Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district
The 13th Congressional District of Pennsylvania is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The district contains all of Blair County, Huntingdon County, Bedford County, Fulton County, Franklin County, Adams County, it includes most of Somerset County, parts of Westmoreland County, Cambria County, Cumberland County. Republican John Joyce has represented the district since 2019. Prior to February 2018, the district was located in southeastern Pennsylvania, covering eastern Montgomery County and Northeast Philadelphia; the district traditionally included most of Montgomery County, but was redrawn in 2002 to include part of Philadelphia, altered again in 2012. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania redrew the district in February 2018 after ruling the previous map unconstitutional; the old 13th district became the 4th district, what was the ninth district in the southwest part of the state was modified and redesignated the 13th district, for the 2018 elections and representation thereafter.
The district had long been a Republican stronghold, like many suburban districts in the Northeast. However, the brand of Republicanism in this district was a moderate one, the district became friendlier to Democrats during the 1990s as the national party veered to the right; the district has not voted Republican for President since 1988. In 1992, the district elected its first Democratic representative in 86 years, Marjorie Margolies-Mezvinsky, she was swept out in 1994 by Republican Jon D. Fox, but Joe Hoeffel regained the seat for the Democrats in 1998, it was in Democratic hands from until the 2018 redistricting, became more Democratic since being pushed into Philadelphia after the 2000 census. As of the census of 2000, there were 647,435 people, 250,845 households, 169,848 families residing in the district; the racial makeup of the district was 87.16% White, 6.05% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 4.05% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.32% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races.
3.06 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 250,845 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51] and the average family size was 3.09. In the district, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males. The median income for a household in the district was $49,319, the median income for a family was $61,108. Males had a median income of $36,441 versus $23,719 for females; the per capita income for the district was $25,053. About 5.1% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over.
List of United States congressional districts Pennsylvania's congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania
Tussey Mountain is a stratigraphic ridge in central Pennsylvania, United States, trending east of the Bald Eagle, Brush and Evitts Mountain ridges. Its southern foot just crosses the Mason–Dixon line near Flintstone, running north 130 km to the Seven Mountains of central Pennsylvania, near Tusseyville, making it one of the longest named ridges in this section of the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians; the ridge line separates Morrison Cove from the Woodcock Valley and Friends Cove from the Black Valley. Tussey Mountain lies in, the ridge line forms parts of the borders of, Blair and Huntingdon counties; the Flintstone Creek runs around the southern end of the mountain in Maryland. North of there, small streams run through deep gorges, the Sweet Root and Rainsburg Gaps, near Martin Hill. At Everett the Pennsylvania Turnpike, U. S. Route 30, the abandoned Huntingdon and Broad Top Mountain Railroad follow the Raystown Branch Juniata River through a deep water gap known as The Narrows; the Yellow Creek runs through Loysburg Gap at Pennsylvania.
Maple Run Road passes through a wind gap near Coot Hill, heading west to Woodbury. Pennsylvania Route 164 runs east out of Martinsburg, climbs the west slope with a switchback before crossing the crest; the Frankstown Branch Juniata River runs north along the west foot of the ridge before turning east along U. S. Route 22 at Water Street, the river and rail crossing the ridge line through a water gap; the Little Juniata River passes through a nearby water gap at Spruce Creek along with the former Pennsylvania Railroad Main Line, which tunnels through a spur of the mountain to cut across a loop in the river. Galbraith Run passes through Galbraith Gap near the north end of the ridge, adjacent to the Tussey Mountain Ski Area in Boalsburg; the Tussey Mountain Ridge is popular with soaring birds and glider pilots ridge soaring along its slopes. This ridge is part of a chain of ridges. Tussey Mountain has been designated a Pennsylvania Important Bird Area, based on its importance as a spring raptor migration site, but as a long corridor of intact forest habitat, over 50% of, publicly owned.
It is one of the best sites in the eastern United States for viewing the migration of the golden eagle. Pennsylvania's longest footpath, Mid State Trail, is atop or parallels Tussey Mountain for nearly its entire length. In Blair County, Tussey Mountain is sometimes called Huntingdon Mountain, as one reaches Huntingdon by crossing it going east. Conversely, in some parts of Huntingdon County it is called Williamsburg Mountain as one reaches Williamsburg by crossing it going west. Pennsylvania State Game Lands Number 118 is located along Tussey Mountain in Blair and Huntingdon Counties. Tussey Mountain is in the Valley province of the Appalachian Mountains. Brush Mountain, Mount Nittany and Bald Eagle Mountain ridges, are part of the same Paleozoic anticline rock formation consisting of older Ordovician Bald Eagle Formation Sandstone and Juniata Formation Shale, younger Silurian Tuscarora Formation Quartzite. During the Appalachian orogeny, these layers folded up with the underlying and overlying layers into the Nittany Arch.
The arch was a Himalayan scale mountain that towered above what is now Nittany Valley, where the oldest rock layers from deep within the eroded mountain are now exposed. The Tuscarora Quartzite is more resistant to erosion than Bald Eagle Sandstone, both are more durable than the Juniata Shale sandwiched in-between. Softer rock layers on either side of these eroded, leaving the double crested Tussey Mountain ridge, with a depression between the higher eastern and lower western ridge lines found on the northern section of the ridge. Since the rock layers on these ridges slope down to the east, the Tuscarora Formation underlies the higher crest, where it protected the east slope from erosion. Drainage from the upper slope has cut a series of small ravines in the lower ridge line, leaving a terraced lower slope in the Bald Eagle Formation. On the neighboring Bald Eagle and Dunning Mountain ridges to the west that formed the opposite side of the ancient mountain, the same three rock layers are exposed in reverse order, with the oldest rocks in-between, near the hinge of the fold.
Geology of Bedford County, Pennsylvania
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Juniata County, Pennsylvania
Juniata County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, the population was 24,636, its county seat is Mifflintown. The county was created on March 2, 1831, from part of Mifflin County and named for the Juniata River. Mountains in Juniata County include Shade Mountain. Agricultural land and forested land make up most of the county's area. Major rivers and creeks in the county include the Susquehanna River, the Juniata River, Tuscarora Creek, West Branch Mahantango Creek, it borders seven other counties. The county lies over 51 different soils. Juniata County has a low population density; the most population-dense parts of the county are the boroughs of Mifflin. The most common races in the county are black. Between 1940 and 2005, Juniata County's population grew faster than all but two other counties in Pennsylvania. Susquehanna Township had the fastest-growing population of any borough or township in the county during this time period. Livestock farming is the largest industry in the county, although there are other industries as well, including crop farming and tourism.
Manufacturing jobs are the most common jobs in the county. The county's median household income is $34,698 per year and its median family income is $39,757 per year; the poverty rate is 9.5% and the unemployment rate is 5.4%. The median house value in the county was $87,000 in 2000; the main roads in Juniata County are Pennsylvania Route 235, Pennsylvania Route 35, Pennsylvania Route 104, U. S. Route 11/U. S. Route 15, U. S. Route 22/U. S. Route 322, Pennsylvania Route 74, Pennsylvania Route 850, Pennsylvania Route 333. There are four boroughs and thirteen townships in Juniata County; the county is served by two school districts: the Juniata County School District and the Greenwood School District. There are five areas in Juniata County that are protected by the Central Pennsylvania Conservancy and 59 natural heritage sites in the county; the first European settlers arrived in Juniata County in the 1750s. The county has been part of Mifflin County and before that, part of Cumberland County. Juniata County was a part of Cumberland County and Mifflin County.
Juniata County was formed on March 1831, from parts of Mifflin County. It is named after the Juniata River; the word "juniata" itself is a Seneca word that means either "people of the standing stone" or "blue waters". The first boroughs in the county to be settled were Mifflintown and Thompsontown, which were settled in 1790. Port Royal and Mifflin were settled in 1848, respectively; the first of these borough to be incorporated was Mifflintown, on March 6, 1833. The last one to be incorporated was Thompsontown, on February 7, 1868. However, squatters arrived in the county and were removed from it earlier, by 1750 and one of the first warrants for land in the county was issued in 1755. Many of the earliest landowners in Delaware Township were speculators as opposed to settlers. There was an Indian raid in the county in 1755 and 1756, although Fort Bingham and Fort Peterson had been constructed; the Beale family was one of the earliest families to inhabit the county. More settlers arrived in the 1750s and 1760s and the first gristmill on the western side of the Juniata River was built in the county in 1767.
A public road was built in the county between Tuscarora Creek and a location near Shade Mountain in 1768. John Hamilton constructed a sawmill and gristmill on Cocalamus Creek in Delaware Township in 1776; the first known physician in the county, Dr. Ezra Doty, settled in Mifflintown in 1791; the first four townships in what would become Juniata County were formed on October 23, 1754. They were Lack Township, Aire Township, Fannett Township, Tyrone Township; these early townships had no formal boundaries. By 1913, the original townships had been divided into a total of 13 townships; the Pennsylvania Canal began serving Juniata County in 1826 and closed in 1900. The Pennsylvania Railroad reached the county in the late 1840s; the Tuscarora Valley Railroad was in the county until it closed in 1934. During Hurricane Agnes in 1972, a total of 6374 acres of Juniata County were flooded. 57 families were displaced during this flooding. Juniata County was the last county in Pennsylvania to develop a modern comprehensive plan.
It did, construct a comprehensive plan in 1974. In a 1997 survey, 66.8% of respondents found Juniata County a "very desirable" living place. In a similar survey in 2007, only 56.9% of respondents found the county a "very desirable" living place. Eight locations in Juniata County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, they were listed between 1972 and 1986. They include the Academia Pomeroy Covered Bridge, the Tuscarora Academy, the Book Site in Beale Township; the Dimmsville Covered Bridge in Greenwood Township had been designated as a historic place, but fell into disrepair and collapsed in April 2017. Eight additional places are eligible for a listing on the National Register of Historic Places. There are five Pennsylvania Museum Commission historical markers in Juniata County, they commemorate the Tuscarora Path, the Tuscarora Academy, Patterson's Fort, Fort Bingham, Juniata County itself. The Academia Pomeroy Covered Bridge was built in 1901, it is 18 feet wide and 278 feet long, making it one of the longest remaining covered bridges in Pennsylvania.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 394 square mi
Fulton County, Pennsylvania
Fulton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,845, making it the fourth-least populous county in Pennsylvania, its county seat is McConnellsburg. The county was created on April 19, 1850, from part of Bedford County and named for inventor Robert Fulton. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 438 square miles, of which 438 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. It is in the watershed of the Chesapeake Bay and, although most of the county is drained by the Potomac River, some northern and northeastern areas are drained by the Juniata River into the Susquehanna River. Huntingdon County Franklin County Washington County, Maryland Allegany County, Maryland Bedford County Fulton County is situated within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province, characterized by folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of early to middle Paleozoic age; the stratigraphic record of sedimentary rocks within the county spans from the Cambrian Shadygrove Formation outcropping just south of McConnelsburg to the Pennsylvanian Allegheny Group at the northernmost tip of the county.
No igneous or metamorphic rocks of any kind exist within Fulton county. Mountain ridges within Fulton County include Rays Hill, Town Hill, Sideling Hill, Scrub Ridge, Meadow Grounds Mountain, all these are held up by the Mississippian Pocono Formation, made of quartz sandstone and conglomerate. Rays Hill and Town Hill form a syncline, as do Scrub Ridge and Meadow Grounds Mountain, Sideling Hill itself is a syncline. Dickeys Mountain and Tuscarora Mountain form a syncline, but these ridges are held up by the Tuscarora Formation. Broad Top, located in the northeast corner of the county, is a plateau of flat-lying rocks that are stratigraphically higher, thus younger, than most of the other rocks within the county. Broad Top extends into Huntingdon County to Bedford County to the west. All of Fulton County lies far to the south of the glacial boundary, thus it was never glaciated. However, during the Pleistocene epoch, or "Ice Age," periglacial processes dominated. Most of the county was most a tundra during the Pleistocene.
The Broad Top Coal Field is located in Wells Township in the northwestern corner of the county. The field contains bituminous coal. There are a few abandoned mines in the area, although acid mine drainage is not as much of an environmental problem in Fulton County as it is in adjacent Bedford and Huntingdon Counties. Interesting geologic features within Fulton County include some of the following: The Meadow Grounds syncline west of McConnellsburg. A transpression structure is located on the east side of the Meadow Grounds syncline; this structure consists of a complex set of up-thrust fault blocks of Silurian and Devonian rocks bounded on all sides by north-trending faults. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,261 people, 5,660 households, 4,097 families residing in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile. There were 6,790 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.25% White, 0.66% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.04% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races.
0.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.8% were of German, 20.4% American, 8.3% Irish and 6.9% English ancestry. There were 5,660 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.60 males. Everyone who lives in Fulton County speaks English as their first language; the dominant form of speech in Fulton County is the Central Pennsylvania accent.
Fulton County has displayed strong tendencies to vote for Republican candidates in past elections. In the 2004 U. S. Presidential election, George W. Bush carried the county by a massive 52.6% margin over John Kerry, making it Bush's strongest county in the Democratic state, which Kerry won by a 2.5% margin over Bush. Furthermore, in 2008, John McCain carried Fulton by a 48.6% margin over Barack Obama, McCain's best showing in the Keystone State, which Obama won by a 10.3% margin over McCain. The county voted for Donald Trump in 2016 by the highest in the state; the county has voted for the Republican in every presidential election since 1964. In 2006, Rick Santorum and Lynn Swann received more than 60% of the Fulton County vote despite their defeats statewide. In the 2012 U. S. Presidential election, Fulton County was the only county in Pennsylvania where Barack Obama won less than 20% of the white vote. John Eichelberger, Pennsylvania's 21st Senatorial District Jesse Topper, Pennsylvania's 63rd Representative District John Joyce, Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district Pat Toomey, Republican Bob Casey Jr. Democrat Central Fulton School District Forbes Road Schoo
Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon
Selina, Countess of Huntingdon was an English religious leader who played a prominent part in the religious revival of the 18th century and the Methodist movement in England and Wales, has left an affiliated group of churches in England and in Sierra Leone in Africa. She played a major role in guiding early Methodism. Selina was the first female principal of a men's college in Wales, she financed the building of 64 chapels in England and Wales, wrote to George Whitefield and John Wesley, funded mission work in colonial America. She is remembered for her adversarial relationships with other Methodists. Selina Hastings was born Lady Selina Shirley, the second daughter of Washington Shirley, 2nd Earl Ferrers, Mary Levinge, at Staunton Harold Hall, a mansion near Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire, she married Theophilus Hastings, 9th Earl of Huntingdon, on 3 June 1728, went to live at Donington Hall, Leicestershire. Her husband died in 1746, she gave birth to seven children in the first ten years of the marriage, of whom four died at young ages, she suffered from poor health.
The family were interested in politics and the arts, commissioned portraits from fashionable artists of the day. On 21 April 1730 she became one of the twenty-one aristocratic women whose support Thomas Coram would enlist in his efforts to establish the Foundling Hospital. Securing the support of notably pious women such as Lady Huntingdon as signatories to the Ladies' Petition for the Establishment of the Foundling Hospital lent his endeavour not only respectability but cachet. Selina would provide the Coram with'financial support for fees, stamp duties, vellum and others expenses connected with the presentation of the Foundling Hospital Charter for the King's signature.'The petition was presented to King George II in 1735. In 1739, Lady Huntington joined the first Methodist society in London; some time after the death of her husband in 1746, she threw in her lot with John Wesley and George Whitefield in the work of the great revival. Whitefield became her personal chaplain, with his assistance, following problems put in her path by the Anglican clergy from whom she had preferred not to separate, she founded the "Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion", a Calvinistic movement within the Methodist church.
In the earlier part of her life Isaac Watts, Lady Abney, Philip Doddridge, Augustus Montague Toplady were among her friends. Lady Anne Erskine, was her closest friend and companion for many years in the latter part of Lady Huntingdon's life. In 1748, the Countess gave Whitefield a scarf as her chaplain, in that capacity he preached in one of her London houses, in Park Street, Westminster, to audiences that included Chesterfield and Bolingbroke, she held large dinner parties at which Whitefield preached to the gathered dignitaries after they had eaten. Moved to further the religious revival in a Calvinistic manner compatible with Whitefield's work, she was responsible for founding 64 chapels and contributed to the funding of others, insisting they should all subscribe to the doctrines of the Church of England and use only the Book of Common Prayer. Amongst these were chapels at Brighton, Worcester, Tunbridge Wells, several in Wales, a small number in London including founding one adjacent to her London home at Spa Fields, Clerkenwell/Finsbury.
She funded the independent Surrey Chapel of Rowland Hill. She appointed ministers to officiate in them, under the impression that as a peeress she had a right to employ as many chaplains as she pleased. In her chapel at Bath there was a curtained recess dubbed "Nicodemus' Corner" where bishops sat incognito to hear services. Following the expulsion of six Methodist students from St Edmund Hall, Oxford in 1768 the Countess founded a ministers' training college at Trefeca near Talgarth, in Mid Wales, not far from Brecon. George Whitefield preached at the opening ceremony; the college moved to Hertfordshire in 1792, was renamed Cheshunt College. It moved to Cambridge in 1906. Cheshunt College, Cambridge merged with Westminster College, the training college of the Presbyterian Church of England, in 1967. In 1842, the Presbyterian Church of Wales opened a college at Trefeca, a quarter of a mile south of the site of the Countess's college, it is said. A slave owner, having inherited overseas estates in Georgia and South Carolina in 1770 on the death of her chaplain, George Whitefield, the Countess promoted the writings and independence of enslaved Africans who espoused religious views compatible with her own including authors Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, Phillis Wheatley and Olaudah Equiano.
She used her influence in the world of the arts to secure publication for Wheatley's 1773 volume of poems, Poems on Various Subjects and Moral by Phillis Wheatley, Negro Servant to Mr. John Wheatley, of Boston, in New England, dedicated to the Countess. Despite acting as Wheatley's patron, the Countess' ill-health during her visit to London meant that t