Buda Castle is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest. It was first completed in 1265, but the massive Baroque palace today occupying most of the site was built between 1749 and 1769; the complex in the past was referred to as either the Royal Castle. The castle now houses The Budapest History Museum. Buda Castle sits on the south tip of Castle Hill, bounded on the north by what is known as the Castle District, famous for medieval and Neoclassical houses and public buildings; the hill is linked to the Széchenyi Chain Bridge by the Castle Hill Funicular. The castle is a part of the Budapest World Heritage Site, so declared in 1987; the first royal residence on the Castle Hill was built by King Béla IV of Hungary between 1247 and 1265. It is uncertain whether it was situated on the southern tip of the hill or on the northern elevation, near the Kammerhof; the oldest part of the present-day palace was built in the 14th century by Stephen, Duke of Slavonia, the younger brother of King Louis I of Hungary.
Only the foundations remain of the castle keep, known as Stephen's Tower. The Gothic palace of King Louis I was arranged around a narrow courtyard next to the keep. King Sigismund enlarged the palace and strengthened its fortifications. Sigismund, as a Holy Roman Emperor, needed a magnificent royal residence to express his prominence among the rulers of Europe, he chose Buda Castle as his main residence, during his long reign it became the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages. Buda was an important artistic centre of the International Gothic style. Construction began in the 1410s and was finished in the 1420s, although some minor works continued until the death of the king in 1437; the palace was first mentioned in 1437, under the name "fricz palotha". The most important part of Sigismund's palace was the northern wing, known as the Fresh Palace. On the top floor was a large hall called the Roman Hall with a carved wooden ceiling. Great windows and balconies faced toward the city of Buda.
The façade of the palace was decorated with a and coat-of-arms. In front stood the bronze equestrian statue of Sigismund repaired by King Matthias Corvinus; the southern part of the royal residency was surrounded with narrow zwingers. Two parallel walls, the so-called "cortina walls", run down from the palace to the River Danube across the steep hillside; the most imposing structure, the Broken Tower, on the western side of the cour d'honneur, remained unfinished. The basement of the tower was used as a dungeon; the last phase of large-scale building activity took place under King Matthias Corvinus. During the first decades of his reign the king finished the work on the Gothic palace; the Royal Chapel, with the surviving Lower Church, was built at that time. After the marriage of Matthias and Beatrice of Naples in 1476, Italian humanists and craftsmen arrived at Buda; the Hungarian capital became the first centre of Renaissance north of the Alps. The king rebuilt the palace in an early Renaissance style.
The cour d'honneur was modernised and an Italian loggia was added. Inside the palace were two rooms with golden ceilings: the Bibliotheca Corviniana and a passage with the frescoes of the twelve signs of the Zodiac; the façade of the palace was decorated with statues of John Hunyadi, László Hunyadi and King Matthias. In the middle of the court there was a fountain with a statue of Pallas Athene. Only fragments remain of this Renaissance palace: some red marble balustrades and decorative glazed tiles from stoves and floors. In the last years of his reign Matthias Corvinus started construction of a new Renaissance palace on the eastern side of the Sigismund Courtyard, next to the Fresh Palace; the Matthias Palace remained unfinished because of the king's early death. The palace had a monumental red marble stairway in front of the façade. Matthias Corvinus was identified with Hercules by the humanists of his court; the walled gardens of the palace were laid out on the western slopes of the Castle Hill.
In the middle of the enclosure, a Renaissance villa was built by Matthias. Only one column survives of this so-called Aula Marmorea. After the death of Matthias Corvinus, his successor, King Vladislaus II, carried on the works of the Matthias Palace after his marriage with Anna of Foix-Candale in 1502. Under the reign of King John Zápolya the palace was repaired. On the southern tip of the Castle Hill, the Great Rondella was built by Italian military engineers; the circular bastion is one of the main surviving structure of the old palace. After the Battle of Mohács, the medieval Kingdom of Hungary collapsed; the Ottoman Turks occupied the evacuated town on 11 September 1526. Although Buda was sacked and burned, the Royal Palace was not damaged. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent carried away all the bronze statues with him to Constantinople; the statues were destroyed there in a rebellion a few years later. The Sultan took many volumes from the Corvina library. In 1529 the Ottoman army besieged and occupied Buda again, the palace was badly damaged.
On 29 August 1541 Buda was
János Arany was a Hungarian journalist, writer and translator. He is said to be the "Shakespeare of ballads" – he wrote more than 102 ballads been translated into over 50 languages, as well as the Toldi trilogy, to mention his most famous works, he was born in Bihar county, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire. He was the youngest of ten children, but because of tuberculosis running in the family, only two of them lived beyond childhood. At the time of his birth, his older sister Sára was married and his parents, György Arany and Sára Megyeri, were 60 and 44 years old, respectively. János Arany learned to read and write early on, was reported to read anything he could find in Hungarian and Latin. Since his parents needed support early in Arany's life, he began working at the age of 14 as an associate teacher. From 1833 he attended the Reformed College of Debrecen where he studied German and French, though he became tired of scholarly life, temporarily joined an acting troupe. On, he worked in Nagyszalonta and Budapest as teacher, newspaper editor, in various clerk positions.
In 1840 he married Julianna Ercsey. They had two children, whose early death by pneumonia devastated the poet, László, who became a poet and a collector of Hungarian folktales. In 1845, he won the competition of the Kisfaludy Society with his writing, "Az elveszett alkotmány". After Toldi, one of his most famous works, was published, he and Sándor Petőfi became close friends. Petőfi's death in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 had a great impact on him, he was employed as a teacher in Nagykőrös. Arany was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1858, he was the secretary-general of the Academy from 1865. He was elected director of the Kisfaludy Society, the greatest literary association of Hungary; the early death of his daughter, Julianna in 1865 marked the beginning of Arany's hiatus as a poet. He did not write any original pieces until the summer of 1877, when he began working on his poetic cycle entitled Őszikék, different from his previous works, concerning themes like elderliness, or the imminence of death.
Arany died in Budapest on 22 October 1882. He translated three dramas of Shakespeare into Hungarian, A Midsummer Night's Dream and King John, they are considered to be some of the greatest translations into Hungarian in history; the epic poetry of János Arany presents the historical past of his nation. The Death of King Buda, the first part of a projected Hun trilogy is one of the best narrative poems in Hungarian literature; the other parts of the trilogy are unfinished. One of his most famous poems is A Walesi Bárdok'. Arany wrote this poem when Franz Joseph I of Austria visited Hungary for the first time after defeating the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Arany was asked to write a poem to praise the Emperor but he wrote a piece concerning the campaigns of Edward I of England to subjugate the Welsh and trample over their culture. Arany was drawing a parallel here with Austria's treatment of Hungary and the Hungarians, his poem Dante is one of those few verses in Western literature that can seize concisely the whole meaning and transcendency of human life.
Some remarkable pieces of Arany's works have been translated to English by Watson Kirkconnell. Arany is today considered as one of the greatest Hungarian poets beside Sándor Petőfi, Endre Ady, Miklós Radnóti and Attila József; the first scientific monograph on Arany was written by Frigyes Riedl. The Arany-album, a Folk metal album by Hungarian band Dalriada is based on popular works by Arany, it won the 2009 HangSúly Hungarian Metal Awards out of 70 contestants. A postage stamp was issued on 1 July 1932 to honor Arany. On 15 September 1957 another postage stamp was issued. On 10 July 2017 a souvenir sheet of four stamps was issued. Dante The Legend of the Miraculous Hind or The Legend of the Wondrous Hunt Years, O Years That Are Still to Come I Lay Down the Lyre In Autumn Retrospect Memorials The Bards of Wales On the Slope Family Circle The Nightingale Reply to Petőfi The Mother of King Matthias The Two Pages of Szondi Duel at Midnight Bier-right or Ordeal by Blood Becky Scarlet Corn Husking Annie with Golden Hair The Seamstress Girls Consecration of the Bridge Mistress Aggie / Mistress Agnes Imprisoned Souls Works by János Arany at Project Gutenberg Works by or about János Arany at Internet Archive Works by János Arany at LibriVox The Bards of Wales – translated by Watson Kirkconnell The Bards of Wales – translated by Bernard Adams Epics of the Hungarian Plain The Legend of the Wondrous Hunt Interview: A contemporary translator, Ádám Nádasdy, compares his own translations of Shakespeare with the translations made by János Arany at the Wayback Machine János Arany at Find a Grave
The Árpáds or Arpads was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301. The dynasty was named after Grand Prince Árpád, the head of the Hungarian tribal federation during the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, c. 895. It is referred to as the Turul dynasty, but rarely. Both the first Grand Prince of the Hungarians and the first King of Hungary were members of the dynasty. Seven members of the dynasty were beatified by the Roman Catholic Church. Two Árpáds were recognized as Saints by the Eastern Orthodox Church; the dynasty came to end in 1301 with the death of King Andrew III of Hungary, while the last member of the House of Árpád, Andrew's daughter, Blessed Elizabeth of Töss, died in 1336 or 1338. All of the subsequent kings of Hungary were cognatic descendants of the Árpád dynasty; the House of Croÿ and the Drummond family of Scotland claim to descend from Princes Géza and George, sons of medieval Hungarian kings: Géza II and Andrew I, respectively.
Medieval chroniclers stated that the Árpáds' forefather was Ügyek, whose name derived from the ancient Hungarian word for "holy". The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum mentioned that the Árpáds descended from the gens Turul, the Gesta Hungarorum recorded that the Árpáds' totemic ancestor was a turul. Medieval chroniclers referred to a tradition that the Árpáds descended from Attila the Hun – the anonymous author of the Gesta Hungarorum, for example, has Árpád say: The land stretching between the Danube and the Tisza used to belong to my forefather, the mighty Attila; the first member of the dynasty mentioned by a nearly contemporary written source was Álmos. The Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII recorded in his De Administrando Imperio that Álmos was the first Grand Prince of the federation of the seven Magyar tribes. Álmos accepted the supremacy of the Khagan of the Khazars in the beginning of his rule, but, by 862, the Magyar tribal federation broke free from the Khazar Khaganate. Álmos was either the spiritual leader of its military commander.
Around 895, the women and cattle of the Magyar warriors battling in the west were attacked by the Pechenegs, forcing them to leave their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains. Álmos's death was ritual sacrifice, practiced by steppe peoples when the spiritual ruler lost his charisma, he was followed by his son, Árpád. The Magyar tribes occupied the whole territory of the Carpathian Basin between 895 and 907. Between 899 and 970, the Magyars conducted raids into the territories of present-day Italy, Germany and Spain and into the lands of the Byzantine Empire; such activities continued westwards until the Battle of Lechfeld, when Otto, King of the Germans destroyed their troops. From 917, the Magyars made raids into several territories at the same time, which may have led to the disintegration their tribal federation; the sources prove the existence of at least three and five groups of tribes within the tribal federation, only one of them was led directly by the Árpáds. The list of the Grand Princes of the Magyars in the first half of the 10th century is incomplete, which may prove a lack of central government within their tribal federation.
The medieval chronicles mention that Grand Prince Árpád was followed by his son, Zoltán, but contemporary sources only refer to Grand Prince Fajsz. After the defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld, Grand Prince Taksony adopted the policy of isolation from the Western countries – in contrast to his son, Grand Prince Géza who may have sent envoys to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in 973. Géza was baptised in 972, although he never became a convinced Christian, the new faith started to spread among the Hungarians during his reign, he managed to expand his rule over the territories west of the Danube and the Garam, but significant parts of the Carpathian Basin still remained under the rule of local tribal leaders. Géza was followed by his son Stephen, a convinced follower of Christianity. Stephen had to face the rebellion of his relative, Koppány, who claimed Géza's inheritance based on the Magyar tradition of agnatic seniority, he was able to defeat Koppány with the assistance of the German retinue of his wife, Giselle of Bavaria.
The Grand Prince Stephen was crowned on December 25, 1000, or January 1, 1001), becoming the first King of Hungary and founder of the state. He unified the Carpathian Basin under his rule by 1030, subjugating the territories of the Black Magyars and the domains, ruled by independent local chieftains, he introduced the administrative system of the kingdom, based on counties, founded an ecclesiastic organization with two archbishoprics and several bishoprics. Following the death of his son, King Stephen I assigned his sister's son, the Venetian Peter Orseolo as his heir which resulted in a conspiracy led by his cousin, living imprisoned in Nyitra. Vazul was blinded on King Stephen's order and his three sons (Leve
The Megyeri Bridge known as the Northern M0 Danube bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the River Danube between Buda and Pest the west and east sides of Budapest, the capital of Hungary. It is an important section of the M0 ringroad around Budapest; the bridge cost 63 billion forints to build and was opened on September 30, 2008. An online naming poll to determine the new name of the built bridge caused controversy and received media attention when American comedians Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart won; the total length of the bridge is 1862m. Structurally it is composed of five parts: Left quayside inundation area bridge: 148m Main Danube-branch bridge: 590m with a span of 300m Szentendre Island inundation area bridge: 559m Szentendre Danube-branch bridge: 332m Right quayside inundation area bridge: 218m The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Transport of Hungary organized a public vote online to solicit possible names for the new bridge; the three names with the most votes, as well as suggestions from local governments, cartographers and other experts, were to be reviewed by a government committee before a final name for the bridge was chosen.
New nominations were accepted until August 21, 2006, the voting ended on September 8, 2006. On August 1, 2006, Reuters reported that the top candidate according to the online poll was the "Chuck Norris híd", named for American action star Chuck Norris. On August 9, 2006, American satirist Stephen Colbert discussed the story on his comedy program The Colbert Report, instructing his viewers to visit the polling website and vote for him instead of Norris; the next day the number of votes for him had grown 230 times, he now asked his viewers to follow a link from his own "Colbert Nation" website, to avoid "all that illegible Hungarian". Colbert's site indirectly offered techniques for "stuffing the ballot box", as users of their forums created several automated scripts to cast multiple votes for Colbert. On August 15, 2006, he repeated his call to be voted top of the Hungarian poll, by August 22, 2006, the "Stephen Colbert híd" was in first with 17 million votes, about 14 million votes ahead of the second-placed Zrínyi híd, named after the Croatian-Hungarian national hero, Miklós Zrínyi, about 7 million more than the entire population of Hungary.
The same day, the site announced a new round of voting, which would require registration to participate, Colbert asked his viewers to "call off the dogs", requesting on his website that fans stop using scripts to vote. Despite this, the "Stephen Colbert híd" remained in the top position on the website in the second round. On September 14, 2006, András Simonyi—the ambassador of Hungary to the United States—announced on The Colbert Report that Stephen Colbert had won the vote. For Colbert, Ambassador Simonyi declared that under Hungarian law, Colbert would have to be fluent in Hungarian, would have to be deceased in order to have the bridge named for him. However, after saying the rules could most be bent, he invited Colbert to visit Hungary and view the construction in person and gave him a Hungarian passport and a 10,000 HUF Bill, with an approximate value of, as the ambassador put it,'fifty dollars, fifty good US dollars'. Colbert promptly tried to bribe him with said money. On September 28, 2006, it was announced that the bridge will be named "Megyeri Bridge" though that name did not make it to the second round.
The Hungarian Geographical Name Committee justified the final name by explaining that the bridge connects Káposztásmegyer and Békásmegyer. List of crossings of the Danube River Google Earth 3D model of the bridge Megyeri híd - pictures and articles Photos of Budapest bridges Bloomberg article Computer generated video of the Northern M0 Danube bridge Index.hu article Public transport map of Budapest and Bridges of Budapest - Megyeri Bridge Aerial photographs of the bridge
Transylvania is a historical region, located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains; the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, it contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Bistrița. The Western world associates Transylvania with vampires, because of the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations. Historical names of Transylvania are: Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania Russian: Ардял, translit. Ardjal, Трансильвания Transil'vanija Hungarian: Erdély Ukrainian: Семигород, translit. Semyhorod, Залісся Zalissja, Трансильванія Transyl'vanija Serbian: Ердељ, translit. Erdelj, Трансилванија Transilvanija Croatian: Sedmogradska, Transilvanija Bulgarian: Седмоградско, translit.
Sedmogradsko, Трансилвания Transilvanija Slovak: Sedmohradsko German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya Romani: TransilvaniyaIn Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania. The earliest known reference to Transylvania appears in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest". Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania Transsylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve; that was used as an alternative name in German überwald and Ukrainian Залісся. The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven castles", after the seven Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region; this is the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско, Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород.
The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this to the Hungarian name for Muntenia. Erdel, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well; the first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu. The Romanian Ardeal is derived from the Hungarian Erdély. Transylvania has been dominated by several different countries throughout its history, it was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia. In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Huns, Gepids and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania, it is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula.
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest. The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived; the Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula. Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. In 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, ruled by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, the region was attached to the Habsburg Empire; the Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively separa
Bridges of Budapest
The bridges of Budapest, crossing the River Danube from north to south are as follows: This table excludes rail bridges, bridges to islands and bridges that are outside of Budapest. The whole list of bridges of Budapest can be found below this table; the bridges are listed from north to south. It is a cable-stayed bridge serving as part of the M0 motorway. Preparations for its building began on January 6, 2006; the bridge was completed on September 30, 2008. The final structure spawns over two branches of the Danube with Szentendre Island in the middle where for environmental protection there is no exit; the eastern part of the bridge is cable stayed and, as it is on the main branch, that part allows safe passage for international river traffic, for all vessels that are authorized to pass through Budapest because of their manageability. There are 4 lanes and 2 hard shoulders on the bridge, but they are wide enough to be expanded to 6 lanes and 2 hard shoulders should the ring road in the area be widened.
The cable-stayed part of the bridge is 590 m long, with a 300 m span. Length: 674.40mIt was first given to public in 1913. It was exploded by the retreating German army in 1945. A new, temporary steel structure was built on the bases, from military materials which enabled rapid construction; the trains could use it with max. 15 km/h. It was demolished in 2008, when the bases were renovated and a new steel structure was placed onto them; this technically enables 160 km/h transit speeds, but for safety concerns related to the curves of the railway in the city, the maximum allowed transit speed is 80 km/h. The bridge connects Buda with Óbudai Island; the bridge was built from military materials. It was opened to public in 1955, it provided railway track connection to the ship factory. After the factory closed during the transition to capitalism, the rail tracks connecting the factory to the mainland were disassembled. Only that rail track section, on the bridge remained; the bridge serves pedestrian traffic and road traffic, but only provides one lane.
Traffic light decides. In the beginning only a port made transit possible from Óbudai Island to the western bank of the Danube. In 1858 a wooden bridge was opened, it could be slid sideways to allow ships pass by. In 1884 it was replaced by a steel bridge. In 1968 a reinforced concrete bridge was opened in its place; this bridge still serves the traffic today. It has two lanes allowing cars to transit. Árpád Bridge or Árpád híd connects Pest across the Danube. It is the northernmost public bridge of the capital and the longest bridge in Hungary, spanning about 2 km with the sections leading up to the bridge, 928 m without them, it is 35.3 m wide. Margaret Bridge is the second second oldest public bridge in Budapest, it was planned by the French engineer Ernest Goüin and built between 1872-1876. Margaret Bridge became the second permanent bridge in Budapest after the Széchenyi Chain Bridge; this bridge leads across to Margaret Island, its two parts enclosing 150 degrees with each other at the embranchment towards the island.
The reason for this unusual geometry lies in the fact the small extension to connect the Margaret Island was hastily inserted into the original design, but not built until two decades due to lack of funds. It is 25 m in width, it was under complete reconstruction from 2009-2011. It was divided into two during the reconstruction so that all bus and tram traffic could pass it, except at the occasions of reconnecting the ground rails to the ones used on the bridge at the next stage. In the first phase, the public transport and pedestrians used the southern side, while the different parts of the north were disassembled and reconstructed; the southern half was reconstructed, the temporary rails were on the north. The last stage was the unification, the building of the final rail in the middle the finalizing of contents directly related to the users of public and the historical reconstruction; the bridge was restored to its state in 1937. The Széchenyi Chain Bridge is a suspension bridge that spans the River Danube between Buda and Pest, the west and east side of Budapest, the capital of Hungary.
The first bridge across the Danube in Budapest, it was designed by the English engineer William Tierney Clark in 1839, after Count István Széchenyi's initiative in the same year, with construction supervised locally by Scottish engineer Adam Clark. It opened in 1849, thus became the first bridge in the Hungarian capital. At the time, its centre span of 202 m was one of the largest in the world; the pairs of lions at each of the abutments were added in 1852. It is popular culture in Hungary to point out. Erzsébet Bridge is the third newest bridge of Budapest, it is situated at the narrowest part of the Danube, the bridge spans only 290 m. The original Erzsébet Bridge, along with all the other bridges of the city was blown up at the end of World War II by retreating Wehrmacht sappers, it was the only prewar bridge of Budapest, not rebuilt in its original form. The reason for not building the original bridge apart from budget considerations was that the original was a modern structure in its time.
Pictures and salvaged parts of the old bridge can be seen on the grass in front of the Museum of Transport in City Park. The standing slender white cable bridge was built on the same bases between 1961–1964, because the government did not want to con
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc