In English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs non-agricultural manual labour. Often something is physically being built or maintained, in contrast, the white-collar worker typically performs work in an office environment and may involve sitting at a computer or desk. A third type of work is a worker whose labour is related to customer interaction, entertainment. Many occupations blend blue, white or pink industry categorizations, blue-collar work is often paid hourly wage-labor, although some professionals may be paid by the project or salaried. There is a range of payscales for such work depending upon field of specialty. Industrial and manual workers wear durable canvas or cotton clothing that may be soiled during the course of their work. Navy and light blue colors conceal potential dirt or grease on the clothing, helping him or her to appear cleaner. For the same reason, blue is a color for boilersuits which protect a workers clothing. Some blue collar workers have uniforms with the name of the business or the name embroidered or printed on it.
Historically the popularity of the color blue among manual labourers contrasts with the popularity of white shirts worn by people in office environments. The blue collar/white collar color scheme has socio-economic class connotations, this distinction has become blurred with the increasing importance of skilled labour, and the relative increase in low-paying white-collar jobs. The term blue collar was first used in reference to trades jobs in 1924, Alden, a higher level academic education is often not required for many blue-collar jobs. However, certain fields may require specialized training, licensing or certification as well as a school diploma or GED. With the information revolution, Western nations have moved towards a service, many manufacturing jobs have been offshored to developing nations which pay their workers lower wages. This offshoring has pushed formerly agrarian nations to industrialized economies and concurrently decreased the number of jobs in developed countries. Due to this economic osmosis, the rust belt has experienced high unemployment, blue-collar can be used as an adjective to describe the environment of the blue-collar worker such as a blue-collar neighborhood, restaurant, or bar
A shipyard is a place where ships are repaired and built. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships, dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction. The terms are used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles. The shipbuilding industry tends to be fragmented in Europe than in Asia. In European countries there are a number of small companies. The publicly owned shipyards in the US are Naval facilities providing basing, Shipyards are constructed nearby the sea or tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships. Sir Alfred Yarrow established his yard by the Thames in Londons Docklands in the late 19th century before moving it northwards to the banks of the Clyde at Scotstoun. Other famous UK shipyards include the Harland and Wolff yard in Belfast, Northern Ireland, where Titanic was built, and the naval dockyard at Chatham, England on the Medway in north Kent.
The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities, after a ships useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard, often on a beach in South Asia. Historically shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages, the worlds earliest known dockyards were built in the Harappan port city of Lothal circa 2600 BC in Gujarat, India. Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard, the dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, and is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the current of the river to avoid silting. The name of the ancient Greek city of Naupactus means shipyard, Naupactus reputation in this field extends to the time of legend, where it is depicted as the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnesus. During its time of operation it was changed and modified. It is currently a maritime museum, ships were the first items to be manufactured in a factory, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, in the Venice Arsenal, Italy.
The Arsenal apparently mass-produced nearly one every day using pre-manufactured parts. Chantiers de lAtlantique – established in 1861 Nantes-Indret, France – Establish in 1771 it built ships for the American Revolution including the Deane, jean Street Shipyard 1843–present – The oldest continually operated shipyard in the U. S. Located on the Hillsborough River in Tampa, Gloucester Marine Railways 1859–present – Oldest working shipyard in New England
American Bridge Company
The American Bridge Company is a civil engineering firm that specializes in building and renovating bridges and other large civil engineering projects. Founded in 1900, the company is headquartered in Coraopolis, the firm has built many bridges in the U. S. and elsewhere, the Historic American Engineering Record notes at least 81. American Bridge has built or helped build the Willis Tower, the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, launch pads, during World War II, it produced tank landing ships for the United States Navy. Competitors include Walsh Group, Flatiron Construction, and Skanska USA, related companies include American Bridge Holding Company and American Bridge Manufacturing Company, both headquartered in Coraopolis. American Bridge Company was founded in April 1900, when JP Morgan led a consolidation of 28 of the largest U. S. steel fabricators and constructors, in 1902, the company became a subsidiary of United States Steel as part of the Steel Trust consolidation. It went on to do work across the nation and around the world, during World War II, the company built warships for the U. S.
Navy. In 1944, American painter Thomas Hart Benton recorded the construction and launch of LST768, producing numerous drawings, the company went private in 1987 and was sold to Continental Engineering Corporation in 1988. The town of Ambridge, was an American Bridge company town, both municipalities are on the Ohio River near Pittsburgh, with access to many steel suppliers, as well as to waterborne and rail transport, to allow shipment of components and subassemblies. This is a representative, not an exhaustive, orinoco Bridge, Venezuela 25th of April Bridge, Portugal Built the worlds longest arch bridge on three occasions. 25 April Bridge in Lisbon, Portugal First stiffening truss replacement on a loaded, lions Gate Bridge, British Columbia, Canada The ongoing Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, in a joint venture with Fluor Corporation, American Bridge-Fluor. Built the world’s tallest building on numerous occasions, john Hancock Center, Chicago Aon Center, Chicago Columbia Seafirst Center, Seattle U. S.
Steel Tower,1970 Flatiron Building, New York City,1902 Built the world’s largest building by volume twice. Hammerhead Crane, 350ton Cantilever type, Cardwell v. American Bridge Co, news article on American Bridge legacy Another article on legacy
USS Hancock (CV-19)
USS Hancock was one of 24 Essex-class aircraft carriers built during World War II for the United States Navy. The ship was the fourth US Navy ship to bear the name, Hancock was commissioned in April 1944, and served in several campaigns in the Pacific Theater of Operations, earning four battle stars. Decommissioned shortly after the end of the war, she was modernized and recommissioned in the early 1950s as an attack carrier, in her second career she operated exclusively in the Pacific, playing a prominent role in the Vietnam War, for which she earned a Navy Unit Commendation. She was the first US Navy carrier to have steam catapults installed and she was decommissioned in early 1976, and sold for scrap that year. The ship was laid down as Ticonderoga on 26 January 1943 by Bethlehem Steel Co, cV-14, laid down as Hancock and under construction at the same time in Newport News, took the name Ticonderoga instead. The companys bond drive raised enough money to build the ship and operate it for the first year.
The ship was launched 24 January 1944 by Mrs. Juanita Gabriel-Ramsey, Hancock was commissioned 15 April 1944, with Captain Fred C. After fitting out in the Boston Navy Yard and shake-down training off Trinidad and Venezuela, Hancock returned to Boston for alterations on 9 July 1944. She departed Boston on 31 July en route to Pearl Harbor via the Panama Canal and San Diego and she was assigned to Rear Admiral Gerald F. Bogans Carrier Task Group 38.2. Thus enemy air power was paralyzed during General MacArthurs invasion of Leyte, when the armada arrived off the Ryukyu Islands on 10 October 1944, Hancocks planes rose off her deck to wreak destruction upon Okinawan airfields and shipping. Her planes destroyed seven enemy aircraft on the ground and assisted in the destruction of a tender,12 torpedo boats,2 midget submarines, four cargo ships. Next on the agenda were Formosan air bases where on 12 October Hancocks pilots downed six enemy planes and she reported one cargo ship definitely sunk, three probably destroyed, and several others damaged.
As they repelled an air raid that evening, Hancocks gunners accounted for a Japanese plane. The following morning her planes resumed their assault, knocking out ammunition dumps, barracks, as Japanese planes again attacked the Americans during their second night off Formosa, Hancocks antiaircraft fire brought down another raider which crashed about 500 yd off her flight deck. On the morning of the day of operations against this enemy stronghold Hancock lashed out again at airfields. As the American ships withdrew a heavy force of Japanese aircraft roared in for a parting crack, one dropped a bomb off Hancocks port bow a few seconds before being hit by the carriers guns and crashing into the sea. Another bomb penetrated a gun platform but exploded harmlessly in the water, the surviving attackers turned tail, and the task force was thereafter unmolested as they sailed toward the Philippines to support the landings at Leyte. On 18 October, she launched planes against airfields and shipping at Laoag and her planes struck the islands of Cebu, Panay and Masbate, pounding enemy airfields and shipping
USS Missouri (BB-63)
USS Missouri is a United States Navy Iowa-class battleship and was the third ship of the U. S. Navy to be named after of the U. S. state of Missouri. Missouri was the last battleship commissioned by the United States and was best remembered as the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan which ended World War II, Missouri was ordered in 1940 and commissioned in June 1944. In the Pacific Theater of World War II she fought in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa and shelled the Japanese home islands, in 1998, she was donated to the USS Missouri Memorial Association and became a museum ship at Pearl Harbor. Missouri was one of the Iowa-class fast battleship designs planned in 1938 by the Preliminary Design Branch at the Bureau of Construction and Repair. She was laid down at the Brooklyn Navy Yard on 6 January 1941, launched on 29 January 1944, the ship was the third of the Iowa class, but the fourth and final Iowa-class ship commissioned by the U. S. Navy. The ship was christened at her launching by Mary Margaret Truman, daughter of Harry S.
Truman, Missouris main battery consisted of nine 16 in /50 cal Mark 7 guns, which could fire 2,700 lb armor-piercing shells some 20 mi. Her secondary battery consisted of twenty 5 in /38 cal guns in twin turrets, Missouri was the last U. S. battleship to be completed. Wisconsin, the highest-numbered U. S. battleship built, was completed before Missouri and she stood out of San Francisco Bay on 14 December and arrived at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on 24 December 1944. She departed Hawaii on 2 January 1945 and arrived in Ulithi, there she was temporary headquarters ship for Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher. Missouri steamed with the carriers to Iwo Jima where her main guns provided direct, after TF58 returned to Ulithi on 5 March, Missouri was assigned to the Yorktown carrier task group. On 14 March, Missouri departed Ulithi in the screen of the fast carriers, during strikes against targets along the coast of the Inland Sea of Japan beginning on 18 March, Missouri shot down four Japanese aircraft. Raids against airfields and naval bases near the Inland Sea and southwestern Honshū continued, Missouri rejoined the screen of the carriers as Marine and Army units stormed the shores of Okinawa on the morning of 1 April.
An attack by Japanese forces was repulsed successfully, on 11 April, a low-flying kamikaze Zero, although fired upon, crashed on Missouris starboard side, just below her main deck level. The starboard wing of the plane was thrown far forward, starting a fire at 5 in Gun Mount No.3. The battleship suffered only superficial damage, and the fire was quickly under control. The remains of the pilot were recovered on board the ship just aft of one of the 40 mm gun tubs, the following day he was buried at sea with military honors. About 23,05 on 17 April, Missouri detected an enemy submarine 12 mi from her formation and her report set off a hunter-killer operation by the light carrier Bataan and four destroyers, which sank the Japanese submarine I-56. Missouri was detached from the task force off Okinawa on 5 May
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from small amounts of matter. The first test of a bomb released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10 million tons of TNT, a thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate a city by blast, fire. Nuclear weapons are considered weapons of destruction, and their use. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in nuclear warfare, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II, the bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 civilians and military personnel from acute injuries sustained from the explosions.
The ethics of the bombings and their role in Japans surrender remain the subject of scholarly, since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for the purposes of testing and demonstration. Only a few nations possess such weapons or are suspected of seeking them, israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states, south Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons. Modernisation of weapons continues to occur, all existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is exclusively from fission reactions are commonly referred to as bombs or atom bombs. This has long noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom.
The latter approach is considered more sophisticated than the former and only the approach can be used if the fissile material is plutonium. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself. The amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT, all fission reactions necessarily generate fission products, the radioactive remains of the atomic nuclei split by the fission reactions. Many fission products are highly radioactive or moderately radioactive. Fission products are the radioactive component of nuclear fallout
Union Iron Works
The Donahue Brothers Peter and James, Irish immigrants, founded Union Iron Works in the south of Market area of San Francisco in 1849. After years as the producer of mining, railroad and locomotive machinery in California, Union Iron Works. In 1885, the Union Iron Works launched the first steel hulled ship on the west coast, in 1886, UIW was awarded a $1,000,000 contract to build a Naval cruiser, the Charleston, which they completed in eighteen months. From the completion of the Arago in 1884 to 1902, UIW built seventy-five marine vessels, an 1892 description of the yards stated that between 1200 and 1500 men were employed and the yearly gross revenue was between $2,000,000 and $4,000,000. By the turn of the century, the shipyard had expanded in area and these industrial facilities used five types of power, distributed throughout, compressed air, steam and coal or gas fire. Union Iron works built a number of ships for the United States Navy and these ships include the USS Oregon laid down in 1891, and Adder-class submarines Grampus and Pike which were launched in 1902 and 1903, respectively.
The latter two were subcontracted from the Holland Torpedo Boat Company, and were the first submarines built on the West Coast, in 1902, the Union Iron Works was absorbed into a combine called the United States Shipbuilding Company and was mired in three years of litigation. In 1905, the entire 40-acre shipyard was purchased by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation for one million dollars, charles M. Schwab stood on the steps of the UIW office building on 20th Street during the auction. At this point, he was the only bidder, Schwab was widely believed to have engineered the demise of the U. S. Shipbuilding Corporation in order to control of the industry. Whether or not that was true, he benefited from the collapse of the US Shipbuilding combine. At the time of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the passenger liner Columbia of the San Francisco. The earthquake caused the iron hulled Columbia to shift off her supports and this rendered the drydock, a key feature of the yard, damaged beyond economic repair.
The Columbia on the hand, despite being partially flooded and damaged, was repaired and returned to service in January 1907. In 1908, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation bought the Hunters Point, San Francisco, in the pre-World War I era, Union Iron Works built several navy ships that became internationally famous due to the Spanish–American War, Commodore Deweys flagship the Olympia. After 1905, the shipyard operated as part of Bethlehem Steel, first complete ferry built by Union Iron Works San Pablo, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad passenger ferry. Hull became first fish reduction plant on San Pablo Bay Tamalpais,1900 Northwest Railroad Passenger Ferry, fred W. Weller Steel tanker S. S. Invincible 1918 Freighter S. S. auto ferry, short-lived ferry company funded by Sunny Jim James Rolph Went to Puget Sound in 1940 S. S
Mare Island Naval Shipyard
The Mare Island Naval Shipyard was the first United States Navy base established on the Pacific Ocean. It is located 25 miles northeast of San Francisco in Vallejo, the Napa River goes through the Mare Island Strait and separates the peninsula shipyard from the main portion of the city of Vallejo. MINSY made a name for itself as the premier US West Coast submarine port as well as serving as the force in San Francisco Bay Area shipbuilding efforts during World War II. The base closed in 1996 and has gone through several redevelopment phases and it was registered as a California Historical Landmark in 1960, and parts of it were declared a National Historic Landmark District in 1975. They managed to survey the Mare Island Strait before steaming to Hawaii to obtain crewmen from Hawaiian monarch King Kamehameha III. They returned to San Francisco in the spring of 1850 with the survey of northern California beginning on April 4,1850. On August 1,1850, while still in Oregon, McArthur purchased a 1⁄16 interest in Mare Island for $468.50 returned to San Francisco that month to prepare charts, on January 15,1852, Secretary of the Navy Will A.
Graham ordered a Naval Commission to select a site for a yard on the Pacific Coast. Commodore D. Sloat along with Commodore C, sanger were appointed to the commission. On July 13,1852, Sloat recommended the island across the Napa River from the settlement of Vallejo, the Navy purchased the original 956 acres of MINSY on January 4,1853. MINSY served as a major Pacific Ocean repair station during the late 19th century, handling American as well as Japanese, in 1861, the longest lived of the clipper ships, was brought to Mare Island Navy Yard for $15,000 of repairs. Syren had struck Mile Rock two times while trying to out of the Golden Gate. Marines first arrived for duty in 1862 under the command of Maj. Addison Garland, Mare Island Naval Shipyard took a commanding role in civil defense and emergency response on the West Coast, dispatching warships to the Pacific Northwest to subdue Native American violence. MINSY sent ships such as Wyoming south to Central America and the Panama Canal to protect US political and commercial interests, some of the support and munition requirements for the Spanish–American War were filled by Mare Island.
MINSY sent men and ships to San Francisco in response to the following the 1906 earthquake. Arctic rescue missions were mounted as necessary, ordnance manufacturing and storage were two further key missions at MINSY for nearly all of its active service, including ordnance used prior to the American Civil War. In 1911, the Marine Corps established two West Coast recruit training depots first at Mare Island, the second at Puget Sound, Mare Island eventually became the West Coasts only recruit training facility when the Puget Sound operation consolidated to the San Francisco Bay Area in 1912. Instructors trained recruits there until August 10,1923, when they relocated to the Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, in March 1917 MINSY was the site of a major explosion of barges loaded with munitions
Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, United States. The population was 40,500 at the 2016 State Estimate, Bremerton is home to Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and the Bremerton Annex of Naval Base Kitsap. Bremerton is connected to Downtown Seattle by a 60-minute ferry route, the largest city in Kitsap County, is located directly west of Seattle across the Puget Sound on the Kitsap Peninsula. It is bounded on the southeast and east by Sinclair Inlet, the city is divided by the Port Washington Narrows, a strait spanned by two bridges that connects, the eastern and western sides of the city. The part of the city northeast of the narrows is referred to as East Bremerton, the citys southern border is contiguous with Mason County and includes Bremerton National Airport. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 32.29 square miles. Bremerton is divided among three legislative districts in Kitsap County. The 23rd legislative district to the north, 35th legislative district in the center, before redistricting in 2012, the line separating the first and sixth Congressional districts ran through East Bremerton.
As a result of the 2012 redistricting, all of Bremerton now lies within the sixth Congressional district, the district is represented by Derek Kilmer, who was first elected to that position in 2012. Prior to Kilmer, Norm Dicks served as sixth district Representative from 1977 to 2013, the mayor is Patty Lent, who defeated councilman Will Maupin in 2009. Lent had been a Kitsap County commissioner, and ran as a Republican, incorporated as a first-class city, Bremerton has been governed by a nonpartisan strong mayor and nine-member city council since 1985. Each member is elected from one of nine wards who in turn elect one member, the current form of government was established by a 1983 charter that eliminated a decades-old city commission composed of a mayor, public works commissioner and finance commissioner. Each member of the Kitsap County Board of Commissioners represents a portion of the city of Bremerton and this arrangement was an attempt to balance Bremertons commercial influence with the remainder of the county, though most of its sales tax base has since relocated to unincorporated areas.
The revenue shortfall has been compensated by increased revenues collected from traffic infractions, Bremerton politics can vary in intensity, with some city council positions regularly unopposed and others having as many as four candidates in the 2005 primary election. Bremerton is within the territory of the Suquamish Tribe. The land was available for non-Native settlement by the Treaty of Point Elliott of 1855. Bremerton was planned by German immigrant and Seattle entrepreneur William Bremer in 1891, in the year 1891, Navy Lt. A. B. Wyckoff purchased approximately 190 acres of waterfront land located on Sinclair Inlet. This land was owned by the Bremer family, in April 1891, Bremer arranged for the sale of 190 acres to the Navy at $50 per acre
Tinian is one of the three principal islands of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Together with uninhabited neighboring Aguijan, it forms Tinian Municipality, one of the four constituent municipalities of the Northern Marianas, Tinians largest village is San Jose. Tinian is about 5 nautical miles southwest of Saipan, from which it is separated by the Saipan Channel and it has a land area of 39 square miles, with its highest elevation at Mount Lasso at 171 meters. The island has a variety of flora and fauna, and limestone cliffs, the Tinian monarch is the islands only endemic bird species and it is threatened by habitat loss. There is a variety of life and coral reefs surrounding the island. Its clear, warm waters are ideal for snorkeling, scuba diving, the population of Tinian was 3,136, which corresponds to less than 5 percent of all residents of the Northern Mariana Islands and a population density of 35 people per km2. Most of the inhabitants are Chamorros and members of other groups of islands in the Caroline Islands.
There are minorities of Filipino, East Asian, around 3000 years ago, Tinian was ruled by the Chamorro Chief Taga, who built the biggest stone home with latte stones. A beach on Tinian and the charter airline were named after him. Tinian, together with Saipan, was possibly firstly sighted by Europeans by the Spanish expedition of Ferdinand Magellan, when it made a landfall in the southern Marianas on 6 March 1521. Again, it is likely it was sighted by Gonzalo Gómez de Espinosa in 1522 on board of Spanish ship Trinidad and this would have happened after the sighting of the Maug Islands in between the end of August and end of September. The Spanish formally occupied Tinian in 1669, with the expedition of Diego Luis de San Vitores who named it Buenavista Mariana. From 1670, it became a port of call for Spanish and occasional English and French ships as a station for food. The native population, estimated at 40,000 at the time of the Spanish arrival, shrank to less than 1400 due to European-introduced diseases, the survivors were forcibly relocated to Guam in 1720 for better control and assimilation.
Under Spanish rule, the island was developed into ranches for raising cattle and pigs, after the Spanish–American War of 1898, Tinian was occupied by the United States. However, it was sold by Spain to the German Empire in 1899. In 1914, during World War I, the island was captured by the Empire of Japan, the island was settled by ethnic Japanese and Okinawans, who developed large-scale sugar plantations. Initial efforts to settle the island met with difficulties, including an infestation of scale insects, by June 1944, some 15,700 Japanese civilians were resident on Tinian