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Hurrians

The Hurrians were a people of the Bronze Age Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language lived in Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamia; the largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni, the Mitanni being Indo-Iranian speakers who formed a ruling class over the Hurrians. The population of the Indo-European-speaking Hittite Empire in Anatolia included a large population of Hurrians, there is significant Hurrian influence in Hittite mythology. By the Early Iron Age, the Hurrians had been assimilated with other peoples, their remnants were subdued by a related people. The present-day Armenians are an amalgam of the Indo-European groups with the Hurrians and Urartians; the Hurrian language is related to the Urartian language, the language of the ancient kingdom of Urartu. Together they form the Hurro-Urartian language family; the external connections of the Hurro-Urartian languages are disputed. There exist various proposals for a genetic relationship to other language families, but none of these are accepted.

From the 21st century BCE to the late 18th century BCE, Assyria controlled colonies in Anatolia, the Hurrians, like the Hattians or Lullubis, adopted the Assyrian Akkadian cuneiform script for their own language about 2000 BCE. Texts in the Hurrian language in cuneiform have been found at Hattusa, Ugarit, as well as in one of the longest of the Amarna letters, written by King Tushratta of Mitanni to Pharaoh Amenhotep III, it was the only long Hurrian text known until a multi-tablet collection of literature in Hurrian with a Hittite translation was discovered at Hattusa in 1983. Hurrian names occur sporadically in northwestern Mesopotamia and the area of Kirkuk in modern Iraq by the Middle Bronze Age, their presence was attested at Nuzi and other sites. They infiltrated and occupied a broad arc of fertile farmland stretching from the Khabur River valley in the west to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in the east. I. J. Gelb and E. A. Speiser believed East Semitic speaking Assyrians/Subarians had been the linguistic and ethnic substratum of northern Mesopotamia since earliest times, while Hurrians were late arrivals.

However, Subarians are now believed to have been a Hurrian, or at least people. The Khabur River valley became the heart of the Hurrian lands for a millennium; the first known Hurrian kingdom emerged around the city of Urkesh during the third millennium BCE. There is evidence that they were allied with the east Semitic Akkadian Empire of Mesopotamia, indicating they had a firm hold on the area by the reign of Naram-Sin of Akkad; this region hosted other rich cultures. The city-state of Urkesh had some powerful neighbors. At some point in the early second millennium BCE, the Northwest Semitic speaking Amorite kingdom of Mari to the south subdued Urkesh and made it a vassal state. In the continuous power struggles over Mesopotamia, another Amorite dynasty had usurped the throne of the Old Assyrian Empire, which had controlled colonies in Hurrian and Hittite regions of eastern Anatolia since the 21st century BCE; the Assyrians made themselves masters over Mari and much of north east Amurru in the late 19th and early 18th centuries BCE.

Shubat-Enlil, was made the capital of this Old Assyrian empire by Shamshi Adad I at the expense of the earlier capital of Assur. The Hurrians migrated further west in this period. By 1725 BCE they are found in parts of northern Syria, such as Alalakh; the mixed Amorite–Hurrian kingdom of Yamhad is recorded as struggling for this area with the early Hittite king Hattusilis I around 1600 BCE. Hurrians settled in the coastal region of Adaniya in the country of Kizzuwatna, southern Anatolia. Yamhad weakened vis-a-vis the powerful Hittites, but this opened Anatolia for Hurrian cultural influences; the Hittites were influenced by both the Hurrian and Hattian cultures over the course of several centuries. The Indo-European Hittites continued expanding south after the defeat of Yamhad; the army of the Hittite king Mursili I sacked the city. The destruction of the Babylonian kingdom, the presence of unambitious or isolationist kings in Assyria, as well as the destruction of the kingdom of Yamhad, helped the rise of another Hurrian dynasty.

The first ruler was a legendary king called Kirta who founded the kingdom of Mitanni around 1500 BCE. Mitanni grew from the region around the Khabur valley and was the most powerful kingdom of the Near East in c. 1475–1365 BCE, after which it was eclipsed and destroyed by the Middle Assyrian Empire. Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. Another Hurrian kingdom benefited from the demise of Babylonian power in the sixteenth century BCE. Hurrians had inhabited the region northeast around the modern Kirkuk; this was the kingdom of Arrapha. Excavations at Yorgan Tepe, ancient Nuzi, proved this to be one of the most important sites for our knowledge about the Hurrians. Hurrian kings such as Ithi-Teshup and Ithiya ruled over Arrapha, yet by the mid-fifteenth century BCE they had become vassals of the Great King of Mitanni.

The kingdom of Arrapha itself was dest

Egg (band)

See The Egg for the electronic dance music band formed in the 1990s. Egg were an English progressive rock band formed in July 1968; the founder members of Egg were Dave Stewart who played organ, Mont Campbell on bass and vocals, drummer Clive Brooks. The band was formed of former members of Uriel, the other member of, guitarist Steve Hillage. After Hillage left Uriel in August 1968, the other three continued as a trio. Having signed a deal with the Middle Earth club's management branch, they were advised to change their name to Egg because Uriel "sounded too much like'urinal'". In mid-1969 the band signed a deal with Decca's'progressive' music subsidiary Deram and released their debut album in March 1970. While not a commercial success, it was received well enough for the label to finance the recording of a follow-up, but when the time came to release it, the label shelved it until producer Neil Slaven's lobbying resulted in The Polite Force coming out in February 1971. Now signed to The Groundhogs' management company, Egg finished the year with an increased touring schedule, but in spite of accumulating enough material for a third album, they were unable to secure another record deal, split up in July 1972.

In 1974 Stewart, who had signed with Virgin as a member of Hatfield and the North, got a deal for Egg to record their unreleased material, which resulted in the farewell album The Civil Surface. In December 2007, a selection of live recordings from between 1969 and 1972, entitled The Metronomical Society, was released. Egg are regarded as part of the Canterbury scene, a loose movement of progressive and psychedelic musicians, based on Stewart's membership of Hatfield and the North and National Health, although the band have no geographical connection to Canterbury, their music can be described as progressive rock with elements of chamber rock. They employed unusual time signatures, as reflected in songs like "Seven Is A Jolly Good Time", they brought a humorous element to their music. Mont Campbell, the band's main composer, acknowledged the strong influence of Igor Stravinsky, which resulted in multi-part suites such as the imaginatively-titled "Symphony n°2" and "Long Piece n°3". In mid-1969, to capitalise on the psychedelic rock market, Stewart and Brooks contributed to the one-off studio project Arzachel, named after a moon crater.

Featured in that project was Steve Hillage, who had like the others been a member of the pre-Egg band Uriel. Egg were by that time under contract to Decca, therefore all were credited under pseudonyms. Available is a 26,000-word, 60-page companion booklet Copious Notes. Written by Dave Stewart, Mont Campbell and their close friend Antony Vinall, it tells the inside story of Uriel, Egg and the Ottawa Company, from the formation of Uriel in early 1968 to the making of Egg's final album The Civil Surface in 1974; the text includes personal memoirs, short stories, random recollections, social observation, period details, musical analysis and song lyrics, as well as a priceless collection of archive photos taken by Terry Yetton and the musicians. "Seven Is a Jolly Good Time" / "You Are All Princes" 2015: Romantic Warriors III: Canterbury Tales List of rock instrumentals Calyx Egg page Egg Archive

Pit of Darkness

Pit of Darkness is a 1961 British thriller film, directed by Lance Comfort and starring William Franklyn and Moira Redmond. The film is an amnesia thriller dealing with a man's attempts to piece together a sequence of strange events in which he seems to have been involved during the time of which he has no memory, based on the novel To Dusty Death by Hugh McCutcheon. Safe-designer Richard Logan comes to consciousness on a patch of waste ground with no recollection of how he came to be there. Assuming he must have been attacked and hit over the head, but feeling no apparent ill-effects, he returns home to wife Julie to apologise for being late and tell his story, he is astonished to learn from Julie that he has been missing not for a few hours, but for three weeks. Furthermore, a troubling series of events has occurred during his absence, which appear to point to his involvement in criminal activity. A safe which he installed in a large house has been robbed and its contents stolen, with no explanation as to how its foolproof security mechanisms were so overridden.

In an attempt to trace her missing husband, Julie has employed a private detective, who discovered evidence implicating Richard of involvement with another woman, more the private detective has been found murdered. Richard enlists Julie's help in trying to recover his memory of the peculiar goings-on of which he has no recollection, he soon becomes aware. Meanwhile, in his confused mental state he is tantalised by random and trivial things – a snatch of a popular song or a conversational nuance – which seem to strike a chord with him, for reasons for which he cannot account, he starts to experience flashbacks so momentary and fleeting that they are gone before his conscious mind can seize them. He begins to question the validity of the assumptions under which he is working, wondering if he may indeed have been involved in criminal activity which his mind has blocked out as a defence mechanism, begins to doubt Julie's integrity, questioning whether she may have far more knowledge of, personal involvement in, what has been happening than she is letting on.

Matters reach a head when he is lured to a country house and confronts a group of men in possession of a bomb. The resulting intrigue appears to jolt his memory back into place, he believes he has found the explanation for what has been going on. William Franklyn as Richard Logan Moira Redmond as Julie Logan Leonard Sachs as Clifton Conrad Bruno Barnabe as Maxie Nigel Green as Jonathan Anthony Booth as Ted Melia Nanette Newman as Mary Bruce Beeby as Peter Mayhew Humphrey Lestocq as Bill Underwood Jacqueline Jones as Mavis Michael Balfour as Fisher Pit of Darkness on IMDb Pit of Darkness at BFI Film & TV Database