click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Huntingdon

Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, chartered by King John in 1205. Having been the county town of historic Huntingdonshire, it is now the seat of the Huntingdonshire District Council, it is well known as the birthplace of Oliver Cromwell, born there in 1599 and its Member of Parliament for the town in the 17th century. The former Conservative Prime Minister John Major served as the MP for Huntingdon from 1979 until his retirement in 2001. Huntingdon was founded by the Danes, it is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 921. It appears as Huntedun in the Domesday Book of 1086; the name means "The huntsman's hill" or "Hunta's hill". It seems that Huntingdon was a staging post for Danish raids outside of East Anglia until 917, when the Danes moved to Tempsford in Bedfordshire, before they were crushed by Edward the Elder, it prospered successively as a bridging point of the River Great Ouse, as a market town, in the 18th and 19th centuries as a coaching centre, most notably the George Hotel.

The town has a well-preserved medieval bridge that used to serve as the main route of Ermine Street over the river. The bridge only ceased to be the sole crossing point to Godmanchester in 1975, with the advent of what is now the A14 bypass, its valuable trading position was secured by Huntingdon Castle, of which only the earthworks of its motte survive. The site is now a Scheduled Ancient Monument, is home to a beacon used to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the Spanish Armada. In 1746, the botanists Wood and Ingram of nearby Brampton developed an elm-tree cultivar, Ulmus × hollandica'Vegeta', which they named the "Huntingdon Elm" after the town. Original documents on Huntingdon's history, including the borough charter of 1205, are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies at the County Record Office, Huntingdon. Parts of Huntingdon, including the town centre, were struck by an F1/T3 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day.

Moderate damage resulted in Huntingdon town centre. Between the railway station and the old hospital building stands a replica cannon installed in the 1990s to replace one from the Crimean War, scrapped for the war effort in the Second World War. However, it faces in the opposite direction from the original. St Mary's Street drill hall was built in the late 19th century; the George Hotel on the corner of High Street and George Street was once a posting house. It was named after St George in 1574 and bought some 25 years by Henry Cromwell, grandfather of Oliver Cromwell. Charles I made the George Hotel his headquarters in 1645; the highwayman Dick Turpin is said to have been a visitor, when it was a coaching inn on the Great North Road. Two wings of the inn were burnt down in the mid-19th century, but two were saved, including the one with a balcony overlooking the yard. Since 1959 the courtyard and balcony have been used for Shakespeare performances produced by the company run by the Shakespeare at the George Trust.

Huntingdon has a town council with 19 councillors, as elsewhere elected every four years. Two of the councillors serve as mayor and deputy mayor. Meetings are held once a month at the town hall. Huntingdonshire District Council has three wards: Huntingdon North, Huntingdon East and Huntingdon West; the Huntingdon East ward is represented by the other wards by two each. The main offices of Huntingdonshire District Council are in Huntingdon itself; the highest tier of local government is Cambridgeshire County Council based in Cambridge, providing county-wide services such as major road infrastructure and rescue, social services and heritage protection. Huntingdon represented by two county councillors. Huntingdon lies in the parliamentary constituency of Huntingdon, it has been represented by Jonathan Djanogly MP since 2001. The previous member was the former prime minister John Major, who held the seat in 1979–2001; the town lies on the north bank of the River Great Ouse, opposite Godmanchester and close to the market town of St Ives to the east and the village of Brampton to the west.

Huntingdon now incorporates the village of Hartford to the east and the developing areas of Oxmoor, Stukeley Meadows and Hinchingbrooke to the north and west. Between Godmanchester and Brampton lies Portholme Meadow, England's largest. About 257 acres in area, it contains many rare species of grass and dragonfly, it is the only known British habitat of the marsh dandelion. It acts as a natural reservoir for water in times of flood, enabling the river to run off so helping to preclude flooding in nearby towns, it has served as a horse racecourse and once was a centre for aviation. Huntingdon is home including Huntingdon Racecourse. Hinchingbrooke Business Park has many warehouses located in it; the nearest weather station for which long-term weather data is available is RAF Wyton, 3 mi north-east of the town centre, although more Monks Wood, 5 mi to the north-west, has provided data. Like most of Britain, Huntingdon has a temperate maritime-based climate free from temperature extremes, with rainfall spread evenly over the year.

The absolute maximum recorded at Wyton was 35.4 °C in August 1990. The warmest day of the year averages 29.7 °C. and 16.0 days a year will rise to 25.1 °C or above. 43.2 nights of the year report an air frost. The absolute minimum at Wyton was −16.1 °C recorded in January 1982. On average, the co

A Queen Is Crowned

A Queen Is Crowned is a 1953 British Technicolor documentary film written by Christopher Fry. The film documents the 1953 Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, with a narration of events by Laurence Olivier, it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature and was the first winner of the now-defunct Golden Globe Award for Best Documentary Film. The film was one of the most popular at the British box office in 1953. Laurence Olivier as Narrator Queen Elizabeth II as Herself Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh as Himself Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother as Herself Prince Charles as Himself Royal Journey Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II A Queen Is Crowned on IMDb

Nicholas Yang

Nicholas Yang Wei-hsiung, GBS, JP is a Hong Kong politician. He is the Secretary for Innovation and Technology since November, 2015, who has served as the Executive Vice President of Hong Kong Polytechnic University, he was a Non-official Member of the Executive Council and Advisor to the Chief Executive on Innovation and Technology in March 2015. Yang lived in Jersey City, New Jersey before moving to Pasadena to attend the California Institute of Technology, he graduated in 1977 with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. He went on to obtain a master's degree at Stanford University in the same field, worked as a senior design engineer at Intel, he returned to Stanford to earn an MBA, worked at Bain & Company before moving to Asia in 1983. He became a naturalized US citizen on 2 September 1977. On 15 December 1979 in Santa Clara, California, he married Winnie Sui-king Yung, daughter of the Chairman and founder of Hong Kong-based Shell Electric Manufacturing, she became a US citizen on 8 August 1984.

Yang joined Shell Electric in 1983 and served as Executive Director until resigning on 30 September 2003. He was a director during its initial public offering and the sale of its fibre-optic business to JDSU, he moved to JDSU in 1999. Afterwards he became involved in private equity. In 2003 he was appointed CEO of the Hong Kong Cyberport Management Company. Yang became Executive Vice President of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 2010. After Leung Chun-ying emerged as the winner of the 2012 Hong Kong Chief Executive election, Yang's name came up as one of the top candidates to head the government's newly created Technology and Communications Bureau; as the Hong Kong Basic Law requires that principal government officials have no right of abode in any foreign country, Yang visited the U. S. consulate to renounce U. S. citizenship in May that year. In July 2012 Yang became the target of an investigation by the Independent Commission Against Corruption regarding a government contract which a foundation he directed, the eInclusion Foundation, had obtained in 2010.

On 2 March 2015, he was appointed the Innovation & Technology Adviser to the Leung Chun-ying and a non-official member of the Executive Council to pave the way for the city's Innovation and Technology Bureau. On 20 November 2015, the Innovation and Technology Bureau was established, Yang was appointed as the first Secretary for Innovation and Technology. On January 2016, Yang claimed that he has met Steve Jobs before, stating time and time again that "Have you met Steve Jobs, I have, I have" when he shared with the young tech entrepreneurs how Steve Jobs had inspired him on the importance of'standards' and'platforms' in the development of Innovation and Technology nowadays. In April 2016, leaks from the Panama Papers showed that Yang had created two questionable accounts in which he transferred a large number of PolyU stocks for his own benefit. Yang said the decisions to set up the BVI firms was proper

Evelyn Grant Duff

Sir Evelyn Mountstuart Grant Duff was a British diplomat, stationed in Iran at a key moment, was ambassador to Switzerland. He was the second son of M. E. Grant Duff, he passed the Preliminary Examination for the Civil Services in 1883 and entered the Diplomatic Service in 1888. He served in Rome, Tehran, St Petersburg and Berlin before a post in London 1899–1903, he was Secretary of Legation in Tehran 1903–06. In the summer of 1906 there was no minister in post – the previous minister, Sir Arthur Hardinge, had left in 1905 and the new minister, Sir Cecil Spring Rice, although appointed in December 1905, did not leave England until September 1906 – so Grant Duff was the senior British diplomat in Tehran when, during the Persian Constitutional Revolution, about 12,000 men took sanctuary in the gardens of the British Legation in what has been called a'vast open-air school of political science' studying constitutionalism; the Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, was outraged by Grant Duff's hospitality towards the bastis which, inadvertently expedited the Constitutional Revolution.

Grant Duff had been appointed to be Councillor at the Embassy in Madrid and he took up that post in late 1906. While in Madrid he negotiated the purchase of land at the corner of calle de Núñez de Balboa and calle de Hermosilla for a British Embassy Church. Building did not start until 1923, it was dedicated as the Church of St George in 1925. In 1910 Grant Duff was appointed Minister to Venezuela, he was knighted KCMG in 1916 on the termination of his mission in Berne. In 1900 he married elder daughter of Sir George Bonham, 2nd Baronet, she was appointed a Lady of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem in 1916 and CBE in 1918 as "Founder and Organiser of the Bread Bureau for Prisoners of War." She founded the "British Legation Red Cross Organization" through which the many British expatriates in Switzerland helped wounded soldiers in French and British hospitals. GRANT-DUFF, Sir Evelyn, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2008.

Splitrock, Minnesota

Splitrock is an abandoned townsite in Beaver Bay Township, Lake County, United States. It was inhabited from 1899 to 1906 as a company town to house workers for a logging operation; the site is now within the borders of Split Rock Lighthouse State Park. The abandoned townsite is located 17 miles northeast of the city of Two Harbors. Splitrock was developed as a logging camp by the Split Rock Lumber Company, a subsidiary of the Merrill and Ring Lumber Company. About 350 men worked in the Split Rock River valley felling white pine; the lumber company controlled the town's harbor, coal dock, store. Early maps show the community as Split Rock, Split Rock Point, or Waterville; the company built a railroad 10 miles long to carry cut logs down to the river mouth, where they were dumped into the water from a trestle platform. Although the railroad never connected to any other lines, it was incorporated as the Split Rock and Northern Railroad to qualify for a common carrier tax break; the logs were sluiced from a dammed area at the river mouth into the lake, where they were rounded up into rafts and towed to a sawmill in Duluth by the company's tugboat Gladiator.

Unusually, the Gladiator stocked carrier pigeons to carry distress messages to the company office. By 1906 the operation had cut 200,000,000 board feet of lumber, netting a successful profit of $863,454. With most of the valuable timber gone, logging operations ceased and the town and railroad were dismantled the following year; the cutover land suffered further from multiple forest fires. The only obvious vestige of the town are pilings from the wharf and train trestle, about 184 feet long and 16 feet wide, still visible jutting from the water at the mouth of the Split Rock River

Solvation

Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules. Both ionized and uncharged molecules interact with solvent, the strength and nature of this interaction influence many properties of the solute, including solubility and color, as well as influencing the properties of the solvent such as the viscosity and density. In the process of solvation, ions are surrounded by a concentric shell of solvent. Solvation is the process of reorganizing solute molecules into solvation complexes. Solvation involves bond formation, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces. Solvation of a solute by water is called hydration. Solubility of solid compounds depends on a competition between lattice energy and solvation, including entropy effects related to changes in the solvent structure. By an IUPAC definition, solvation is an interaction of a solute with the solvent, which leads to stabilization of the solute species in the solution. In the solvated state, an ion in a solution is complexed by solvent molecules.

Solvated species can be described by coordination number, the complex stability constants. The concept of the solvation interaction can be applied to an insoluble material, for example, solvation of functional groups on a surface of ion-exchange resin. Solvation is, in concept, distinct from solubility. Solvation or dissolution is quantified by its rate. Solubility quantifies the dynamic equilibrium state achieved when the rate of dissolution equals the rate of precipitation; the consideration of the units makes the distinction clearer. The typical unit for dissolution rate is mol/s; the units for solubility express a concentration: mass per volume, etc. Solvation involves different types of intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole interactions, van der Waals forces. Which of these forces are at play depends on the molecular structure and properties of the solvent and solute; the similarity or complementary character of these properties between solvent and solute determines how well a solute can be solvated by a particular solvent.

Solvent polarity is the most important factor in determining how well it solvates a particular solute. Polar solvents have molecular dipoles, meaning that part of the solvent molecule has more electron density than another part of the molecule; the part with more electron density will experience a partial negative charge while the part with less electron density will experience a partial positive charge. Polar solvent molecules can solvate polar solutes and ions because they can orient the appropriate charged portion of the molecule towards the solute through electrostatic attraction; this creates a solvation shell around each particle of solute. The solvent molecules in the immediate vicinity of a solute particle have a much different ordering than the rest of the solvent, this area of differently ordered solvent molecules is called the cybotactic region. Water is the most common and well-studied polar solvent, but others exist, such as ethanol, acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide. Polar solvents are found to have a high dielectric constant, although other solvent scales are used to classify solvent polarity.

Polar solvents can be used to dissolve ionic compounds such as salts. The conductivity of a solution depends on the solvation of its ions. Nonpolar solvents cannot solvate ions, ions will be found as ion pairs. Hydrogen bonding among solvent and solute molecules depends on the ability of each to accept H-bonds, donate H-bonds, or both. Solvents that can donate H-bonds are referred to as protic, while solvents that do not contain a polarized bond to a hydrogen atom and cannot donate a hydrogen bond are called aprotic. H-bond donor ability is classified on a scale. Protic solvents can solvate solutes. Solvents that can accept a hydrogen bond can solvate H-bond-donating solutes; the hydrogen bond acceptor ability of a solvent is classified on a scale. Solvents such as water can both donate and accept hydrogen bonds, making them excellent at solvating solutes that can donate or accept H-bonds; some chemical compounds experience solvatochromism, a change in color due to solvent polarity. This phenomenon illustrates.

Other solvent effects include conformational or isomeric preferences and changes in the acidity of a solute. The solvation process will be thermodynamically favored only if the overall Gibbs energy of the solution is decreased, compared to the Gibbs energy of the separated solvent and solid; this means that the change in enthalpy minus the change in entropy is a negative value, or that the Gibbs energy of the system decreases. It is important to remember, that a negative Gibbs energy indicates a spontaneous process but does not provide information about the rate of dissolution. Solvation involves multiple steps with different energy consequences. First, a cavity must form in the solvent to make space for a solute; this is both entropically and enthalpically unfavorable, as solvent ordering increases and solvent-solvent interactions decrease. Stronger interactions among solvent molecules leads to a greater enthalpic penalty for cavity formation. Next, a particle of solute must separate from the bulk.

This is enthalpically unfavorable since solute-solute interactions decrease, but when the solute particle enters the cavity, the resulting solvent-solute inter