Pest is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of the citys territory. It is separated from Buda, the part of Budapest. Among its most notable parts are the Inner City, including the Hungarian Parliament, Heroes Square, in colloquial Hungarian, Pest is often used for the whole capital of Budapest. The name Pest comes from a Slavic word meaning furnace, related to the word пещера, Pest was a separate independent city, references to which appear in writings dating back to 1148. In earlier centuries there were ancient Celtic and Roman settlements there, Pest became an important economic center during 11th–13th centuries. It was destroyed in the 1241 Mongol invasion of Hungary but rebuilt once again soon thereafter. In 1838 it was flooded by the Danube, parts of the city were under as much as eight feet of water, in 1849 the first suspension bridge, the Széchenyi Chain Bridge, was constructed across the Danube connecting Pest with Buda. Consequently, in 1873, the two cities were unified with Óbuda to become Budapest, writer and magician László Teleki, Theodor Herzl, Mary Katherine Horony Cummings and Harry Houdini are from Pest.
Budapest Inner City Pest County Újpest Kispest Pestszentlőrinc Buda Óbuda Beksics, Gusztáv, Magyarosodás és magyarositás
Holy Crown of Hungary
The Holy Crown of Hungary was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence, kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, no king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, up to the last, Charles IV, the enamels on the crown are mainly or entirely Byzantine work, presumed to have been made in Constantinople in the 1070s. The crown was presented by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas to King Géza I of Hungary and it is one of the two known Byzantine crowns to survive, the other being the slightly earlier Monomachus Crown, which is in Budapest, in the Hungarian National Museum. However, the Monomachus Crown may have had another function, and the Holy Crown has probably been remodelled, the date assigned to the present configuration of the Holy Crown varies, but is most commonly put around the late 12th century.
The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, the orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary. In popular tradition the Holy Crown was thought to be older, dating to the time of the first King Stephen I of Hungary and it was first called the Holy Crown in 1256. During the 14th century, royal power came to be represented not simply by a crown, but by just one specific object and he depicts that the Holy Crown is the same for the Hungarians as the Lost Ark is for the Jewish. Since 2000, the Holy Crown has been on display in the central Domed Hall of the Hungarian Parliament Building, the Crown’s shape is elliptic and is larger than a human head. During coronations, the king had to wear a leather liner, made to fit. The weight of the Crown is 2056 g, the gold-silver alloys in the upper and the lower parts of the Crown differ in alloy ratio. The lower part of the Crown is asymmetric, as is the case with all European Christian crowns, it symbolizes a halo and thus signifies that the wearer rules by Divine Right.
According to popular tradition, St Stephen I held up the crown during the coronation to offer it to the Nagyboldogasszony to seal a contract between her and the divine crown. After this, the Nagyboldogasszony was depicted not only as patrona for the Kingdom of Hungary and this contract was supposed to empower the crown with divine force to help the future kings of Hungary and did help reinforce the political system based on the so-called Doctrine of the Holy Crown. Péter Révay, a Crown Guard, expounded this doctrine in his works Commentarius De Sacra Regni Hungariae Corona, at the core of this doctrine was the notion that the crown itself had personhood and as a legal entity is identical to the state of Hungary. It is superior to the monarch, who rules in the name of the crown. It was created during the reign of Béla III under Byzantine influence, the crowning of Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, who was canonized Saint Stephen, marks the beginning of Hungarian statehood. The date is given as Christmas 1000 or 1 January 1001
Imre Steindl was a Hungarian architect. He graduated at the Technical University of Budapest and the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna and he was a teacher at the Budapest Technical University from 1869. He was elected honorary and corresponding member of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1891 and was admitted to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1898 and his architectural interest was initially historicism and Gothic style. Steindl went blind before the completion of the Hungarian Parliament and died in 1902 in Budapest and he is buried at Kerepesi Cemetery. New Town hall, Commercial Trade and Industrial Bank Hunyad Castle restoration - carried out after the designer, Ferenc Schulczs, death Szeged
John Hunyadi was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century. According to most contemporary sources, he was the son of a family of Romanian ancestry. He mastered his skills on the southern borderlands of the Kingdom of Hungary that were exposed to Ottoman attacks. Appointed voivode of Transylvania and head of a number of southern counties, Hunyadi adopted the Hussite method of using wagons for military purposes. He employed professional soldiers, but mobilized local peasantry against invaders and these innovations contributed to his earliest successes against the Ottoman troops who were plundering the southern marches in the early 1440s. John Hunyadi was an eminent statesman and he actively took part in the civil war between the partisans of Wladislas I and the minor Ladislaus V, two claimants to the throne of Hungary in the early 1440s, on behalf on the former. Popular among the nobility, the Diet of Hungary appointed him, in 1445.
The next Diet went even further, electing Hunyadi as sole regent with the title of governor, when he resigned from this office in 1452, the sovereign awarded him with the first hereditary title in the Kingdom of Hungary. He had by this time one of the wealthiest landowners in the kingdom. This Athleta Christi, as Pope Pius II referred to him, his victories over the Turks prevented them from invading the Kingdom of Hungary for more than 60 years. His fame was a factor in the election of his son, Matthias Corvinus. Hunyadi is a historical figure among Hungarians, Serbians, Bulgarians. A royal charter of grant issued on 18 October 1409 contains the first reference to John Hunyadi, in the document, King Sigismund of Hungary bestowed Hunyad Castle and the lands attached to it upon Johns father and Voyks four kinsmen, including John himself. According to the document, Johns father served in the household as a court knight at that time. Two 15th-century chroniclers—Johannes de Thurocz and Antonio Bonfini—write that Voyk had moved from Wallachia to Hungary upon King Sigismunds initiative, László Makkai, Malcolm Hebron, Pál Engel and other scholars accept the two chroniclers report of the Wallachian origin of John Hunyadis father.
In contrast with them, Ioan-Aurel Pop says that Voyk was a native of the region of Hunyad Castle. According to this anecdote, John was actually not Voyks child, the story became especially popular during the reign of John Hunyadis son, Matthias Corvinus who erected a statue for King Sigismund in Buda. The 16th-century chronicler Gáspár Heltai repeated and further developed the tale, but modern scholars—for instance, Hunyadis popularity among the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula give rise to further legends of his royal parentage
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Though leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the USSRs forces drove out Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II. The revolt began as a student demonstration, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building, calling out on the using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the building to try to broadcast the students demands, was detained. When the delegations release was demanded by the demonstrators outside, they were fired upon by the State Security Police from within the building, one student died and was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd. This was the start of the revolution, as the news spread and violence erupted throughout the capital. The revolt spread quickly across Hungary and the government collapsed, thousands organised into militias, battling the ÁVH and Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned and former political prisoners were released and armed.
Radical impromptu workers councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working Peoples Party, a new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact, and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had almost stopped and a sense of normality began to return, after announcing a willingness to negotiate a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded Budapest and other regions of the country, the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter. By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition, public discussion about this revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense study, at the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989,23 October was declared a national holiday.
During World War II Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Romania, in 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Red Army was able to back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began negotiations with the Allies. These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up its own pro-Axis regime, both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in 1945. Towards the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, immediately after World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, and elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy
A red star, five-pointed and filled, is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology, particularly in combination with hammer and sickle. It has been used in flags, state emblems, ornaments. The five-pointed red star has served since about 1917 as a symbol of communism. One interpretation sees the five points as representing the five fingers of the workers hand, a red star became one of the emblems and signals representing the Soviet Union under the rule of the Communist Party, along with, for example, the hammer and sickle. In Soviet heraldry, the red star symbolized the Red Army and the service, as opposed to the hammer and sickle. It is most often thought that Russian troops fleeing from the Austrian and German fronts found themselves in Moscow in 1917, to distinguish the Moscow troops from the influx of retreating front-liners, officers gave out tin stars to the Moscow garrison soldiers to wear on their hats. When those troops joined the Red Army and the Bolsheviks they painted their tin stars red, another claimed origin for the red star relates to an alleged encounter between Leon Trotsky and Nikolai Krylenko.
Krylenko, an Esperantist, wore a lapel badge, Trotsky enquired as to its meaning. On hearing that, Trotsky specified that soldiers of the Red Army should wear a similar, red and it has been suggested that the use of the red star might be related to the popular novel called Red star from 1908 by Alexander Bogdanov. Following its adoption as an emblem of the Soviet Union, the red star became a symbol for communism in a larger sense, the symbol became one of the most prominent of the Soviet Union, adorning all official buildings and insignia. Sometimes the hammer and sickle appeared depicted inside or below the star and socialist movements sometimes adopted the red star, as on the Estelada flag in the Catalan countries. Titos partisans, often including people with different political views, or even with a religious background, wore the red star as an identification symbol. As the use of the red star spread to communism in East Asia, it was adapted, while some states kept the star as it was, some used a star, particularly on a red field.
The Far Eastern Republic of 1920 to 1922 used a star on its military uniforms. The flag of Vietnam has a star on a red field. In Brazil, the red star remained as it was, the Soviet and Russian Federation military newspaper is called the Red Star. Some sports teams from non-communist countries used it, such as French Red Star from Paris, Swiss club FC Red Star Zürich, English Seaham Red Star F. C. the Brazilian leftist Workers Party uses a red star as its symbol with the party acronym inside. Hugo Chávez and his supporters in Venezuela have used the red star in numerous symbols and logos and it was used throughout 2007 as a symbol of the 5 Engines of the Bolivarian Socialist Revolution
St. Stephen's Basilica
St. Stephens Basilica is a Roman Catholic basilica in Budapest, Hungary. It is named in honour of Stephen, the first King of Hungary and it was the sixth largest church building in Hungary before 1920. Since the renaming of the see, its the co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest. Today, it is the third largest church building in present-day Hungary, the site of todays basilica was a theater in the 18th century. This theater, named Hetz-Theater, was a place where hosted animal fights, one of wealthy citizens of the newly formed district, built a temporary church there. In the late 1810s, about a few hundred people formed the Lipótváros Parish, they began the fundraising and the believers started to make plans for the future church. The church is named after Saint Stephen I of Hungary, the first King of Hungary and this is the most important church building in Hungary, one of the most significant tourist attractions and the third highest church in Hungary. Equal with the Hungarian Parliament Building, it is one of the two tallest buildings in Budapest at 96 metres - this equation symbolises that worldly and spiritual thinking have the same importance, according to current regulations there cannot be taller building in Budapest than 96 metres.
It has a width of 55 metres, and length of 87.4 metres and it was completed in 1905 after 54 years of construction, according to the plans of Miklós Ybl, and was completed by József Kauser. Much of this delay can be attributed to the collapse of the dome in 1868 which required demolition of the completed works. The architectural style is Neo-Classical, it has a Greek cross ground plan, the façade is anchored by two large bell towers. In the southern tower is Hungarys biggest bell, weighing over 9 tonnes and its predecessor had a weight of almost 8 tonnes, but it was used for military purposes during World War II. Visitors may access the dome by elevators or by climbing 364 stairs for a 360° view overlooking Budapest. At first, the building was supposed to be named after Saint Leopold, the saint of Austria. The Saint Stephen Basilica has played a role in the musical community since its consecration in 1905. The head organists of the church have always been highly regarded musicians. In the past century the Basilica has been home to choral music, the Basilica choir performs often in different parts of Europe as well as at home.
In the summer months they perform every Sunday, during these months you can see performances from many distinguished Hungarian and foreign organ players alike
The Danube is Europes second-longest river, after the Volga River, and the longest river in the European Union region. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe, the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries, the Latin name Dānuvius is one of a number of Old European river names derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu. Other river names from the root include the Dunajec, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means fluid, drop, in Avestan, in the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra. Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning strong, in Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube, the Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, the bringer of luck. The Latin name is masculine, as are all its Slavic names, the German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe wetland.
Classified as a waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach. The Danube flows southeast for about 2,800 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and its drainage basin extends into nine more. The highest point of the basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border. The land drained by the Danube extends into other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges, from its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tributaries are, The Danube flows through many cities, including four national capitals, more than any other river in the world. Danube remains a mountain river until Passau, with average bottom gradient 0. 0012%. Middle Section, From Devín Gate to Iron Gate, at the border of Serbia and Romania, the riverbed widens and the average bottom gradient becomes only 0. 00006%.
Lower Section, From Iron Gate to Sulina, with average gradient as little as 0. 00003%, about 60 of its tributaries are navigable. In 1994 the Danube was declared one of ten Pan-European transport corridors, routes in Central, the amount of goods transported on the Danube increased to about 100 million tons in 1987. In 1999, transport on the river was difficult by the NATO bombing of three bridges in Serbia during the Kosovo War
The Budapest Metro is the rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. Its iconic Line 1, completed in 1896, was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002, the first metro line was conceived as a means of carrying passengers from the city centre to the City Park without the need for surface transport on Andrássy Avenue. The Diet of Hungary approved the project in 1870. Construction began in 1894 and was carried out by the German firm Siemens & Halske AG. This original metro line followed a northeast-southwest route along Andrássy Avenue from Vörösmarty Square, in the centre of the city, to the City Park and Zoo, a distance of 3.7 kilometres. There were a total of stations on the line, with nine underground. With trains running every two minutes, the line was capable of carrying up to 35,000 passengers per day, one of the original Budapest Metro cars has been preserved at the Seashore Trolley Museum. Line 2 was built with help of specialists and finally opened with seven stations on April 41970.
It follows an east-west route, connecting the major Keleti and Déli railway stations and it has a joint station with the original line at Deák Ferenc Square. In 1973, both lines were extended—the first with one station and the second with four, the lines reached their current lengths of 4.4 kilometres and 10.3 kilometres, respectively. The Budapest Transport Company took over operation of the metro that same year, planning for Line 3 began in 1963 and construction started in 1970 with help of soviet specialists. The first section, consisting of six stations, opened in 1976 and it was extended to the south in 1980 with five additional stations, and to the north in 1981,1984, and 1990, with nine additional stations. With a length of approximately 16 kilometres and a total of 20 stations, concurrently with the opening of Line 3, the metro adopted a colour-coding scheme for easier identification. The first line was given the yellow, the second line red. Additionally, green is used to mark the railways in.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Line 1 underwent major reconstruction, of its 11 stations, eight are original and three were added during reconstruction. The original appearance of the old stations has been preserved, and each station feature displays of historical photographs, there is a Millennium Underground Museum in the Deák Ferenc Square concourse. Line 4 has a history, dating back to 1972