full university status and changing its name to The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. World Rankings of PolyU QS "Top 50 Under 50" list of world's top young universities: 7th in the world, 3rd in Hong Kong QS Asian University Rankings 2016/17: 6th in Asia, 5th in Hong Kong QS World University Rankings 2018: 95th in the world, 5th in Hong Kong Times Higher Education's World University Rankings 2017: 192nd in the world Times Higher Education's 150 Under 50 World University Rankings 2016: 27th in the world Times Higher Education's Asia University Rankings 2017: 17th in the Asia, 5th in Hong KongWorld Rankings of Faculties and Disciplines The University's teaching units are grouped under 8 faculties and schools, offering over 220 postgraduate and sub-degree programmes; the service learning subjects are offered by 20 departments from 8 faculties and schools, covering a variety of community service projects.
In order to promote and encourage specialized research, various research centres have been set up at PolyU. Each faculty or school has its own centres, institutes for public policy research and sustainable urban development operate under the Areas of Excellence Committee. With Boeing, PolyU established the Aviation Services Research Centre, it hosts The Hong Kong Research Institute of Textiles and Apparel. Notable PolyU research projects include: Safety monitoring of high speed rail Defocus Incorporated Soft Lens Eco-blocks Electric vehicles Electronic “bat ears” for the visually impaired "Hand of Hope" technology Life-cycle health monitoring of massive infrastructure Micro-injection moulding machine Nano-particles for purifying dirty water Nu-Torque singles yarn technology Organic photovoltaics and LEDs Tools and instruments used in space exploration PolyU's main campus has over 20 buildings, many of which are inter-connected. Apart from those named after donors, the buildings are identified in English letters.
In addition to classrooms and other academic facilities, the university provides student hostels, a multi-purpose auditorium, sports and catering facilities, as well as a bookstore and banks. The Jockey Club Innovation Tower is located at the northeastern side of the University campus; this 15-storey building provides 15,000 square metres of net floor area. It houses facilities for design education including exhibition areas, multi-functional classrooms and lecture theatres, design studios and workshops, as well as a communal lounge; the tower was designed by Zaha Hadid. The Jockey Club Auditorium began operation in 2000, its balcony and main floor seating accommodate up to 1,084 persons. Hotel Icon was opened in September 2011; the hotel is wholly owned by PolyU and is the teaching and research hotel of the School of Hotel and Tourism Management. The library was established on 1 August 1972. Two centres operated until 1976 at Hung Hom and Quarry Bay, merging into the present building in 1976; the library was named after shipping entrepreneur and philanthropist Yue-Kong Pao in 1995.
In 2014, there were over 2.77 million of library holdings in total, with nearly 600,000 electronic resources. The six-storey library provides 3,900 study spaces and is equipped with a 24-hour study centre and audio-visual information areas. Established in 2001 under the auspices of PolyU, the Hong Kong Community College is a self-financed post-secondary institution which offers associate degree and higher diploma programmes spanning the domains of arts, social sciences, health care and design for senior secondary school leavers. HKCC classes are conducted at the Hung Hom West Kowloon campuses. With a floor area totalling over 57,000 square metres, the two campuses provide teaching and recreational facilities, including lecture theatres, classrooms, a library, a computer centre, multi-purpose rooms and halls, sky gardens, a cafeteria and communal areas. Since its establishment, HKCC has helped over 13,700 graduates matriculate into bachelor’s degree programmes; the university's faculty-led Student Discipline Committee, with the support of the university council chairman Lam Tai-fai, expelled one student and suspended another for one year in response to an October 2018 incident arising from a dispute over postings by students on the "Democracy Wall" bulletin board managed by the students' union.
The students had posted messages in commemoration of the fourth anniversary of the "Umbrella Mo
JUSCO is the acronym for Japan United Stores Company, a chain of "general merchandise stores" and the largest of its type in Japan. The various JUSCO companies are subsidiaries of the ÆON supermarket chain; the JUSCO name was adopted in 1970 from a company founded as a kimono silk trader in 1758. Renamed ÆON in 1989, it operates stores throughout Japan under JUSCO and other names and has a presence in Malaysia, Hong Kong, mainland China, Carlingford in Australia and Thailand; as of March 1, 2011, all JUSCO and SATY stores under the Aeon umbrella in Japan changed their names to AEON while all the JUSCO stores and shopping centres in Malaysia have been re-branded into AEON since March 2012. The Hong Kong and Mainland China subsidiaries changed their name to AEON on 1 March 2013. In the 1970s, JUSCO was constituted by Mie Prefecture and Hyogo in Japan named Japan United Stores COmpany.. After that, it experienced rapid development. There are about 300 stores in Japan itself and still counting; the group was renamed Aeon in 1990, but its retail stores were still using the old name JUSCO.
In late 2010 AEON announced that all existing JUSCO stores in Japan would be renamed AEON. The re-branding exercise was complete by the end of that year. In 1985 the first JUSCO store outside Japan was opened in Plaza Dayabumi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, as a jointly-owned company with Cold Storage and three local companies, known as Jaya Jusco, it was the first time that a Japanese company had entered into a significant joint venture in the Malaysian retail industry. JUSCO assumed total operational control of the chain in 1988. Currently. There are 33 AEON Retails stores and shopping centres are in operation in Malaysia; the oldest JUSCO store in Malaysia is JUSCO Taman Maluri in Kuala Lumpur. It opened on 30 October 1989; the AEON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre in Bandar Bukit Tinggi, Selangor, Malaysia is the largest JUSCO in Malaysia and Southeast Asia with over 2,100,000 square feet of built-up area and 5,000 car park bays. JUSCO in Malaysia is notable for being among the first general merchandise chains to introduce biodegradable poly bags made from sweet potatoes.
In March 2012, all the JUSCO stores and shopping centres in Malaysia were re-branded to AEON Retails stores and shopping centres, following the decision of AEON in Japan. In April 2018, AEON expands to East Malaysia by opening their first mall in Kuching; the Hong Kong JUSCO subsidiary was established in November 1987 as JUSCO Department Store Co. Ltd; the first JUSCO store opened in Kornhill in December 1987. It was listed in Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited on 4 February 1994 with the stock code 984. Hong Kong JUSCO has now been renamed as AEON Stores, manages shopping malls and other retail shops such as supermarkets, discount shops, home places, convenience stores and department stores, they offer low-cost and convenient daily necessities to customers including food, household items and electrical appliances. As of March 2013, there are eight AEON General Merchandise Stores in Hong Kong, seven branches of AEON Supermarkets, 22 branches of Living Plaza by AEON, 4 branches of BENTO EXPRESS by AEON, 2 Aeon Style stores and only one branch of AEON MaxValu Prime, located at The One, Tsim Sha Tsui.
Taiwan JUSCO are subsidiaries of Taiwan AEON Stores Co. Ltd; the first JUSCO was in Windance in Hsinchu City. It was operated in 2003; the second JUSCO was operated in December 2005 at New Taipei city global mall. In Mainland China, JUSCO uses JUSCO for its name. From 1996, AEON Co. Ltd created many shopping mall named JUSCO. In Shanghai, there was a JUSCO before, but it divested finance because of poor management. In Guangdong, Guangdong JUSCO Co. Ltd used the name "JUSCO" to operate the first JUSCO at 1996. Now, there are thirteen shops in Guangdong. Otherwise, AEON operated large shopping mall in Beijing and Shunde, it planned to expand to North China. In Shenzhen, Aeon has a number of large stores including one at Coastal city; the largest JUSCO opened in 2005 in Mito. All but two JUSCOs, Srinakarin Rd and Sukhumvit Soi 71, have been closed down in Thailand. ÆON Co. Ltd. is re-expanding there under the MaxValu name instead. ÆON Co. Ltd ÆON China Co. Ltd ÆON Stores Co. AEON Retail Malaysia Facebook Page AEON CO. BHD Guandong Jusco Tianmao, China ÆON Jusco, China
Japanese occupation of Hong Kong
The Imperial Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began when the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young, surrendered the British Crown colony of Hong Kong to the Empire of Japan on 25 December 1941. The surrender occurred after 18 days of fierce fighting against the overwhelming Japanese forces that had invaded the territory; the occupation lasted for three years and eight months until Japan surrendered at the end of Second World War. The length of this period became a metonym of the occupation. During the Imperial Japanese military's full-scale invasion of China in 1937, Hong Kong as part of the British empire was not under attack, its situation was influenced by the war in China due to proximity to the mainland China. In early March 1939, during an Imperial Japanese bombing raid on Shenzhen, a few bombs fell accidentally on Hong Kong territory, destroying a bridge and a train station. In 1936, Germany and the Empire of Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact. In 1937 Fascist Italy joined the pact, forming the core to what would become known as the Axis Powers.
In the autumn of 1941, Nazi Germany was near the height of its military power. After the invasion of Poland and fall of France, German forces had overrun much of Western Europe and were racing towards Moscow. Although still neutral, the United States was supporting Britain, the British Commonwealth and the Soviet Union in their war against Germany through Lend-Lease and other programs; the United States supported China in its fight against Imperial Japan's invasion. It imposed a 100% embargo on the sale of oil to Japan after less aggressive forms of economic sanctions failed to halt Japanese advances. On 7 December 1941, Japan launched a broad offensive across the Pacific and Southeast Asia including attacking the U. S. naval base at Pearl Harbor and American-ruled Philippines, invading Thailand and invading British Malaya. As part of a general Pacific campaign, the Imperial Japanese launched an assault on Hong Kong on the morning of 8 December 1941. British and Indian forces, supported by the Hong Kong Volunteer Defense Forces attempted to resist the advancing Imperial Japanese but were outnumbered.
After racing down the New Territories and Kowloon, Imperial Japanese forces crossed Victoria Harbour on 18 December. After fierce fighting continued on Hong Kong Island, the only reservoir was lost. Canadian Winnipeg Grenadiers fought at the crucial Wong Nai Chung Gap that secured the passage between Victoria, Hong Kong and secluded southern sections of the island. Defeated, on 25 December 1941, British colonial officials headed by the Governor of Hong Kong Mark Aitchison Young surrendered at the Japanese headquarters. To the local people, the day was known as "Black Christmas"; the capitulation of Hong Kong was signed on the 26th at The Peninsula Hotel. On 20 February 1942 General Rensuke Isogai became the first Imperial Japanese governor of Hong Kong. Just before the British surrendered, drunken Imperial Japanese soldiers entered St. Stephen's College, being used as a hospital; the Imperial Japanese confronted two volunteer doctors and shot both of them when entry was refused. They burst into the wards and attacked all of the wounded soldiers and medical staff who were incapable of hiding in what was known as the St. Stephen's College incident.
This ushered in four years of Imperial Japanese administration. Throughout the Imperial Japanese occupation, Hong Kong was ruled as a detained terrain and was subjected to martial law. Headed by General Rensuke Isogai, the Japanese established their administration and commanding post at the Peninsula Hotel in Kowloon; the military government, composed of the departments of politics, economy and navy, enacted stringent regulations and established executive bureaus to have power over all residents of Hong Kong. They set up the puppet Chinese Representative Council and Chinese Cooperative Council consisting of local leading Chinese and Eurasian community leaders. On top of Governor Mark Young, 7,000 British soldiers and civilians were kept in prisoner-of-war or internment camps, such as Sham Shui Po Prisoner Camp and Stanley Internment Camp. Famine and sickness were pervasive. Severe cases of malnutrition among inmates occurred in the Stanley Internment Camp in 1945. Moreover, the Imperial Japanese military government blockaded Victoria Harbour and controlled warehouses.
Early in January 1942, former members of the Hong Kong Police including the Indians and Chinese were recruited into a reformed police called the Kempeitai with new uniforms. The police performed executions at King's Park in Kowloon by using Chinese for beheading and bayonet practice; the Imperial Japanese gendarmerie took over all police stations and organised the Police in five divisions, namely East Hong Kong, West Hong Kong, New Territories and Water Police. The headquarters was situated in the former Supreme Court Building. Police in Hong Kong were under the control of the Imperial Japanese government. Imperial Japanese experts and administrators were chiefly employed in the Governor's Office and its various bureaus. Two councils of Chinese and Eurasian leaders were set up to manage the Chinese population. Economically, all trading activities were sternly guarded, the majority of the factories were taken over by the Imperial Japanese. Having deprived the vendors and banks of their possessions, the occupying forces outlawed the Hong Kong Dollar and replaced it with the Japanese Military Yen.
The exchange rate was fixed at 2 Hong Kong dollars to one military yen in January 1942. The yen was re-valued at 4 Hong Kong dollars to a yen in July 1942, which meant local people could exchange fe
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Guanyin or Guan Yin is the most used Chinese translation of the bodhisattva known as Avalokiteśvara. In English usage, Guanyin refers to the Buddhist bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated chiefly by followers of Mahayana Buddhist schools as practiced in the sinosphere. Guanyin refers to the bodhisattva as adopted by other Eastern religions such as Taoism, where she is revered as an immortal, as well as Chinese folk religions, where the mythical accounts about Guanyin's origins do not associate with the Avalokiteśvara described in Buddhist sutras.. In English, she is known as the "Goddess of Mercy" or the Mercy Goddess; the Chinese name Guanyin, is short for Guanshiyin, which means " Perceives the Sounds of the World". In Nepal Mandal Guanyin is worshipeed as Jana Baha Dyah, Seto Machindranath; some Buddhists believe that when one of their adherents departs from this world, they are placed by Guanyin in the heart of a lotus, sent to the western Pure Land of Sukhāvatī. Guanyin is referred to as the "most beloved Buddhist Divinity" with miraculous powers to assist all those who pray to her, as is said in the Lotus Sutra and Karandavyuha Sutra.
Several large temples in East Asia are dedicated to Guanyin including Shitennō-ji, Sensō-ji, Kiyomizu-dera, Sanjūsangen-dō, Dharma Drum Mountain. Guanyin is beloved by all Buddhist traditions in a non-denominational way and found in most Tibetan temples under the name Chenrezig, found in some influential Theravada temples such as Gangaramaya and Kelaniya in Sri Lanka. Statues are a depicted subject of Asian art and found in the Asian art sections of most museums in the world. Guānyīn is a translation from the Sanskrit Avalokitasvara or Avalokiteśvara, referring to the Mahāyāna bodhisattva of the same name. Another name for this bodhisattva is Guānzìzài, it was thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokiteśvara as Avalokitasvara which explained why Xuanzang translated it as Guānzìzài instead of Guānyīn. However, the original form was indeed Avalokitasvara with the ending svara, which means "sound perceiver" "he who looks down upon sound"; this is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guānyīn.
This etymology was furthered in the Chinese by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumarajiva, to use the variant Guānshìyīn "he who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein lok was read as meaning both "to look" and "world". Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokitasvara include: Chinese: Guanyin, Guanshiyin The name Avalokitasvara was supplanted by the Avalokiteśvara form containing the ending -īśvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century; the original form Avalokitasvara appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century. The original meaning of the name "Avalokitasvara" fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva; the reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Śaivism, as the term īśvara was connected to the Hindu notion of Śiva as a creator god and ruler of the world. While some of those who revered Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god, Encyclopædia Britannica does cite Avalokiteśvara as the creator god of the world.
This position is taken in the used Karandavyuha Sutra with its well-known mantra Oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ. In addition, the Lotus Sutra is the first time. Chapter 25 refers to him as Lokeśvara and Lokanātha and ascribes extreme attributes of divinity to him. Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokiteśvara include: Chinese: 觀自在. In Hokkien, she is called Kuan Im or Kuan Se Im In Japanese, Guanyin is pronounced Kannon Kan'on, or more formally Kanzeon; this rendition was used for an earlier spelling of the well-known camera manufacturer Canon Inc., named for Guanyin. When iconography of Kannon depicts her with the Nyoihōju wishing gem she is known as Nyoirin Kannon, the Japanese adaptation of the Hindu deity Cintamanicakra. In Korean, Guanyin is called Gwanse-eum. In Thai's pronunciation duplicate from Hokkien Kuan Im, Phra Mae Kuan Im or Chao Mae Kuan Im. In Burmese, the name of Guanyin is Kwan Yin Medaw meaning Mother Kwan Yin. In Vietnamese, the name is Quán Thế Âm. In Indonesian, the name is Dewi Kwan Im.
She is called Mak Kwan Im "Mother Guanyin". In Malaysian Mandarin, the name is Guan Shi Yin Pusa. In Khmer, the name is Preah Mae Kun Ci Iem. In Sinhalese, the name is Natha Deviyo. In Tibetan, the name is Chenrézik. In Hmong, the name is Kab Yeeb. In these same countries, the variant Guanzizai "Lord of Contemplation" and its equivalents are used, such as in the Heart Sutra, among other sources; the Lotus Sūtra
The Kowloon Peninsula is a peninsula that forms the southern part of the main landmass in the territory of Hong Kong. The Kowloon Peninsula and the area of New Kowloon are collectively known as Kowloon. Geographically, the term "Kowloon Peninsula" may refer to the area south of the mountain ranges of Beacon Hill, Lion Rock, Tate's Cairn, Kowloon Peak, etc; the peninsula covers five of the eighteen districts of Hong Kong. Kowloon Bay is located at the northeast of the peninsula; the main rock type of the peninsula consists of a medium grained monzogranite with some fine granite outcrops, part of the Kowloon Granite. Early maps and photographs show flat, low-lying land behind the beach of Tsim Sha Tsui Bay with a raised area, Kowloon Hill, in the west; the peninsula has been expanded through land reclamation from the sea, over several phases. In the south and west most of the reclamation was carried out before 1904. Reclamation in several other small areas along the main Tsim Sha Tsui waterfront was completed by 1982.
The West Kowloon Reclamation was formed as part of the Airport Core Programme and completed by 1995. Before the actual Kowloon boundaries were established, the Kowloon Peninsula served as one of the first destinations for escape during China's dynastic times. In 1287, the last emperor of the Song dynasty, Emperor Bing was fleeing from the Mongol leader Kublai Khan. Taking refuge in a cave in the Kowloon peninsula, the inscription wrote "Sung Wong Toi" or "Song Emperor's Pavilion". In the 17th century, after the fall of the Ming dynasty, many of the Emperor's followers found shelter in the Kowloon peninsula to hide from the Manchus. Speaking, Kowloon Peninsula refers to the ceded territories of Kowloon in 1860 as part of the Convention of Peking, but geographically it covers the entire Kowloon south of the mountain ranges of Lion Rock, Kowloon Peak and other hills. Kowloon Peninsula had a population of 800 when it was ceded to the British empire in 1860. In 1898 a resolution was passed by the Colonial Hong Kong Legislative Council to preserve the land where some of the caves stand.
Boundary Street Islands and peninsulas of Hong Kong Kowloon List of buildings and areas in Hong Kong New Kowloon
Hung Hom Ferry Pier
Hung Hom Ferry Pier is a ferry pier in Hung Hom, Hong Kong. It is at the reclaimed Hung Hom Bay at the south of Whampoa Garden. There is a large bus terminus outside the pier, but however, it has moved inside Kerry Hotel as Hung Luen Road Bus Terminus. The original pier, built in 1965 using Streamline Moderne design from the Star Ferry terminals at Central and Tsim Sha Tsui, was located near the current position of Royal Peninsula. In 1988, the pier was temporarily relocated to the seaside of Hung Hom Bay Centre to cope with Hung Hom Bay Reclamation Project; when the project was completed in 1991, the pier was moved to the current location. East berthHung Hom - North Point West berthHung Hom - Central (operated by Star Ferry, ceased services on 31 March 2011. In August 2018 the Hong Kong government announced that this route would be reinstated after a public tender process is completed. Hung Hom - Wan Chai Ng Yuk-hang - "End of the line for Hung Hom ferry routes", South China Morning Post, p. C1