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Hunza (princely state)

Hunza known as Kanjut, was a princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1892 to August 1947, for three months was unaligned, from November 1947 until 1974 was a princely state of Pakistan. Hunza covered territory now forming the northernmost part of Pakistan; the princely state bordered the Gilgit Agency to the south, the former princely state of Nagar to the east, China to the northeast and Afghanistan to the northwest. The state capital was Baltit; the princely state of Hunza now is the Aliabad tehsil of Hunza–Nagar District in Pakistan. Hunza was an independent principality for centuries, it was ruled by the Mirs of Hunza. The Hunzas were tributaries and allies to China, acknowledging China as suzerain since 1761. Hunza rulers claimed descent from Alexander the Great, viewed themselves and the Emperor of China as being the most important leaders in the world; when the Kanjutis raided mountainous places of Karakorum and Kunlun mountains, including Xaidulla, where some groups of the nomadic Kirghiz were the main inhabitants, they sold some Kirghiz slaves to the Chinese.

From 1847 the Mir of Hunza gave nominal allegiance to China. This resulted from assistance given by Mir Ghazanfur Khan to China in fighting against the Uyghur separatist Afaqi Khoja revolts in Yarkand, following which China granted Hunza a jagir in Yarkand and paid the Mir a subsidy; the last independent ruler, Mir Safdar Khan, who ruled from 1886, escaped to China after an invasion by the British. In the late 19th century Hunza became embroiled in the Great Game, the rivalry between Britain and Russia for control of the northern approaches to India; the British suspected Russian involvement "with the Rulers of the petty States on the northern boundary of Kashmir". Younghusband formed a low opinion of the ruler, Safdar Ali, describing him as "a cur at heart and unworthy of ruling so fine a race as the people of Hunza". In 1891 the British mounted the Hunza-Nagar Campaign and gained control of Hunza and the neighbouring valley of Nagar; the Mir, Safdar Khan, fled to China and his younger brother Mir Mohammad Nazim Khan was installed by the British as Mir in September 1892.

Hunza became a princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India, a status it retained until 1947. The Kuomintang Republic of China government engaged in secret negotiations with the Mir of Hunza over restoring the state's previous relations with China, amidst the partitioning of British India, with the Hunza state independent from India and Pakistan; the Kuomintang plotted to expand its influence into Kashmir, taking advantage of the weakness of the newly independent India. However, due to the war of 1947 that erupted between Pakistan and India over their dispute in Kashmir, the Mir of Hunza changed his mind and acceded to Pakistan, after a coup against India in Gilgit; the people of Hunza cultivated and grazed areas to the north, the Mir claimed those areas as part of Hunza's territories. Those areas included the Raskam Valley. According to Kanjuti traditions, as related by McMahon, the Mir’s eighth ancestor, Shah Salim Khan, pursued nomadic Khirghiz thieves to Tashkurghan and defeated them.

"To celebrate this victory, Shah Salim Khan erected a stone cairn at Dafdar and sent a trophy of a Khirghiz head to the Chinese with a message that Hunza territory extended as far as Dafdar". The Kanjutis were in effective possession of the Raskam and no question had been raised about it; the Mir’s claims went a good deal beyond a mere right of cultivation. He "asserts that forts were built by the Hunza people without any objection or interference from the Chinese at Dafdar, Ujadhbhai, Azar on the Yarkand River and at three or four other places in Raskam."McMahon was able to define the territorial limits of Kanjut. "The boundaries of Taghdumbash and Raskam, as claimed by the Kanjuts, are the following: the northern watershed of the Taghdumbash Pamir from the Wakhjir Pass through the Baiyik peak to Dafdar, thence across the river to the Zankan nullah. Thence it runs along the northern watershed of the Raskam valley to the junction of the Bazar Dara River and the Yarkand River. From thence southwards over the mountains to the Mustagh River leaving the Aghil Dewan or Aghil Pass within Hunza limits."McMahon’s information was corroborated in 1898 by Captain H. P. P. Deasy, who resigned his commission to devote himself to trans-Himalayan exploration.

An item of special interest was Deasy’s description of the limits of Raskam. Starting from Aghil Dewan or pass, in the Karakoram range, the dividing line ran north-east to Bazar Dara, where it met the Yarkand River, he found an outpost built of earth at Bazar Dara, surmounted by a Chinese flag (by 1898 the Chinese had intruded to the area south of the Kun Lun Mountains with a few unarmed Kirghiz in occupation. This was intended as a Chinese boundary marker. From there the line ran “along the northern watershed of the Raskam valley to Dafdar in the Taghdumbash Pamir, to the north of the mills at that place, thence to the Baiyik peak. Deasy came upon clear evidence of what could only have been Kanjuti occupation. South of Azgar “many ruins of houses, old irrigation channels and fields now no longer tilled, testify to Raskam having been inhabited and cultivated”. Anyone familiar with the care with which the

Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

The Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is a human rights proclamation issued by the United Nations General Assembly, outlining that body's views on racism. It was adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1963; the Declaration was an important precursor to the binding Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. The Declaration follows the structure of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with a preamble followed by eleven articles. Article 1 declares that discrimination on the basis of race, colour or ethnicity is "an offence to human dignity" and condemns it as a violation of the principles underlying the United Nations Charter, a violation of human rights and a threat to peace and security. Article 2 calls on states, institutions and individuals not to discriminate on the basis of race in human rights, it calls on states to end support for discrimination, to take affirmative action where necessary to correct it. Article 3 calls for particular efforts to end racial discrimination in civil rights, employment and calls for everyone to have free access to public places and services regardless of race.

Article 4 calls on states to review policies and repeal laws which discriminate on the basis of race. Article 5 calls for an end to racial apartheid. Article 6 calls for an end to racial discrimination in political rights, in particular the right to vote and stand for public office. Article 7 declares that everyone has the right to equality before the law and to equal justice before the law regardless of race, it calls for everyone to have an effective remedy, enforceable through the courts, for harm suffered through racial discrimination. Article 8 calls for education to promote racial understanding. Article 9 condemns propaganda and organisations based on the idea of racial supremacism, it calls for incitements to racial violence, or hate speech to be criminalised, for racist organisations to be outlawed. Article 10 calls on the United Nations to study the causes of racial discrimination so as to better combat it. Article 11 calls on every state to promote respect of fundamental human rights and the principles of this declaration and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

As a declaration rather than a treaty, the document is non-binding. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Anti-racism Text of the Declaration

UNIVAC II

The UNIVAC II was an improvement to the UNIVAC I that UNIVAC first delivered in 1958. The improvements included core memory of 2,000 to 10,000 words, UNISERVO II tape drives which could use either the old UNIVAC I metal tapes or the new PET tapes, some of the circuits were transistorized although it was still a vacuum tube computer, it was compatible with existing UNIVAC I programs for both code and data. It weighed about 16,000 pounds. Above figures do not include input-output devices. Decimal point occurs at the right of the sign digit. Addition and multiplication times given below include reading and executing the instruction; the time includes formation of the result in the accumulator. All instructions, however are performed at minimum latency rates. All users utilize a 24,000-digit magnetic-core storage unit; each of the planes is divided into two sections of 50 by 40 cores, making 2,000 cores in each section. Each section contains one core - for one binary position - of every one of the 2,000 words.

The same relative binary position of the other half-word is held in a core in the same physical location in the other section of the plane. Thus each plane contains two binary positions in each of 2,000 words. Physically the memory is a rectangular prism 7.25×10×12.75 inches. A memory location thus always implies two cores in all 42 planes; the two cores are determined by the intersection of one column of fifty possible columns with two rows of the 80 possible rows. One row is in each section of the plane. All 42 planes are used twice for each word. Associated with the memory is a half-word insertion register of 42-bit capacity; each bit is temporarily stored in a magnetic core of this register during a memory reference. Each of these register cores is associated with one of the 42 memory planes. To write into the memory, the first half of the word is placed in the insertion register and the address selector alerts the appropriate column and the proper row of the top section in each of the 42 planes.

At the appropriate instant the information is transferred from each core of the insertion register to the selected core in the corresponding plane of the memory. Forty-two pulse times the second half word has been placed in the insertion register and the process is repeated in the lower section of the memory. Read-outs are accomplished in a reverse manner; the speed of the memory has been adjusted to the speed of the arithmetic portion of the Univac which permits the transfer into or out of the memory of 12 characters in 40 microseconds. Word pulses flow from or to the high speed bus and the insertion register via a mechanism which converts from serial to parallel and vice versa, in 42-bit modules. Whenever feasible and other circuits appear in duplicate, their contents are continuously compared so that inconsistencies between the data in the identical units give an indication of faulty operation, stall the computer. At this point, the instruction may be repeated; the pulse code used in the Univac System is so designed that all characters contain an odd number of pulses.

At several strategic points within Univac, every character is checked for an odd number of pulses. An indication is given whenever an number of pulses is detected, the computer stalls. Other types of checking circuits cause Univac to stall. An error occurs. An odd-even error in the transfer rI to rM will result in a transfer stop and the location of the error will be indicated; the 720 character count will be displayed on a modulus 100 counter. In addition to the parity bits check on the high-speed bus, a second checker establishes that the invalid "all ones" character is not inadvertently created by a system fault. Input and output checkers detect the invalid "all ones" character. Built-in checking features are contained in the Card-to-Tape Converter, the Tape-to-Card Converter and the High Speed Printer. Univac is fused in order that faults may be isolated; each bay has its own set of fuses in addition to main fuses on all AC potentials. If a fuse blows, power is shut off and an indicator circuit shows in which bay the blown fuse is located, a "flag" indicates the specific fuse.

An automatic voltage monitoring system continuously monitors all critical DC potentials giving an alarm if any moves outside the prescribed limits. Much of the text in this article was extracted directly from Universal Automatic Computer Model II, in the public domain as an original work of the United States Federal Government, it was published as Report No. 1115, March 1961, by Martin H. Weik, published by Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Department of the Army Project No. 5803-06-002. List of vacuum tube computers UNIVAC II Universal Automatic Computer Model II