Hurling is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic Irish origin. The game has prehistoric origins, has been played for 4,000 years. One of Ireland's native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, much terminology. There is a similar game for women called camogie, it shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, played predominantly in Scotland. The objective of the game is for players to use a wooden stick called a hurl to hit a small ball called a sliotar between the opponents' goalposts either over the crossbar for one point, or under the crossbar into a net guarded by a goalkeeper for one goal, equivalent to three points; the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurl. It slapped with an open hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, the ball can only be handled twice while in his possession.

Provided that a player has at least one foot on the ground, a player may make a shoulder to shoulder charge on an opponent:, in possession of the ball, playing the ball when both players are moving in the direction of the ball to play itNo protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, as of 2010; the game has been described as "a bastion of humility", with player names absent from jerseys and a player's number decided by his position on the field. Hurling is administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association, it is played throughout the world, is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and South Korea. In many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life, it has featured in art forms such as film and literature. The final of the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship was listed in second place by CNN in its "10 sporting events you have to see live", after the Olympic Games and ahead of both the FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Football Championship.

After covering the 1959 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final between Kilkenny and Waterford for BBC Television, English commentator Kenneth Wolstenholme was moved to describe hurling as his second favourite sport in the world after his first love, football. Alex Ferguson used footage of an All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship final in an attempt to motivate his players during his time as manager of Premier League soccer outfit Manchester United. In 2007, Forbes magazine described the media attention and population multiplication of Thurles town ahead of one of the game's annual provincial hurling finals as being "the rough equivalent of 30 million Americans watching a regional lacrosse game". UNESCO lists Hurling as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage. A team comprises 15 players, or "hurlers" The hurley is 24 to 36 inches in length The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre and a leather cover. A ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball, hit under the bar is called a goal and is worth three points.

As of 2010, all players must wear helmets A hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, connected 2.5 m above the ground by a crossbar. A net extending behind the goal is attached to lower goal posts; the same pitch is used for Gaelic football. Lines are marked at distances of 21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams. Teams consist of fifteen players: a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards; the panel is made up of 24–30 players and five substitutions are allowed per game. An exception can now be made in the case of a blood substitute being necessary. From 1 January 2010, the wearing of helmets with faceguards became compulsory for hurlers at all levels; this saw senior players follow the regulations introduced in 2009 at minor and under 21 grades.

The GAA hopes to reduce the number of injuries by introducing the compulsory wearing of helmets with full faceguards, both in training and matches. Hurlers of all ages, including those at nursery clubs when holding a hurley in their hand, must wear a helmet and faceguard at all times. Match officials will be obliged to stop play if any player at any level appears on the field of play without the necessary standard of equipment. Senior inter-county matches last 70 minutes. All other matches last 60 minutes. For teams under-13 and lower, games may be shortened to 50 minutes. Timekeeping is at t

Myos Hormos

Myos Hormos was a Red Sea port constructed by the Ptolemies around the 3rd century BC. Following excavations carried out by David Peacock and Lucy Blue of the University of Southampton, it is thought to have been located on the present-day site of Quseir al-Quadim, eight kilometres north of the modern town of Al-Qusayr in Egypt. Myos Hormos, after the Ptolemies, was with Berenice one of the two main ports in Roman Egypt for trade with India and China; some of its main destinations were the Indus delta and the Kathiawar peninsula in India. The coastal trade from Myos Hormos and Berenice along the coast of the Indian Ocean is described in the anonymous 1st century AD handbook Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. "first comes Egypt's port of Myos Hormos, beyond it, after a sail of 1800 stades to the right, Berenice. The ports of both are bays on the Red Sea on the edge of Egypt." It was one of the main trading centers on the Red Sea. According to Strabo, by the time of Augustus, up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India: "At any rate, when Gallus was prefect of Egypt, I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Ethiopia, I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to India, whereas under the Ptolemies, only a few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise."

The port of Myos Hormos was connected to the Nile valley and Memphis by a Roman road, built in the 1st century. After the 4th century the port was abandoned, because of the Roman Empire crisis and the end of the trade between Rome and India. Only in the 17th century the port started to get again some importance because of holy travel from Cairo to Mecca; the city of old Qusair is the actual Myos Hormos. G. W. B. Huntingford; the Ethnology and History of the Area Covered by the Periplus in Huntingford ed. "Periplus of the Erythraean Sea". Detailed Map of Roman Egypt showing Myos Hormos El Qoseir Berenice Troglodytica Roman Egypt Roman trade with India

Pat Tyrance

Patrick Henry Tyrance Jr. is an American orthopaedic surgeon and a former Academic All American linebacker who played for the University of Nebraska Cornhuskers football team. He got picked by the Los Angeles Rams in the 1991 NFL draft and earned his MD from Harvard Medical School in 1997, he is considered as one of the most academically decorated athletes in Nebraska football history. Tyrance was born to Patrick and Geraldine Tyrance on July 30, 1968 in Baltimore, Md Tyrance graduated from Millard North High School in Omaha, Nebraska after which he attended the University of Nebraska–Lincoln from 1986 to 1990 where he studied pre-med and achieved a grade point average of 3.46. After finishing college, he went on to obtain two post-graduate degrees from Harvard, he obtained his MD from Harvard Medical School in 1997 and the Master of Public Policy in Healthcare Policy from Harvard Kennedy School in the same year. He excelled at football at both at the college level, he finished his senior in year in Nebraska with a total of 208 stops, making him the 12th highest tackler in Nebraska's footballing history.

He was the 201st pick in the 1991 NFL Draft, being picked in the eighth round by the Los Angeles Rams, though he chose to pursue further studies. He interned at the Massachusetts General Hospital after his graduation. From 1999 to 2002, he was a member of the core curriculum committee at Harvard Orthopedics and organized a two-year curriculum for orthopedic residents in diagnosis and management of spine pathology. In 2001, he spent a month in Pristhina, where he performed nine operations, including the first total hip arthroplasty in Kosovo, along with a team of three other surgeons, he was recognized as the outstanding resident teacher by Harvard Medical School students in 2001. After serving his residency at Massachusetts General Hospital, Tyrance worked as an orthopedic surgeon in the Omaha area until 2016, he worked as team physician at Millard North High School for close to 10 years. In 2015, he earned his MBA from The George Washington University School of Business, he works as an orthopedic surgeon in Florida and engages in motivational speaking and entrepreneurship.

Tyrance is the director of public policy and advocacy at the LES Society and is a partner and advisor at Park Technologies, Inc. He serves as a consultant/advisor for business practices and AMPT Health, among others. CoSIDA Academic All-America Hall of Fame Inductee Nebraska Football Hall of Fame Inductee NCAA Today's Top Six Award Nebraska Co-Captain Two-Time All-Big Eight National Football Foundation Scholar-Athlete Statistics at