Hurdling is the act of running and jumping over an obstacle at speed. In the early 19th century, hurdlers ran at and jumped over each hurdle, landing on both feet and checking their forward motion. After experimenting with different step patterns the 3-step for high hurdles, 7-step for low hurdles, 15-step for intermediate hurdles was decided on. In the sport of athletics, hurdling forms the basis of a number track and field events which are a specialized form of obstacle racing. In these events, a series of barriers known as hurdles are set at measured heights and distances which each athlete must pass by running over. Failure to pass over, by passing under, or intentionally knocking over hurdles will result in disqualification. Accidental knocking over of hurdles is not cause for disqualification, but the hurdles are weighted to make doing so disadvantageous. Hurdle design improvements were made in 1935. With this shape, the athlete could hit the hurdle and it will tip down, clearing the athlete's path.
The most prominent hurdles events are 110 meters hurdles for men, 100 meters hurdles for women, 400 meters hurdles – these three distances are all contested at the Summer Olympics and the World Championships in Athletics. The two shorter distances take place on the straight of a running track, while the 400 m version covers one whole lap of a standard oval track. Events over shorter distances are commonly held at indoor track and field events, ranging from 50 meters hurdles upwards. Women competed in the 80 meters hurdles at the Olympics in the mid-20th century. Hurdles race are part of combined events contests, including the decathlon and heptathlon. In track races, hurdles are between 68–107 cm in height, vary depending on the age and gender of the hurdler. Events from 50 to 110 meters are technically known as high hurdles races, while longer competitions are low hurdles races; the track hurdles events are forms of sprinting competitions, although the 400 m version is less anaerobic in nature and demands athletic qualities similar to the 800 meters flat race.
A hurdling technique can be found in the steeplechase, although in this event athletes are permitted to step on the barrier to clear it. In cross country running athletes may hurdle over various natural obstacles, such as logs, mounds of earth and small streams – this represents the sporting origin of the modern events. Horse racing has its own variant of hurdle racing, with similar principles; the standard sprint or short hurdle race is 100 meters for women. The standard number of steps to the first hurdle should be 8; the standard long hurdle race is 400 meters for both women. Each of these races is run over ten hurdles and they are all Olympic events; the men's 200 meters low hurdles event was on the Olympic athletics programme for the 1900 and 1904 Summer Olympics. These low hurdles events were participated in the early part of the 20th century in North America. However, beyond these two Olympic outings, they never gained a consistent place at international competitions and became rare after the 1960s.
This 10-hurdle race continues to be run in places such as Norway. Other distances are run indoors but outdoors; the sprint hurdle race indoors is 60 meters for both men and women, although races 55 meters or 50 meters long are sometimes run in the United States. A 60-meter indoor race is run over 5 hurdles. A shorter race may have only 4 hurdles. Outdoors, a long hurdle race is sometimes shortened to 300 meters for younger participants, who run over 8 hurdles. For example, high school and middle school athletes in California and Pennsylvania run the 300 meter hurdles instead of running the 400 meter hurdles, like the majority of state competitors run today; the distance the hurdles are spaced is identical to the beginning of a standard 400 meter race which would have 10 hurdles. There are 200 meter races for middle school and younger divisions over 5 hurdles. There are five hurdle heights on most standard hurdles; the highest position is used for men's sprint hurdle races. The next highest, 39 inches is used by veteran men under age 50, younger boys.
The middle position of 36 inches, used for men's long hurdle races plus some youth and veteran age divisions. The next lower position, 33 inches is called the "women's high" used for women's short hurdle races; the lowest position, called the "low hurdle" 30 inches is used for women's long hurdles plus many youth and veteran races. Some races call for 68.6 centimetres for youth or veteran events. Hurdles that go to this position are notable by having a sixth position. In sprint hurdle races for men, regardless of the length of the race, the first hurdle is 13.72 m from the starting line and the distance between hurdles is 9.14 m. In sprint hurdle races for women, the first hurdle is 13 m from the starting line and the distance between hurdles is 8.5 m. In long hurdle events, whether for men or women, the first hurdle is 45 m from the starting line and the distance between hurdles is 35 m. Most races which are shorter than the standard distance are run over fewer hurdles but use the same distances from the starting line.
There are variations on hurdle height and spacing for the age gr
Papago Army Heliport is a United States Army Heliport at Papago Park Military Reservation home to the Home to the 2nd Battalion, 285th Aviation Regiment. The airport is 6 miles east of the central business district of Phoenix, a city in Maricopa County, United States and 3.5 miles northeast of Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. Although Most U. S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA, IATA, ICAO this airport is only assigned P18 by the FAA. Papago Army Heliport is at an elevation of 1,250 ft above mean sea level, it has one Asphalt Helipad: 12/30 measuring 600 ft × 400 ft Arizona Army National Guard at Papago Park 285th Attack Reconnaissance Battalion Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for P18 AirNav airport information for KP18 FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
The People's Government of Lithuania was a puppet cabinet installed by the Soviet Union in Lithuania after Lithuania's acceptance of the Soviet ultimatum of June 14, 1940. The formation of the cabinet was supervised by Vladimir Dekanozov, deputy of Vyacheslav Molotov and a close associate of Lavrentiy Beria, who selected Justas Paleckis as the Prime Minister and acting President; the government was formed on June 17 and, together with the People's Seimas, transitioned independent Lithuania to a socialist republic and the 14th republic of the Soviet Union thus legitimizing the Soviet occupation of Lithuania. The People's Government was replaced by the Council of People's Commissars of the Lithuanian SSR on August 25. Similar transitional People's Governments were formed in Estonia; the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence. The Baltic states became part of the Russian sphere. Instead of outright military invasion, the Soviet Union followed semi-legal procedures to legitimize its occupation of Lithuania.
The plan of action was developed by the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in September–October 1939 when the Soviet Union annexed territories of Poland. The first step was the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty of October 1939: Lithuania agreed to station up to 20,000 Soviet troops in exchange for a portion of the Vilnius Region. Next was the Soviet ultimatum of June 14, 1940 that demanded the formation of a new government more capable of adhering to the Mutual Assistance Pact and to allow a "sufficiently large" number of Soviet troops to enter Lithuanian territory; the Lithuanian government debated the response to the ultimatum on the night of June 13–14 and decided to accept it unconditionally because effective military resistance against a much larger Red Army was impossible. During the debate, Prime Minister Antanas Merkys resigned, making way for General Stasys Raštikis, given tacit approval by Vyacheslav Molotov. However, Raštikis was not approved by Merkys continued as acting Prime Minister.
Vladimir Dekanozov was dispatched from Moscow to oversee formation of an acceptable government. President Antanas Smetona, fearing Soviet persecutions, fled to Nazi Germany and Switzerland. Before leaving, he transferred presidential duties to Merkys, as per the Constitution. A day however, Merkys announced on national radio that he had deposed Smetona and was now president in his own right. On the morning of June 16, the Lithuanian government decided that Smetona's departure was in effect a resignation and granted full presidential powers to Merkys, while Kazys Bizauskas became acting Prime Minister. At the same time, Minister of Defence Kazys Musteikis, who fled to Germany with Smetona, was replaced by Vincas Vitkauskas, it appears that the Lithuanians were acting on their own accord and that Dekanozov was not involved in making this transition. On June 17, Merkys appointed Justas Paleckis as the new Prime Minister and confirmed a new cabinet, which became known as the People's Government. Merkys resigned.
Paleckis ascended to the presidency, appointed writer Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius as Prime Minister. Scholars continue to debate. While care was given to observe constitutional formalities as much as possible, the changes were made under duress and under the influence of a foreign occupying power. After Lithuania regained independence in 1990, it took the line that since Smetona never resigned and Paleckis had no claim to the presidency, therefore all acts leading up to the Soviet takeover were void. In the first days of occupation, Dekanozov focused the public's attention on the "cowardly" flight of Smetona and portrayed the changes in Lithuania as the destruction of his authoritarian regime; the public was told that the Soviets would respect Lithuanian independence. Lithuanian activists, including Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius, claimed that they believed the Soviets and had hopes to restore democratic Lithuania as it existed prior to the 1926 coup. In the meantime, Dekanozov worked to recruit a sympathetic but non-communist government that could be manipulated into implementing various sovietization policies.
Indeed, none of the first ministers of the People's Government were communists. The fact that the Soviets did not install a communist government calmed people's nerves. In addition, the Communist Party of Lithuania, outlawed and persecuted in independent Lithuania, was small and not yet ready for the job of running a government. Moscow considered it unreliable due to suspected influence of Trotskyism among its ranks. For Prime Minister, Dekanozov selected a known leftist journalist and fellow traveler Justas Paleckis. In his memoirs, Paleckis claimed that the offer came as a complete surprise. Krėvė-Mickevičius, a writer, was selected for the second most important post, he gave the new government a desired public image. He became the most controversial figure of the People's Government, he was the first to voice his objections to incorporation of Lithuania into the Soviet Union. On July 1, after an in-person meeting with Molotov, Krėvė-Mickevičius submitted his resignation, but Paleckis refused it.
He took an extended vacation and was replaced by communist Mečislovas Gedvilas. Ernestas Galvanauskas remained as Minister of Finance. Having served as Prime Minister twice, Galvanauskas was an established political leader and opponent of Smetona's regime. General Vincas Vitkauskas was a veteran of the Lithuanian Wars of