Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon content in contrast to cast iron. It is a mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions which gives it a grain resembling wood. Wrought iron is tough, ductile, corrosion-resistant and easily welded, before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron. A wrought product is one that has been worked by forging, rolling, etcetera, to change its form. Wrought iron is a worked iron product that is seldom produced today as other cheaper. Historically, a modest amount of iron was refined into steel. The demand for wrought iron reached its peak in the 1860s with the adaptation of ironclad warships, however, as properties such as brittleness of mild steel improved, it became less costly and more widely available than wrought iron, whose usage declined. Wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale, many products described as wrought iron, such as guard rails, garden furniture and gates, are actually made of mild steel.
They retain that description because they are made to resemble objects which in the past were wrought by hand by a blacksmith, the word wrought is an archaic past participle of the verb to work, and so wrought iron literally means worked iron. Wrought iron is a term for the commodity, but is used more specifically for finished iron goods. It was used in that sense in British Customs records. Cast iron, unlike wrought iron, is brittle and cannot be worked either hot or cold, Cast iron can break if struck with a hammer. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, wrought iron went by a variety of terms according to its form, origin. While the bloomery process produced wrought iron directly from ore, cast iron or pig iron were the materials used in the finery forge. Pig iron and cast iron have higher content than wrought iron. Cast and especially pig iron have excess slag which must be at least partially removed to produce quality wrought iron, at foundries it was common to blend scrap wrought iron with cast iron to improve the physical properties of castings.
Fusion eventually became accepted as relatively more important than composition below a given low carbon concentration. Another difference is that steel can be hardened by heat treating, wrought iron was known as commercially pure iron, however, it no longer qualifies because current standards for commercially pure iron require a carbon content of less than 0.008 wt%
Festival of Britain
The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951. Up and down the land, lesser festivals enlisted much civic, Labour cabinet member Herbert Morrison was the prime mover, in 1947 he started with the original plan to celebrate the centennial of the Great Exhibition of 1851. However it was not to be another World Fair, for international themes were absent, instead the 1951 festival focused entirely on Britain and its achievements, it was funded chiefly by the government, with a budget of £12 million. The Festivals centrepiece was in London on the South Bank of the Thames, there were events in Poplar, South Kensington and Glasgow. The Festival became a beacon for change that proved popular with thousands of elite visitors. It helped reshape British arts, crafts and sports for a generation, journalist Harry Hopkins highlights the widespread impact of the Festival style. It was, clean and new, in 1945, the government appointed a committee under Lord Ramsden to consider how exhibitions and fairs could promote exports.
When the committee reported a year later, it was decided not to continue with the idea of an international exhibition because of its cost at a time when reconstruction was a high priority, Morrison insisted there be no politics, explicit or implicit. Much of London lay in ruins and models of redevelopment were needed, the Festival was an attempt to give Britons a feeling of recovery and progress and to promote better-quality design in the rebuilding of British towns and cities. The Festival of Britain described itself as one united act of national reassessment, gerald Barry, the Festival Director, described it as a tonic to the nation. A Festival Council to advise the government was set up under General Lord Ismay, responsibility for organisation devolved upon the Lord President of the Council, Herbert Morrison, the deputy leader of the Labour Party, who had been London County Council leader. In March 1948, a Festival Headquarters was set up, which was to be the nucleus of the Festival of Britain Office, Festival projects in Northern Ireland were undertaken by the government of Northern Ireland.
Associated with the Festival of Britain Office were the Arts Council of Great Britain, the Council of Industrial Design, the British Film Institute and the National Book League. Government grants were made to the Arts Council, the Council of Industrial Design, the British Film Institute and the National Museum of Wales for work undertaken as part of the Festival. A long-time editor with left-leaning, middle-brow views, he was energetic and optimistic, with an eye for what would be popular, unlike Morrison, Barry was not seen as a Labour ideologue. Barry selected the next rank, giving preference to young architects and they thought along the same lines socially and aesthetically, as middle-class intellectuals with progressive sympathies. Thanks to Barry a collegial sentiments prevailed that minimised stress and delay, the arts were displayed in a series of country-wide musical and dramatic performances. Achievements in architecture were to presented in a new neighbourhood, the Lansbury Estate, built, there were other displays elsewhere, each intended to be complete in itself, yet each part of the one single conception
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Brunel built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship, and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering, though Brunels projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. Brunel set the standard for a railway, using careful surveys to minimise grades and curves. This necessitated expensive construction techniques, new bridges, new viaducts, one controversial feature was the wide gauge, a broad gauge of 7 ft 1⁄4 in, instead of what was to be known as standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. Brunel astonished Britain by proposing to extend the Great Western Railway westward to North America by building steam-powered iron-hulled ships and he designed and built three ships that revolutionised naval engineering, the Great Western, the Great Britain, and the Great Eastern. In 2002, Brunel was placed second in a BBC public poll to determine the 100 Greatest Britons, in 2006, the bicentenary of his birth, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work under the name Brunel 200.
Brunels name is an amalgamation of his parents names and he inherited the family name of his father, and his middle name is his mothers surname. Brunels first name, comes from his fathers middle name, Isambard is a Norman name of Germanic origin, meaning iron-bright. A cognate name is the German surname Eisenbarth, which can still be found today among Bavarians and German-Americans and he had two older sisters and Emma, and the whole family moved to London in 1808 for his fathers work. Brunel had a childhood, despite the familys constant money worries. His father taught him drawing and observational techniques from the age of four, during this time he learned fluent French and the basic principles of engineering. He was encouraged to draw interesting buildings and identify any faults in their structure, when Brunel was eight he was sent to Dr Morrells boarding school in Hove, where he learned the classics. When Brunel was 15, his father Marc, who had accumulated debts of over £5,000, was sent to a debtors prison.
After three months went by with no prospect of release, Marc let it be known that he was considering an offer from the Tsar of Russia. In August 1821, facing the prospect of losing a prominent engineer, Brunel subsequently studied under the prominent master clockmaker and horologist Abraham-Louis Breguet, who praised Brunels potential in letters to his father. In late 1822, having completed his apprenticeship, Brunel returned to England, Brunels father, was the chief engineer, and the project was funded by the Thames Tunnel Company. The composition of the riverbed at Rotherhithe was often more than waterlogged sediment. The latter incident, in 1828, killed the two most senior miners, and Brunel himself narrowly escaped death and he was seriously injured, and spent six months recuperating
Hungerford Market was a produce market in London, at Charing Cross on the Strand. It existed in two different buildings on the site, the first built in 1682, the second in 1862. The market was first built on the site of Hungerford House, next to Durham Yard, the house had burned down in 1669 as is recorded in the Diary of Samuel Pepys. It was replaced by a new Italianate market building by Charles Fowler and it was damaged when the adjoining Hungerford Hall burned down in 1854, and was sold to the South Eastern Railway in 1862. Charing Cross railway station was built on the site and opened in 1864, by 1444, it was known as Hungerford Inn. King Henry VII granted the land back to Thomass brother, Walter Hungerford and his daughter-in law, Agnes Hungerford, was hanged at Tyburn in 1523, for the murder of her first husband John Cotell. His grandson, was accused in 1540 of treason and perversion and his son, another Walter, was regranted the property in 1544. It finally passed down the family to Sir Edward Hungerford, created a Knight of the Order of the Bath at the coronation of Charles II, Sir Edward Hungerford obtained permission to hold a market on the site for three days a week.
Hungerford Inn, or seemingly the burned-out remains of it, was subdivided into shops and with a covered piazza, in 1685 Fox and Wren obtained a license to sell grain, but achieved little increase in trade. A market house was built in the centre of the site, Hungerford squandered his money, dying a poor Knight of Windsor in 1711. In 1718 the market was sold to the royal gardener Henry Wise and remained in his family until 1830, by the beginning of the nineteenth century, the old market had become dilapidated. In 1830 an Act of Parliament was obtained to incorporate a company to re-establish the market, the company acquired the site of the old market, together with the adjoining houses in Hungerford street, and a few in the Strand. All the existing buildings were demolished, and a new structure was built in 1831-3 to an Italianate design by Charles Fowler, the area occupied by the new market was a strip 126 feet wide, extending 465 feet northward towards the Strand. In addition, next to the river, was a wharf, about 200 feet long, the market itself was divided into three sections.
The lower level of the site was occupied by a market, consisting of an open court,130 feet long. Fowler built a roof over the open court to protect the fishmongers stalls. At the northern end of lower court a flight of steps led to the upper level. The Great Hall, an aisled timber-roofed building 160 feet long, housed a fruit, to the north of that was another open court, flanked by colonnades and butchers shops
Barnes Railway Bridge
Barnes Railway Bridge is a Grade II listed railway bridge in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames and the London Borough of Hounslow. It crosses the River Thames in London in a northwest to southeast direction at Barnes and it carries the South West Trains Hounslow Loop Line, and lies between Barnes Bridge and Chiswick stations. It can be crossed on foot, and is one of two bridges in London to combine pedestrian and rail use, the other one being Fulham Railway Bridge. The original bridge at this location was built in 1849 to a design by Joseph Locke, the replacement bridge, designed by Edward Andrews, is three spans of wrought iron bow string girders carrying two railway tracks. The construction work was carried out by Head Wrightson on behalf of the London & South Western Railway and was completed in 1895, the original Locke span still stands unused on the upstream side. The bridge was given protection as a Grade II listed structure in 1983, Barnes Bridge is a landmark often quoted for the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race, because it is suggested that whichever crew is ahead at this point will win the race.
In 2003 the crews were in almost equal position approaching the bridge, crossings of the River Thames Barnes Railway Bridge at Structurae Media related to Barnes Railway Bridge at Wikimedia Commons
The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, or simply the Thyssen, is an art museum in Madrid, located near the Prado Museum at one of citys main boulevards. It is known as part of the Golden Triangle of Art, which includes the Prado. With over 1,600 paintings, it was once the second largest private collection in the world after the British Royal Collection. A competition was held to house the core of the collection in 1987-88 after Baron Thyssen, having tried to enlarge his Museum in Lugano, the museum received 945,000 visitors in 2013. The collection was started in the 1920s as a collection by Heinrich. In this way he acquired old master paintings such as Ghirlandaios portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni, the collection was initially housed in the family estate in Lugano in a twenty-room building modelled after the Neue Pinakothek in Munich. In 1988, the Baron filed a request for building an extension designed by British architects James Stirling and Michael Wilford. In 1985, the Baron married Carmen Tita Cervera and introduced her to art collecting, cerveras influence was decisive in persuading the Baron to relocate the core of his collection to Spain where the local government had a building available next to the Prado.
The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum officially opened in 1992, showing 715 works of art, a year later, the Spanish Government bought 775 works for $350 million. These pieces are now in the museum in Madrid. After the museum opened, Cervera started her own collection and loaned 429 works to the museum in 1999 for 11 years, the loan has been renewed annually since 2012. The Baroness remains involved with the museum, the Museum houses a display of North American paintings from 18th and 19th centuries, including Copley, Winslow Homer, John Singer Sargent. The selection of German Expressionism is extensive, and includes Emil Nolde, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, August Macke, Max Beckmann, George Grosz, a collection of works from the museum is housed in Barcelona in the Museu Nacional dArt de Catalunya. By 2015, their descendants had filed a lawsuit against the museum, in 2011 due to a lack of liquid funds, Cervera decided to sell The Lock by the English artist John Constable. The painting, which belonged to her collection, was sold in London the following year for £22.4 million.
Thyssen family Carmen Thyssen Museum Official Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum website EducaThyssen website of the Research and Further Studies Department Virtual visit in the Google Art Project
Westminster Bridge is a road-and-foot-traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, linking Westminster on the west side and Lambeth on the east side. The bridge is painted green, the same colour as the leather seats in the House of Commons which is on the side of the Palace of Westminster nearest to the bridge. This is in contrast to Lambeth Bridge, which is red, in 2005–2007, it underwent a complete refurbishment, including replacing the iron fascias and repainting the whole bridge. It links the Palace of Westminster on the west side of the river with County Hall, the next bridge downstream is the Hungerford footbridge and upstream is Lambeth Bridge. Westminster Bridge was designated a Grade II* listed structure in 1981, for over 600 years, the nearest bridge to London Bridge was at Kingston. A bridge at Westminster was proposed in 1664, but opposed by the Corporation of London, despite further opposition in 1722, and after a new timber bridge was built at Putney in 1729, the scheme received parliamentary approval in 1736.
Financed by private capital and grants, Westminster Bridge was built between 1739–1750, under the supervision of the Swiss engineer Charles Labelye, the City of London responded to Westminster Bridge by removing the buildings on London Bridge and widening it in 1760–63. The City commenced work on the Blackfriars Bridge, which opened in 1769, other bridges from that time include Kew Bridge, Battersea Bridge, and Richmond Bridge. The bridge was required for traffic from the expanding West End to the developing South London as well as to south coast ports, without the bridge, traffic from the West End would have to negotiate the congested routes to London Bridge such as the Strand and New Oxford Street. Roads south of the river were improved, including the junction at the Elephant & Castle in Southwark, by the mid–19th century the bridge was subsiding badly and expensive to maintain. The current bridge was designed by Thomas Page and opened on 24 May 1862, with a length of 820 feet and a width of 85 feet, it is a seven-arch, cast-iron bridge with Gothic detailing by Charles Barry.
It is the oldest road bridge across the Thames in central London, on 22 March 2017, a terrorist attack started on the bridge and continued into Bridge Street and Old Palace Yard. Five people - three pedestrians, one officer, and the attacker - died as a result of the incident. A colleague of the officer was armed and shot the attacker, more than 50 people were injured. An investigation is ongoing by the Metropolitan Police, in the 2002 British horror film 28 Days Later, the protagonist awakes from a coma to find London deserted and walks over an eerily empty Westminster Bridge whilst looking for signs of life. Westminster Bridge is the start and finish point for the Bridges Handicap Race, william Wordsworth wrote the sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3,1802. In the finale of the 24th James Bond film Spectre, Blofelds helicopter crashes into Westminster Bridge, Westminster Bridge at Structurae Westminster Bridge at Structurae Interactive Panorama, Westminster Bridge
The London Eye is a giant Ferris wheel on the South Bank of the River Thames in London. The structure is 443 feet tall and the wheel has a diameter of 394 feet, when erected in 1999 it was the worlds tallest Ferris wheel. Its height was surpassed by the 520 feet tall Star of Nanchang in 2006, the 541 feet tall Singapore Flyer in 2008, and the 550 feet High Roller in 2014. Supported by an A-frame on one side only, unlike the taller Nanchang and Singapore wheels and it is the most popular paid tourist attraction in the United Kingdom with over 3.75 million visitors annually, and has made many appearances in popular culture. The London Eye adjoins the western end of Jubilee Gardens, on the South Bank of the River Thames between Westminster Bridge and Hungerford Bridge, in the London Borough of Lambeth. A predecessor to the London Eye, the Great Wheel, was built for the Empire of India Exhibition at Earls Court, modelled on the original Chicago Ferris Wheel, it was 94 metres tall and 82.3 metres in diameter.
It stayed in service until 1906, by which time its 40 cars had carried over 2.5 million passengers, the Great Wheel was demolished in 1907 following its last use at the Imperial Austrian Exhibition. The London Eye was designed by architects Frank Anatole, Nic Bailey, Steve Chilton, Malcolm Cook, Mark Sparrowhawk, mace was responsible for construction management, with Hollandia as the main steelwork contractor and Tilbury Douglas as the civil contractor. Consulting engineers Tony Gee & Partners designed the works while Beckett Rankine designed the marine works. Nathaniel Lichfield and Partners assisted The Tussauds Group in obtaining planning, the rim of the Eye is supported by tensioned steel cables and resembles a huge spoked bicycle wheel. The lighting was redone with LED lighting from Color Kinetics in December 2006 to allow control of the lights as opposed to the manual replacement of gels over fluorescent tubes. The wheel was constructed in sections which were floated up the Thames on barges, once the wheel was complete it was lifted into an upright position by a strand jack system made by Enerpac.
It was first raised at 2 degrees per hour until it reached 65 degrees, the London Eye was formally opened by Prime Minister Tony Blair on 31 December 1999, but did not open to the paying public until 9 March 2000 because of a capsule clutch problem. On 5 June 2008 it was announced that 30 million people had ridden the London Eye since it opened, the wheels 32 sealed and air-conditioned ovoidal passenger capsules and supplied by Poma, are attached to the external circumference of the wheel and rotated by electric motors. Each of the 10-tonne capsules represents one of the London Boroughs, and holds up to 25 people, the wheel rotates at 26 cm per second so that one revolution takes about 30 minutes. It does not usually stop to take on passengers, the rate is slow enough to allow passengers to walk on. It is, stopped to allow disabled or elderly passengers time to embark and disembark safely, in 2009 the first stage of a £12.5 million capsule upgrade began. Each capsule was taken down and floated down the river to Tilbury Docks in Essex, on 2 June 2013 a passenger capsule was named the Coronation Capsule to mark the sixtieth anniversary of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II
Railtrack was a group of companies that owned the track, tunnels, level crossings and all but a handful of the stations of the British railway system from 1994 until 2002. It was created as part of the privatisation of British Rail, listed on the London Stock Exchange, in 2002, after experiencing major financial difficulty, most of Railtracks operations were transferred to the state-controlled non-profit company Network Rail. The remainder of Railtrack was renamed RT Group plc and eventually dissolved on 22 June 2010, founded under Conservative legislation that privatised the railways, Railtrack took control of the railway infrastructure on 1 April 1994 and was floated on the Stock Exchange in May 1996. Robert Horton was first chairman, leading the organisation through the years of its existence up to 1999. The fatal accidents at Southall in 1997 and Ladbroke Grove in 1999 called into question the effect that the fragmentation of the network had had on both safety and maintenance procedures.
In February 1999 the company launched a bond issue which caused a significant fall in Railtracks share price, Railtrack was severely criticised for both its performance in improving the railway infrastructure and for its safety record. But critics said that the regulator was not tough enough and that the company had, as a result, been able to abuse its monopoly position. In particular, its customers, the passenger and freight train operators, were desperate for regulatory action to force the company to improve its stewardship of the network, swift had been appointed rail regulator in 1993 by the Conservative transport secretary John MacGregor MP. When the Labour government took over after the election in May 1997. When Swifts five-year term of office expired on 30 November 1998, the new rail regulator, Tom Winsor, had been Swifts general counsel, and adopted a more interventionist and aggressive regulatory approach. At times the relationship was stormy, with Railtrack resisting pressure to improve its performance, in April 2000 it was reported in the Guardian that Railtrack is adopting a deliberate culture of defiance against the rail regulator.
Gerald Corbett, Railtracks chief executive at the time, and Winsor clearly saw things differently from each other. Railtrack resisted regulatory action to improve its performance, and as the regulator probed ever more deeply and it was the Hatfield crash on 17 October 2000 that proved to be the defining moment in Railtracks collapse. The subsequent major repairs undertaken across the whole British rail network are estimated to have cost in the order of £580 million, according to Christian Wolmar, author of On the Wrong Line, the Railtrack board panicked in the wake of Hatfield. Meanwhile, the costs of modernising the West Coast Main Line were spiralling and this caused it to approach the government for funding, which it controversially used to pay a £137m dividend to its shareholders in May 2001. Railtrack plc was placed into administration under the Railways Act 1993 on 7 October 2001, following an application to the High Court by the Transport Secretary. This was effectively a form of protection that allowed the railway network to continue operating despite the financial problems of the operator.
The parent company, Railtrack Group plc, was not put into administration and continued operating its other subsidiaries, for most of the year in administration, the governments position had been that the new company would have to live within the existing regulatory settlement
Monets ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property, Claude Monet was born on 14 November 1840 on the fifth floor of 45 rue Laffitte, in the 9th arrondissement of Paris. He was the son of Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise Justine Aubrée Monet. On 20 May 1841, he was baptized in the parish church, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, as Oscar-Claude. Despite being baptized Catholic, Monet became an atheist, in 1845, his family moved to Le Havre in Normandy. His father wanted him to go into the familys ship-chandling and grocery business and his mother was a singer, and supported Monets desire for a career in art. On 1 April 1851, Monet entered Le Havre secondary school of the arts, locals knew him well for his charcoal caricatures, which he would sell for ten to twenty francs. Monet undertook his first drawing lessons from Jacques-François Ochard, a student of Jacques-Louis David.
On the beaches of Normandy around 1856 he met fellow artist Eugène Boudin, Boudin taught Monet en plein air techniques for painting. Both received the influence of Johan Barthold Jongkind, on 28 January 1857, his mother died. At the age of sixteen, he left school and went to live with his widowed, childless aunt, when Monet traveled to Paris to visit the Louvre, he witnessed painters copying from the old masters. Having brought his paints and other tools with him, he would go and sit by a window. Monet was in Paris for several years and met other painters, including Édouard Manet and others who would become friends. After drawing a low number in March 1861, Monet was drafted into the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry in Algeria for a seven-year period of military service. His prosperous father could have purchased Monets exemption from conscription but declined to do so when his son refused to give up painting. While in Algeria Monet did only a few sketches of scenes, a single landscape.
In a Le Temps interview of 1900 however he commented that the light, after about a year of garrison duty in Algiers, Monet contracted typhoid fever and briefly went absent without leave. Following convalescence, Monets aunt intervened to get him out of the army if he agreed to complete a course at an art school and it is possible that the Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind, whom Monet knew, may have prompted his aunt on this matter
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession
Charing Cross railway station
Charing Cross railway station is a central London railway terminus on the Strand in the City of Westminster. It is the terminus of the South Eastern Main Line to Dover, all trains are operated by Southeastern, which provides the majority of commuter and regional services to south-east London and Kent. It is connected to Charing Cross tube station on the London Underground and it is one of 19 stations in the United Kingdom that are managed by Network Rail. Charing Cross is the 14th busiest station in the country, the tracks approach the station from Hungerford Bridge over the River Thames. There is an office and shopping complex above the station, known as Embankment Place, the original station building was built on the site of the Hungerford Market by the South Eastern Railway and opened on 11 January 1864. The station was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, with a single wrought iron roof arching over the six platforms on its relatively cramped site. It is built on an arched viaduct, the level of the rails above the ground varying from 13 feet at the north-east end to 27 feet at the bridge abutment at the south-east end.
A year the Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station an ornate frontage in the French Renaissance style. Contemporary with the Charing Cross Hotel was a replica of the Eleanor Cross in Red Mansfield stone, designed by Edward Middleton Barry and it was based on the original 13th-century Whitehall Cross that had been demolished in 1647. Distances in London are officially measured from the site of the cross, now the statue of Charles I facing Whitehall. The condition of the cross deteriorated until it was in such a condition that it was placed on the English Heritage At Risk Register in 2008. A ten-month project to repair and restore the cross was completed in August 2010. A 77-foot length of the elegant original roof structure, comprising the two end bays at the south of the station, and part of the wall collapsed at 3,45 pm on 5 December 1905. A gang of men were employed at the time in repairing and painting the section of roof which fell.
Shortly after 3,30 pm, the roof emitted a loud noise, part of the roof began to sag and the western wall began to crack. It was another 12 minutes before the collapse occurred, which enabled trains and platforms to be evacuated, the roof and debris fell across four passenger trains standing in platforms 3,4,5 and 6, blocking all tracks were. The part of the wall that fell had crashed through the wall and roof of the neighbouring Royal Avenue Theatre in Northumberland Avenue. At the Board Of Trade Inquiry into the accident, expert witnesses expressed doubts about the design of the roof, the South Eastern and Chatham Railway decided not to repair the roof but to replace it