Bocfölde is a village in Western Hungary. It has a growing commuter community that works in Zalaegerszeg, the county seat and regional industrial center, located about 6 km to the North. Bocfölde is settled on the left bank of the Válicka a small river originating in the Southwest of Zala County and merging into the Zala River. Zalaegerszeg is to the North, village of Csatár is to the East, Sárhida is to the South. Roads crossing the hills of Bocfölde to the valley on the West could be safely ridden only by four-wheel drive vehicles. Older houses were built on the Zala Hills overlooking the Válicka Valley, whereas from the 1960s a new settlement developed in the Valley itself. Here, European route E65, a local road connecting to Zalaegerszeg-Sárhida-Bak, the Zalaegerszeg-Rédics railway provide convenient access to the rest of the region. Bocfölde is part of Göcsej, a geographic, historical and ethnographic unit, that maintained elements of a unique agricultural culture until the 1950s and 1960s, when industrialization and modernization accelerated.
Göcseji Falumúzeum, a reconstructed model village displaying original houses, agricultural buildings collected from the Göcsej region is nearby in Zalaegerszeg. Its first recorded name, in 1247, is "Possessio Buchfelden", its stone church, mentioned in a 1426 document, was dedicated to Saint Margaret of Hungary. The church and the entire village were destroyed in the 17th Century, its decline started after the Ottoman army won a major battle against the Hungarians at Mohács in 1526. As the Ottoman troops used the Kanizsa-Sopron-Vienna road, which crossed the village, for several military campaigns, Bocfölde settlement was deserted; the village became exposed in 1571 when the Ottoman troops occupied the nearby defensive fort of Kanizsa, now Nagykanizsa. The village was resettled, away from the Kanizsa-Sopron road, in the relative protection of surrounding forested hills, after the end of Ottoman occupation in the late 17th century. By 1826 its population, made up by families of small land owners, grew to 413 residents of 56 households.
Ethnic composition: 86.7% Hungarian, 6.3% Roma, 8.3% unknown/no response. Religious affiliations: 74% Roman Catholic, 1.1% Reformed Christian, 0.5% Evangelical, 6.9% no affiliations, 17.3% no response. ~500-year-old European Chestnut tree ~110-year-old Small-leaved Lime tree European or purple cyclamen is common in the surrounding woods, depicted on the village's coat of arms Herds of Hungarian Grey Cattle and Murakoz horse Stone Cross from the 19th century. Roman Catholic Church built in 1943, it is unique. Monument for the fallen local soldiers of the 1848 Revolution, World War I, World War II Official site in Hungarian with German summary Regional information in Hungarian with German summary Village Museum of Göcsej Region, in English Old trees of Zala County, in Hungarian Map of Bocfölde
A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance, homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. Breeds are formed through genetic isolation and either natural adaptation to the environment or selective breeding, or a combination of the two. Despite the centrality of the idea of "breeds" to animal husbandry and agriculture, no single, scientifically accepted definition of the term exists. A breed is therefore not an objective or biologically verifiable classification but is instead a term of art amongst groups of breeders who share a consensus around what qualities make some members of a given species members of a nameable subset; when bred together, individuals of the same breed pass on these predictable traits to their offspring, this ability – known as "breeding true" – is a requirement for a breed. Plant breeds are more known as cultivars; the offspring produced as a result of breeding animals of one breed with other animals of another breed are known as crossbreeds or mixed breeds.
Crosses between animal or plant variants above the level of breed/cultivar are referred to as hybrids. The breeder who establishes a breed does so by selecting individual animals from within a gene pool that they see as having the necessary qualities needed to enhance the breed model they are aiming for; these animals are referred to as foundation stock. Furthermore, the breeder mates the most desirable representatives of the breed from his or her point of view, aiming to pass such characteristics to their progeny; this process is known as selective breeding. A written description of desirable and undesirable breed representatives is referred to as a breed standard. Breed specific characteristics known as breed traits, are inherited, purebred animals pass such traits from generation to generation. Thus, all specimens of the same breed carry several genetic characteristics of the original foundation animal. In order to maintain the breed, a breeder would select those animals with the most desirable traits to achieve further maintenance and developing of such traits.
At the same time, the breed would avoid animals carrying characteristics undesirable or not typical for the breed, including faults or genetic defects. The population within the same breed should consist of a sufficient number of animals to maintain the breed within the specified parameters without the necessity of forced inbreeding. Domestic animal breeds differ from country to country, from nation to nation. Breeds originating in a certain country are known as "native breeds" of that country. Cultivar Landrace Plant variety Purebred Race Selective breeding Subspecies Strain Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture FAO. 2007. The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Agriculture. Rome. FAO. 2007. The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration. Rome. FAO. 2012. Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Rome. FAO. 2015. The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Agriculture.
Rome. Breeds of Livestock - Oklahoma State University Domestic Animal Diversity Information System Implementing the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources
Hortobágy National Park
Hortobágy is an 800 km2 national park in eastern Hungary, rich with folklore and cultural history. The park, a part of the Alföld, was designated as a national park in 1973, elected among the World Heritage sites in 1999; the Hortobágy is Hungary's largest protected area, the largest semi-natural grassland in Europe. Until it was believed that this alkaline steppe was formed by the clear cutting of huge forests in the Middle Ages, followed by measures to control the course of the Tisza River resulting in the soil's current structure and pH. However, Hortobágy is much older, with alkalinization estimated to have started ten thousand years ago, when the Tisza first found its way through the Great Hungarian Plain, cutting off many streams from their sources in the Northern Mountains; the formation was finished by grazing animals and wild horses during the Ice Age, followed by domesticated animals. One of its most iconic sites is the Nine-holed Bridge. Traditional T-shaped sweep wells dot the landscape, as well as the occasional mirage of trees shimmering in the reflected heat of the Puszta.
Part of the national park is a dark sky preserve. Hortobágy has had negative connotations. Hortobágy was a place where Hungarian Stalinists sent their political opponents to work in forced labour after the Resolution of Informbiro. In much the same way as prison Goli otok functioned in Bărăgan in Romania. Hortobágy is a steppe, a grassy plain with Hungarian Grey cattle, water buffalo, horses tended by herdsmen, it provides habitat for various species including 342 species of birds. The red-footed falcon, stone curlew, great bustard and aquatic warbler are represented by breeding populations; the area is an important stopover site for migrating common cranes and lesser white-fronted geese. Hortobágy is a centre for the breeding of Taurus cattle, one of several ongoing attempts to breed back the aurochs. National symbols of Hungary Gorman, Gerard: The Birds of Hungary. Helm London, UK. ISBN 0-7136-4235-1. Hungary for Visitors description Magyarország.hu description National Park Hortobágy - The Puszta description Awarded "EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2008
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors, he was the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits. There is a genetic difference between wild populations. There is such a difference between the domestication traits that researchers believe to have been essential at the early stages of domestication, the improvement traits that have appeared since the split between wild and domestic populations. Domestication traits are fixed within all domesticates, were selected during the initial episode of domestication of that animal or plant, whereas improvement traits are present only in a proportion of domesticates, though they may be fixed in individual breeds or regional populations.
The dog was the first domesticated vertebrate, was established across Eurasia before the end of the Late Pleistocene era, well before cultivation and before the domestication of other animals. The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks – including donkeys, horses and Old World camelids, goats and pigs – was common. Given its importance to humans and its value as a model of evolutionary and demographic change, domestication has attracted scientists from archaeology, anthropology, zoology and the environmental sciences. Among birds, the major domestic species today is the chicken, important for meat and eggs, though economically valuable poultry include the turkey and numerous other species. Birds are widely kept as cagebirds, from songbirds to parrots; the longest established invertebrate domesticates are the silkworm. Terrestrial snails are raised for food, while species from several phyla are kept for research, others are bred for biological control.
The domestication of plants began at least 12,000 years ago with cereals in the Middle East, the bottle gourd in Asia. Agriculture developed in at least 11 different centres around the world, domesticating different crops and animals. Domestication, from the Latin domesticus,'belonging to the house', is "a sustained multi-generational, mutualistic relationship in which one organism assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another organism in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest, through which the partner organism gains advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship, thereby benefitting and increasing the fitness of both the domesticator and the target domesticate." This definition recognizes both the biological and the cultural components of the domestication process and the impacts on both humans and the domesticated animals and plants. All past definitions of domestication have included a relationship between humans with plants and animals, but their differences lay in, considered as the lead partner in the relationship.
This new definition recognizes a mutualistic relationship. Domestication has vastly enhanced the reproductive output of crop plants and pets far beyond that of their wild progenitors. Domesticates have provided humans with resources that they could more predictably and securely control and redistribute, the advantage that had fueled a population explosion of the agro-pastoralists and their spread to all corners of the planet. Houseplants and ornamentals are plants domesticated for aesthetic enjoyment in and around the home, while those domesticated for large-scale food production are called crops. Domesticated plants deliberately altered or selected for special desirable characteristics are cultigens. Animals domesticated for home companionship are called pets, while those domesticated for food or work are known as livestock; this biological mutualism is not restricted to humans with domestic crops and livestock but is well-documented in nonhuman species among a number of social insect domesticators and their plant and animal domesticates, for example the ant–fungus mutualism that exists between leafcutter ants and certain fungi.
Domestication syndrome is the suite of phenotypic traits arising during domestication that distinguish crops from their wild ancestors. The term is applied to vertebrate animals, includes increased docility and tameness, coat color changes, reductions in tooth size, changes in craniofacial morphology, alterations in ear and tail form, more frequent and nonseasonal estrus cycles, alterations in adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, changed concentrations of several neurotransmitters, prolongations in juvenile behavior, reductions in both total brain size and of particular brain regions; the domestication of animals and plants began with the wolf at least 15,000 years before present, which led to a rapid shift in the evolution and demography of both humans and numerous species of animals and plants. The sudden appearance of the domestic dog in the archaeological record was followed by livestock and crop domestication, the transition of humans from foraging to farming in different places and times across the planet.
Around 10,000 YBP, a new way of life emerged for humans through the management and exploitation of plant and an
Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production. The meat of mature or mature cattle is known as beef. In beef production there are three main stages: cow-calf operations and feedlot operations; the production cycle of the animals start at cow-calf operations. From here the calves are backgrounded for a feedlot. Animals grown for the feedlot are known as feeder cattle, the goal of these animals is fattening. Animals not grown for a feedlot are female and are known as replacement heifers. While the principal use of beef cattle is meat production, other uses include leather, beef by-products used in candy, cosmetics and inhalers. Besides breeding to meet the demand for beef production, owners use selective breeding to attain specific traits in their beef cattle. An example of a desired trait could be leaner resistance to illness. Breeds known as dual-purpose are used for beef production; these breeds have been selected for two purposes at once, such as both beef and dairy production, or both beef and draught.
Dual-purpose breeds include many of the Zebu breeds of India such as Ongole Cattle. There are multiple continental breeds; the original Simmental/Fleckvieh from Switzerland is a prime example. Not only are they a dual-purpose breed for beef and dairy, but in the past they were used for draught. However, throughout the generations, the breed has diverged into two groups through selective breeding. Most beef cattle are mated whereby a bull is released into a cowherd 55 days after the calving period, depending on the cows body condition score. If it was her first time calving, she will take longer to re-breed by at least 10 days. However, beef cattle can be bred through artificial insemination, depending on the cow and the size of the herd. Cattle are bred during the summer so that calving may occur the following spring. However, cattle breeding can occur at other times of year. Depending on the operation, calving may occur all year round. Owners can select the breeding time based on a number of factors, including reproductive performance, seasonal cattle pricing and handling facilities.
There are many factors. Some of the most important factors are disease prevention/spread. Buying a bull who hasn't been tested for common diseases is a risk, it would more than transmit to a whole herd. Purchasing genetics that will improve the original herd rather than remaining the same or decreasing; some breed for mothering abilities, some for size, some for meat properties, etc. Breeding Soundness Examination or BSE are essential to the quality of any bull, a general physical exam and inspection of both the genital organs and their productivity. Knowing more information about the animal will help make an educated decision. Cattle handlers are expected to maintain a low stress environment for their herds, involving constant safety, comfort and humane handling. According to the Canadian National Farm Animal Care Council, beef cattle must have access to shelter from extreme weather, safe handling and equipment, veterinary care and humane slaughter. If an animal is infected or suspected to have an illness, it is the responsibility of the owners to report it to a practicing veterinarian for either treatment or euthanasia.
Depending on a multitude of factors and disease can spread through the herd from animal to animal. Owners are expected to monitor their cattle's condition for early detection and treatment, as some cattle illnesses can threaten both cattle and human health as witnessed with Mad cow disease and Tuberculosis. On average, cattle will consume 1.4 to 4% of their body weight daily. There are a range of types of feed available for these animals; the standard text in the United States, Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, has been through eight editions over at least seventy years. The 1996 seventh edition substituted the concept of metabolizeable protein for the sixth edition's crude protein. In the 20th century, Canadian practice followed the American guidance. In 1970, the Food and Drug Administration was regulating pharmaceutical supplements in beef cattle feed such as hormones and prophylactic antibiotics; some animals live on pasture their entire lives and therefore only experience fresh grass, these are cow-calf operations in more tropical climates.
Backgrounded calves and feedlot animals tend to have different diets that contain more grain than the pasture type. Grain is more expensive than pasture but the animals grow faster with the higher protein levels. Since cattle are herbivores and need roughage in their diet, hay and/or haylage are all viable feed options. Despite this 3/4th of the 32 pounds of feed cattle consume. Cattle weighing 1000 lbs. will drink an average of 41 L a day, 82 L in hot weather. They need a constant supply of good quality feed and potable water according to the 5 Freedoms of Animal Welfare. Most Beef cattle are finished in feedlots; the first feedlots were constructed in the early 1950s. Some of these feedlots grew so large they warranted a new designation, "Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation". Most American beef cattle spend the last half of their lives in a CAFO. A steer that weighs 1,000 lb when alive makes a carcass weighing 615 lb, once the blood, feet, skin and guts are removed; the carcass is th
Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy. FAO is a source of knowledge and information, helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all, its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates as "let there be bread". As of August 2018, The FAO has 197 member states, including the European Union and The Cook Islands, the Faroe Islands and Tokelau, which are associate members; the idea of an international organization for food and agriculture emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century advanced by the US agriculturalist and activist David Lubin. In May–June 1905, an international conference was held in Rome, which led to the creation of the International Institute of Agriculture by the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III.
In 1943, the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt called a United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture. Representatives from forty-four governments gathered at The Homestead Resort in Hot Springs, Virginia, US, from 18 May to 3 June, they committed themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture, which happened in Quebec City, Canada, on 16 October 1945 with the conclusion of the Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization. The First Session of the FAO Conference was held in the Château Frontenac in Quebec City from 16 October to 1 November 1945. World War II ended the International Agricultural Institute, though it was only dissolved by resolution of its Permanent Committee on 27 February 1948, its functions were transferred to the established FAO. From the late 1940s on, FAO attempted to make its mark within the emerging UN system, focusing on supporting agricultural and nutrition research and providing technical assistance to member countries to boost production in agriculture and forestry.
During the 1950s and 1960s, FAO partnered with many different international organizations in development projects. In 1951, FAO's headquarters were moved from DC, United States, to Rome, Italy; the agency is directed by the Conference of Member Nations, which meets every two years to review the work carried out by the organization and to Work and Budget for the next two-year period. The Conference elects a council of 49 member states that acts as an interim governing body, the Director-General, that heads the agency. FAO is composed of eight departments: Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Biodiversity and Water Department and Social Development and Aquaculture, Corporate Services and Technical Cooperation and Programme Management. Beginning in 1994, FAO underwent the most significant restructuring since its founding, to decentralize operations, streamline procedures and reduce costs; as a result, savings of about US$50 million, €35 million a year were realized. FAO's Regular Programme budget is funded by its members, through contributions set at the FAO Conference.
This budget covers core technical work and partnerships including the Technical Cooperation Programme, knowledge exchange and advocacy, direction and administration and security. The total FAO Budget planned for 2016–2017 is USD 2.6 billion. The voluntary contributions provided by members and other partners support mechanical and emergency assistance to governments for defined purposes linked to the results framework, as well as direct support to FAO's core work; the voluntary contributions are expected to reach US$1.6 billion in 2016–2017. This overall budget covers core technical work and partnerships, leading to Food and Agriculture Outcomes at 71 per cent; the world headquarters are located in Rome, in the former seat of the Department of Italian East Africa. One of the most notable features of the building was the Axum Obelisk which stood in front of the agency seat, although just outside the territory allocated to FAO by the Italian Government, it was taken from Ethiopia by Benito Mussolini's troops in 1937 as a war chest, returned on 18 April 2005.
Regional Office for Africa, in Accra, Ghana Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, in Bangkok, Thailand Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, in Budapest, Hungary Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, in Santiago, Chile Regional Office for the Near East, in Cairo, Egypt Sub-regional Office for Central Africa, in Libreville, Gabon Sub-regional Office for Central Asia, in Ankara, Turkey Sub-regional Office for Eastern Africa, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Sub-regional Office for Mesoamerica, in Panama City, Panama Sub-regional Office for North Africa, in Tunis, Tunisia Sub-regional Office for Southern Africa and East Africa, in Harare, Zimbabwe Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, in Bridgetown, Barbados Sub-regional Office for the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Yemen, Abu Dhabi Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands, in Apia, Samoa Liaison Office for North America, in Washington, DC Liaison Office with J
The Pannonian Steppe is a variety of grassland ecosystems found in the Pannonian Basin. The Pannonian Steppe is found in modern-day Austria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. In Hungary it is known as Puszta; the Puszta is a grassland biome on the Great Hungarian Plain around the River Tisza in the eastern part of Hungary as well as on the western part of Hungary and in the Austrian Burgenland. The Hungarian puszta is an exclave of the Eurasian Steppe, it covers a total area of ca. 50,000 km2. The characteristic landscape is composed of treeless plains, saline steppes and salt lakes, includes scattered sand dunes, wet forests and freshwater marshes along the floodplains of the ancient rivers; the word Puszta grassland. The name comes from an adjective of the same form, meaning "waste, bare". Puszta is a Slavic loanword in Hungarian; the climate is continental. The landscape has been cultivated and the original Puszta landscape is now found only in a few places, for example in Hortobágy National Park.
300 species of birds are found here. The Čenkovská steppe near Mužla is the only steppe National nature reserve in Slovakia; the protected area declared in 1951 covers a total of 83 hectares. Apart from the Čenkovská forest-steppe, other notable steppe and forest-steppe biomes in Slovakia are located around the Danubian and East Slovak plains and the southern ranges of the Pramatra system. Two of the biomes are the Slovak Karst; the Pannonian steppe in Austria is present in Burgenland around Lake Neusiedl. Central Europe Pannonian Basin Great Hungarian Plain Eurasian Steppe Meleckova, 2009, Cenkovska step National Park Hortobágy - The Puszta