The forint is the currency of Hungary. It was divided into 100 fillér, but fillér coins are no longer in circulation; the introduction of the forint on 1 August 1946 was a crucial step in the post-World War II stabilisation of the Hungarian economy, the currency remained stable until the 1980s. Transition to a market economy in the early 1990s adversely affected the value of the forint. Since 2001, inflation is in single digits, the forint has been declared convertible; as a member of the European Union, the long-term aim of the Hungarian government may be to replace the forint with the euro, but that does not appear to be until some time during the 2020s. The forint's name comes from the city of Florence, where gold coins called fiorino d'oro were minted from 1252. In Hungary, florentinus a gold-based currency, was used from 1325 under Charles Robert, with several other countries following Hungary's example. Between 1868 and 1892 the forint was the name used in Hungarian for the currency of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, known in German as the gulden or florin.
It was subdivided into 100 krajczár. The forint was reintroduced on 1 August 1946, after the pengő was rendered worthless by massive hyperinflation in 1945–46: the highest recorded; the process was managed by the Hungarian Communist Party. The forint's success was exploited for political gains, contributing to the Communists' takeover of complete power in 1948–49; the forint replaced the pengő at the rate of 1 forint = 4×1029 pengő—dropping 29 zeroes from the old currency. In fact, this was an imaginary exchange rate. With the highest value note being 100 million B. pengő, the total amount of pengő in circulation had a value of less than 0.1 fillér. Of more significance was the exchange rate to the adópengő of 1 forint = 200 million adópengő; the forint was subdivided into 100 fillér, although fillér coins have been rendered useless by inflation and have not been in circulation since 1999. The Hungarian abbreviation for forint is Ft, written after the number with a space between; the name fillér, the subdivision of all Hungarian currencies since 1925, comes from the German word Heller.
The abbreviation for the fillér was f written after the number with a space in between. In 1946, a USD was worth 11.71 forints. After its 1946 introduction, the forint remained stable for the following two decades, but started to lose its purchasing power as the state-socialist economic system lost its competitiveness during the 1970s and 1980s. After the democratic change of 1989–90, the forint saw yearly inflation figures of about 35% for three years, but significant market economy reforms helped stabilize it. In 1946, coins were introduced in denominations of 10, 20 fillérs and 1, 2, 5 forints; the silver 5 forint coin was reissued only in the next year. 5 and 50 fillérs coins were issued in 1948. In 1967, a 5 forint coin was reintroduced, followed by a 10 forint in 1971 and 20 forint in 1982. In 1992, a new series of coins was introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 forint. Production of the 2 and 5 fillér coins ceased in 1992, with all fillér coins withdrawn from circulation by 1999.
From 1996, a bicolor 100 forint coin was minted to replace the 1992 version, since the latter was considered too big and ugly, could be mistaken for the 20 forint coin. Silver 200 forint coins were withdrawn in 1998. For cash purchases, the total price is now rounded to the nearest 5 forint. A new 200 forint coin made of base metal alloy was introduced in place of the 200 forint bank note on 15 June 2009. In 1946, 10- and 100-forint notes were introduced by the Magyar Nemzeti Bank. A new series of higher quality banknotes were introduced in 1947 and 1948. 50-forint notes were added in 1953, 500-forint notes were introduced in 1970, followed by 1,000 forints in 1983, 5,000 forints in 1991. A redesigned new series of banknotes in denominations of 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 forints was introduced between 1997 and 2001; each banknote depicts a famous Hungarian leader or politician on the obverse and a place or event related to him on the reverse. All of the banknotes are watermarked, contain an embedded vertical security strip and are suitable for visually impaired people.
The 1,000 forints and higher denominations are protected by an interwoven holographic security strip. The notes share the common size of 154 mm × 70 mm; the banknotes are printed by the Hungarian Banknote Printing Corp. in Budapest on paper manufactured by the Diósgyőr Papermill in Miskolc. Commemorative banknotes have been issued recently: 1,000- and 2,000-forint notes to commemorate the millennium and a 500-forint note to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1956 revolution. Forgery of forint banknotes is not significant. However, forged 20,000-forint notes printed on the paper of 2,000-forint notes after dissolving the original ink might come up and are not easy to recognize. Another denomination preferred by counterfeiters was the 1,000-forint note until improved security features were added in 2006. Banknotes that were previ
Olev Vinn is Estonian paleobiologist and paleontologist. Vinn graduated from the biology class of Tallinn 3. Secondary School in 1989, he studied geology at the University of Tartu from 1989 to 1993. Vinn holds an M. Sc. degree in paleontology and stratigraphy from the University of Tartu in 1995 and a Ph. D. degree in geology from the same university in 2001. He is senior research fellow in paleontology at the University of Tartu since 2007, he has published more than 100 peer reviewed papers in international scientific journals. Vinn has described new genera and species of brachiopods, microconchids, serpulid polychaetes and trace fossils, he is a specialist of extinct tubicolous fossils. A microconchid species Microconchus vinni is named in honour of his taxonomic studies of tentaculitoid tubeworms. Vinn has described majority of annelid skeletal ultrastructures. Oriented tube structures are present in many serpulid species and cannot be explained by the standard carbonate slurry model. Vinn and his co-authors have hypothesized that oriented structures in serpulid tubes have been secreted in the same way as in mollusc shells, based on their ultrastructural similarity.
Vinn and his co-authors proposed alternative ways to explain the calcified secretory granules described by Neff in the lumen of the calcium-secreting glands in serpulids. They proposed that worm produces calcium-saturated mucus in the glands; the mucus is deposited on the tube aperture, where crystallization of the structure is controlled by an organic matrix, as in molluscs. The calcified granules in the glands may only be an artifact of fixation and formed after the death of the worm. Vinn has studied evolution of symbiosis in several groups of early invertebrates such as cornulitids, bryozoans, crinoids, stromatoporoids and rugosans, he has described serpulid faunas of Mesozoic to Recent hydrocarbon seeps. A Late Devonian coral species? Michelinia vinni is named in honour of his contribution to knowledge of ecology of Palaeozoic bioconstructing organisms. A crinoid species name Hiiumaacrinus vinni recognizes his significant contributions to the Silurian paleontology of Estonia; some of Vinn's more important publications include: Vinn, O..
A.. "Ultrastructure and mineral composition of serpulid tubes". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 154: 633–650. Doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00421.x. Vinn, O.. "Microscopic evidence of serpulid affinities of the problematic fossil tube "Serpula" etalensis from the Lower Jurassic of Germany". Lethaia. 41: 417–421. Doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00093.x. Vinn, O. "Attempted predation on Early Paleozoic cornulitids". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 273: 87–91. Doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.12.004. Vinn, O. "Adaptive strategies in the evolution of encrusting tentaculitoid tubeworms". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 292: 211–221. Doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.03.046. Vinn, O.. A.. "Microstructure and formation of the calcareous operculum in Pyrgopolon ctenactis and Spirobranchus giganteus". Zoomorphology. 130: 181–188. Doi:10.1007/s00435-011-0133-0. Vinn, O. and Mõtus, M.-A. 2012. Diverse early endobiotic coral symbiont assemblage from the Katian of Baltica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 321–322, 137–141.
Vinn, O. "On the unique isotropic aragonitic tube microstructure of some serpulids". Journal of Morphology. 274: 478–482. Doi:10.1002/jmor.20112. Vinn, O. "SEM study of semi-oriented tube microstructures of Serpulidae: implications for the evolution of complex oriented microstructures". Microscopy Research and Technique. 76: 453–456. Doi:10.1002/jemt.22186. Vinn, O. "Occurrence and function of organic sheets in the mineral tube structures of Serpulidae". PLoS ONE. 8: e75330. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075330. PMC 3792063. PMID 24116035. Vinn, O.. K.. "Serpulids at Cretaceous to modern hydrocarbon seeps: ecologic and evolutionary patterns". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 390: 35–41. Doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.08.003. Vinn, O.. "Endobiotic rugosan symbionts in stromatoporoids from the Sheinwoodian of Baltica". PLoS ONE. 9: e90197. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090197. PMC 3934990. PMID 24587277. Kupriyanova, E. K.. D.. W.. "Serpulids living deep: calcareous tubeworms beyond the abyss". Deep-Sea Research Part I. 90: 91–104.
Bibcode:2014DSRI...90...91K. Doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2014.04.006. Vinn, O.. A.. "The earliest giant Osprioneides borings from the Sandbian of Estonia". PLoS ONE. 9: e99455. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099455. PMC 4047083. PMID 24901511. Vinn, O.. A.. "Earliest rhynchonelliform brachiopod parasite from the Late Ordovician of northern Estonia". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 411: 42–45. Doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.06.028. Vinn, O.. A.. "The earliest bryozoan parasite: Middle Ordovician of Osmussaar Island, Estonia". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 414: 129–132. Doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.08.021. Chan, V.. B.. W.. "Evidence of compositional and ultrastructural shifts during the development of calcareous tubes in the biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans". Journal of Structural Biology. 189: 230–237. Doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015
Ron van der Ende is a Dutch visual artist, who works as sculptor, installation artist, video artist. He is known for his monumental bas-reliefs, depicting objects such as cars and space capsules. Van der Ende was born in Delft in 1965 and raised in Maasdijk, where his father worked in a carpentry factory, he studied art at the Academy of Fine Arts and Technical Sciences in Rotterdam, now Willem de Kooning Academy, from 1984 to 1988. He had started studying painting, but switched to sculpture. After his studies in 1988 he settled as artist in Rotterdam. In the same year he co-founded the artists' collective ExpoHenK, had his first exhibition in the Rotterdam gallery Dyonisus. In 1990 he was awarded the WdKA Maaskantprijs for a 1988 wall installation made out of six wooden objects of the same size based on historical drawings. Van der Ende continued to construct wooden objects. In 2000 he started making his famous bas-reliefs by fixing pieces of veneer on wooden base constructions, they are made out of used wood, which contains the original layer of paint, such as old doors and other scrap wood.
Group exhibitions, a selection1988. It's Boring but it's true!, Rotterdam. 1989. Lineart, Belgium. 1990. Poliset, Gallery Givichi d’Arte Moderna, Italy. 1992... Autodesign in Nederland.. Kunsthal, Rotterdam. 1998. Industrieel Landschap. Gothaer Kunstforum Köln, Cologne, DE. 2009. Kunst uit Huis V: Ron Klein Breteler, Stedelijk Museum Schiedam. 2011. Will Be Home, Ambach & Rice, Los Angeles CA, USA. International solo exhibition, a selection2008. Motor Memory, OkOk Gallery, Seattle WA, USA. 2010. A Shallow Wade Ambach & Rice, Seattle WA, USA 2011. Perishables, The Armory Show, New York NY, USA. 2013. Phasmid, Ambach & Rice, Los Angeles CA, USA. 2014. Dallas Art Fair, Dallas TX, USA. Ron van der Ende, Galerie Delta, 1990. Frits van Dongen, Ron van der Ende, Braden King; the factory set, Frame Publishers, 2015. Ronvanderende.nl, website