Hurricane Floyd was a powerful Cape Verde hurricane which struck the Bahamas and the east coast of the United States. It was the sixth named storm, fourth hurricane, third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the fourth largest evacuation in US history when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached. The hurricane formed off the coast of Africa and lasted from September 7 to 19, becoming extratropical after September 17, peaked in strength as a strong Category 4 hurricane—just 2 mph short of the highest possible rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, it was among the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its strength recorded, in terms of gale-force diameter. Floyd turned away. Instead, Floyd struck the Bahamas at peak strength, it moved parallel to the East Coast of the United States, causing massive evacuations and costly preparations from Florida through the Mid-Atlantic states. The storm weakened however, before striking the Cape Fear region, North Carolina as a strong Category 2 hurricane, caused further damage as it traveled up the Mid-Atlantic region and into New England.
The hurricane produced torrential rainfall in Eastern North Carolina, adding more rain to an area hit by Hurricane Dennis just weeks earlier. The rains caused widespread flooding over a period of several weeks. In total, Floyd was responsible for $6.5 billion in damage. Due to the destruction, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Floyd. Floyd originated from a tropical wave that exited the west coast of Africa on September 2; the wave moved westward, presenting a general curvature in its convection, or thunderstorms, but little organization at first. By September 5, a center of circulation was evident within the convective system. Over the next day, the thunderstorms increased in intensity. Aided by favorable outflow, the system organized further into Tropical Depression Eight late on September 7, located about 1,000 mi east of the Lesser Antilles. With a strong ridge of high pressure to its north, the nascent tropical depression moved to the west-northwest, where environmental conditions favored continued strengthening, including progressively warmer water temperatures.
On issuing its first advisory, the National Hurricane Center anticipated that the depression would intensify into a hurricane within three days, a forecast that proved accurate. On its second advisory, NHC forecaster Lixion Avila stated that the depression had "all the ingredients...that we know of...to become a major hurricane eventually."Early on September 8, the depression became sufficiently well-organized for the NHC to upgrade it to Tropical Storm Floyd. The storm had a large circulation, but Floyd lacked a well-defined inner core, which resulted in only slow strengthening; the first Hurricane Hunters mission occurred on September 9. On September 10, Floyd intensified into a hurricane about 230 mi east-northeast of the Lesser Antilles. Around that time, the track shifted more to the northwest, steered by a tropical upper tropospheric trough north of Puerto Rico. An eye developed in the center of the hurricane. On September 11, Hurricane Floyd moved through the upper-level trough, which, in conjunction with an anticyclone over the eastern Caribbean, disrupted the outflow and caused the winds to weaken briefly.
The hurricane re-intensified on September 12 as its track shifted more to the west, steered by a ridge to the north. That day, the NHC upgraded a Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Over a 24-hour period from September 12–13, Hurricane Floyd intensified, aided by warm waters east of The Bahamas. During that time, the maximum sustained winds increased from 110 to 155 mph, making Floyd a strong Category 4 hurricane; this was based a 90% reduction of an observation by the Hurricane Hunters, which recorded flight-level winds of 171 mph. Around the same time, the pressure dropped to 921 mb, the third-lowest pressure for a hurricane not to reach Category 5 intensity in the Atlantic Ocean – only hurricanes Gloria and Opal had lower pressures than Floyd. Round this time, tropical cyclone forecast models suggested an eventual landfall in the Southeastern United States from Palm Beach, Florida to South Carolina. At its peak, tropical storm-force winds spanned a diameter of 580 mi, making Floyd one of the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its intensity recorded.
For about 12 hours, Hurricane Floyd remained just below Category 5 status while crossing The Bahamas. Late on September 13, the eye of the hurricane passed just north of San Cat Islands. On the next day, the hurricane made landfalls on Abaco islands. During this time, Floyd underwent an eyewall replacement cycle, in which an outer eyewall developed, causing the original eye to dissipate near Eleuthera; this caused a temporary drop in sustained winds to Category 3 status, only for Floyd to restrengthen to a Category 4 on September 15. While approaching the southeastern United States, a strong mid- to upper-level trough eroded the western portion of the high-pressure ridge, steering Floyd for several days; the break in the ridge caused Floyd to turn to the northwest. After the hurricane completed its eyewall replacement cycle, Floyd had a large 57 mi eye; the large storm weak
High-pressure electrolysis is the electrolysis of water by decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas due to the passing of an electric current through the water. The difference with a standard proton exchange membrane electrolyzer is the compressed hydrogen output around 12–20 megapascals at 70 °C. By pressurising the hydrogen in the electrolyser the need for an external hydrogen compressor is eliminated, the average energy consumption for internal differential pressure compression is around 3%; as the required compression power for water is less than that for hydrogen-gas the water is pumped up to a high-pressure, in the other approach differential pressure is used. There is an importance for the electrolyser stacks to be able to accept a fluctuating electrical input, such as that found with renewable energy; this enables the ability to help with grid balancing and energy storage. Ultrahigh-pressure electrolysis is high-pressure electrolysis operating at 34–69 megapascals. At ultra-high pressures the water solubility and cross-permeation across the membrane of H2 and O2 is affecting hydrogen purity, modified PEMs are used to reduce cross-permeation in combination with catalytic H2/O2 recombiners to maintain H2 levels in O2 and O2 levels in H2 at values compatible with hydrogen safety requirements.
The US DOE believes that high-pressure electrolysis, supported by ongoing research and development, will contribute to the enabling and acceptance of technologies where hydrogen is the energy carrier between renewable energy resources and clean energy consumers. High-pressure electrolysis is being investigated by the DOE for efficient production of hydrogen from water; the target total in 2005 is $4.75 per gge H2 at an efficiency of 64%. The total goal for the DOE in 2010 is $2.85 per gge H2 at an efficiency of 75%. As of 2005 the DOE provided a total of $1,563,882 worth of funding for research. Mitsubishi is pursuing such technology with its High-pressure hydrogen energy generator project; the Forschungszentrum Jülich, in Jülich Germany is researching the cost reduction of components used in high-pressure PEM electrolysis in the EKOLYSER project. The primary goal of this research is to improve performance and gas purity, reduce cost and volume of expensive materials and reach the alternative energy targets set forth by the German government for 2050 in the Energy Concept published in 2010.
Regenerative fuel cell Electrochemical engineering High-temperature electrolysis High pressure electrolyzer EC-supported STREP program on high pressure PEM water electrolysis
The second season of the Norwegian reality television series The Amazing Race Norge featured 10 teams of two with a pre-existing relationship in a race across the world to win NOK 500,000 and a Subaru Forester for each team member for a total worth of NOK 1,000,000. The show premiered 6 March 2013 at 20:00; the finale aired on 22 May with brothers Omar & Bilal Ishqair winning the second season of The Amazing Race Norge. A special highlights episode aired on 29 May. On 18 August, it was confirmed. In this season, if there are two or more teams arriving at the pit stop at the same time, though they were not given a tied position, all those teams will depart together at the same time in the next leg, unlike the American version; this case occurred in Leg 2, where the 2nd, 3rd and 4th teams departing at the same time, as well as the 7th and 8th teams. The show began casting on 1 July. With participants required to be at least 18 years old to join. Applications closed on 15 August and the cast was revealed on 20 November 2012.
The Race's sponsors include Nordea, Hotels.com, Elproffen and Subaru. The following teams participated with their relationships at the time of filming. Note that this table is not reflective of all content broadcast on television due to inclusion or exclusion of some data. Placements are listed in finishing order: A red team placement indicates that the team was eliminated. An underlined blue team placement indicates that the team came in last on a non-elimination leg and were penalised with a Handicap in the next leg. A brown ⊃ means. An orange + indicates that there was an Intersection in that leg of the Race, while an orange − indicates which team lost the Intersection task and received a penalty. An underlined leg number indicates that there was no mandatory rest period at the Pit Stop and all teams were ordered to continue racing, except for the last team to arrive, eliminated; the first place team was still awarded a prize for that leg. Individual prizes were awarded to the first team to complete certain legs.
Leg 5 – 15,000 kr gift certificate from Hotels.com Leg 6 – 15,000 kr gift certificate from Hotels.com Leg 9 – 10,000 kr gift certificate from Hotels.com Leg 10 – 10,000 kr gift certificate from Hotels.com Leg 12 – 500,000 kr from Nordea and a Subaru Forester for each team member. Airdate: 6 March 2013 Bygdøy, Norway, Oslo Oslo Oslo Oslo Oslo to Cape Town, South Africa Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town In the first Roadblock of the Race, one team member had to use a set of keys that would open a room at the Castle of Good Hope where they found the next clue. Additional tasksAt the Fram Museum, teams had to search for one of ten clues on the Fram, used by the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen. On Karl Johans street, teams had to find a man named Jan Egil and buy a magazine from him which would lead them to their next destination: the Nobel Peace Center. At Oslo Airport, teams had to search for a board where they had to put their picture on it in order of arrival before they get their tickets.
At Cape Town International Airport, teams had to search for a man named Shiraz, who would give them their next clue depending on the order that they arrived at Gardermoen. Each team left five minutes after the one before them. At Nobel Square teams had to take a 6 question quiz about South African Nobel Prize winners; when they had the answers the first letters would make the word UBUNTU, an ethical worldview from Africa that emphasizes community and generosity. When they got the right word, they could say it in exchange for their next clue. At Langa Township, teams had to learn a local dance called the "gumboot dance"; when the instructor was happy with their performance they would receive the next clue. In Heritage Square, teams had to buy a postcard with a note from the host; the note told them to go to the place on the postcard: the Castle of Good Hope. Airdate: 13 March 2013 Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town Cape Town In this leg's Roadblock, one team member had to recreate three beach houses using wooden puzzle pieces.
They could only construct the beach house matching the three numbers given to them. In this leg's Detour, teams had to choose between Pelle. In Telle, teams had to count two different kinds of fish submerged in a container full of ice. Once they had the right number, they would be given their next clue. In Pelle, teams had to string fishes up for sale. Additional tasksAt the Table Mountain, teams had to find and photograph four different kinds of flowers using a tablet. At Kalk Beach Harbour, teams had to search for Ferial. At Masiphumele, teams had to find the Masiphumele Cellphone & Take-away store. Once there, teams had to deliver the sheep's head they had brought with them throughout the leg and eat one cooked head each before being given their next clue. At Chapman's Peak, teams had to fire a cannon before checking into the Pit Stop. Additional noteTeams began the leg at the top of Table Mountain. Airdate: 20 March 2013 Cape Town Cape Town to Windhoek, Namibia Hoffnung (Tau
Bloomsburg known as the Watkins House, is a historic plantation estate located at 9000 Philpott Road southwest of South Boston, Halifax County, Virginia. The main house was completed about 1839, after seven years of construction, by Alexander Watkins, a local farmer and businessman, it is a two-story brick structure, with a Greek temple portico that appears to be a 20th-century addition, but is by lore similar to an original one. The house is one of Halifax County's early Greek Revival plantation houses; the property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017. National Register of Historic Places listings in Halifax County, Virginia
Robert Sidney, 1st Earl of Leicester, second son of Sir Henry Sidney, was a statesman of Elizabethan and Jacobean England. He was a patron of the arts and an interesting poet, his mother, Mary Sidney née Dudley, was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I and a sister of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, an advisor and favourite of the Queen. He was educated at Shrewsbury and Christ Church, afterwards travelling on the Continent for some years between 1578 and 1583. In 1585 he was elected member of parliament for Glamorganshire, he was present at the Battle of Zutphen where Sir Philip Sidney was mortally wounded, remained with his brother. After visiting Scotland on a diplomatic mission in 1588, France on a similar errand in 1593, he returned to the Netherlands in 1606, where he rendered distinguished service in the war for the next two years, he had been appointed governor of the cautionary town of Flushing in 1588, he spent much time there. In 1595 he sent his business manager Rowland Whyte to court to lobby for resources for Flushing, to send him information about events at court including the latest political gossip.
Whyte's letters provide a major resource for historians of the period. Whyte himself complains about the indecipherable handwriting of his employer's replies. In 1603, on the accession of James I, he returned to England. James raised him at once to the peerage as Baron Sidney of Penshurst, he was appointed chamberlain to the queen consort, Anne of Denmark. In 1605 he was created Viscount Lisle, he wrote to William Trumbull in September 1614 with news of the queen's illness, she was "much troubled with paines in her legs and feet". In May 1618 he wrote to Sir Thomas Lake, the king's secretary with news of the queen declaration about efforts to reduce household expenses, she had told him that "while she lives she will obey the king in all things... She therefore desires his majesty to take what order it shall please him, which shall please her for being wholly ignorant in household business, she will not any meddle with them". In 1618 he became Earl of Leicester, the title had become extinct in 1588 on the death of his uncle Robert Dudley, part of whose property he had inherited.
Sidney married twice: Firstly to Barbara Gamage, a noted heiress and beauty, the daughter of John Gamage, of Coity Castle, a Glamorgan gentleman. By his first wife he had eleven children. Sir William Sidney, his eldest son who predeceased his father and died unmarried. Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, second son and heir. Henry Sidney Philip Sidney Mary Sidney, who married Sir Robert Wroth of Loughton Hall, was like her father a poet. Catherine Sidney Philippa Sidney, married Sir John Hobart, 2nd Baronet, third son of Sir Henry Hobart, 1st Baronet, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and ancestor of the Earls of Buckinghamshire. Barbara Sidney Dorothy Sidney Elizabeth Bridget SidneySecondly to Sarah Blount, daughter of William Blount, widow of Sir Thomas Smythe. Leicester was a man of taste and a patron of literature, whose cultured mode of life at his country seat, Penshurst Place, was celebrated in verse by Ben Jonson. Robert Sidney was a patron of musicians, as is proved by his being the dedicatee of Robert Jones’s First Booke of Songes and Ayres and A Musicall Banquet compiled by Robert Dowland, son of the composer John Dowland.
Sidney had agreed to be godfather to John Dowland’s son, A Musicall Banquet opens with a Galliard by John Dowland entitled Syr Robert Sidney his Galliard. Though the brother of one of the most famous poets in the English language, it was not suspected that Robert Sidney had himself been a poet until the 1960s, when his working notebook emerged through the dispersal of the Library of Warwick Castle. Subsequent research showed it had been acquired in 1848 after passing through a number of sales beginning with the dispersal of the library at Penshurst in the early 19th century. Sold again at Sotheby's and acquired by the British Library in 1975, the autograph is, as its first editor P. J. Croft pointed out, "the largest body of verse to have survived from the Elizabethan period in a text set down by the poet himself". Dating from the latter half of the 1590s when Robert Sidney was governor of Flushing, the collection comprises 66 sonnets, pastorals and slighter pieces structured as a kind of reply to Philip Sidney’s Astrophel and Stella.
They show Robert Sidney as an advocate of the Neo-platonic philosophy of love and adept at a great variety of verse forms. The fact that several of the poems are based on identifiable tunes confirms his interest in music. While he cannot be placed in the first rank of Elizabethan poets, his poems are by no means negligible and of the greatest interest for the working methods and intellectual interests of the period; the arms of Robert Sidney, 1st Earl of Leicester showed sixteen quarters as follows: 1. A pheon 2. Barry of ten a lion rampant crowned 3. A lion rampant double queued 4. Two lions passant 5. Barry of six in chief three torteaux a label of three points for difference 6. A maunch 7. A wolf's head erased 8. Barry of ten as many martlets in orle 9. A lion rampant 10. Seven mascles conjoined three and one 11. A lion rampant within a bordure engrailed 12. A fess between six crosses crosslet 13
Ghost forests are areas of dead trees in former forests in coastal regions where rising sea levels or tectonic shifts have altered the height of a land mass. Forests located near the coast or estuaries may be at risk of dying through saltwater poisoning, if invading seawater reduces the amount of freshwater that deciduous trees receive for sustenance. Looking at the stratigraphic record, it is possible to reconstruct a series of events that lead to the creation of a ghost forest. Where, in a convergent plate boundary, there has been orogenic uplift, followed by earthquakes resulting in subsidence and tsunamis, altering the coast and creating a ghost forest; when there is a change in sea level, coastal regions may become inundated with sea water. This can alter coastal areas and kill large areas of trees, leaving behind what is called a “ghost forest.” This type of ghost forest may develop in many different places. In the southern US coastal marshes are expanding into dry wooded areas, killing trees and leaving behind areas of dead trees called snags.
Regions of the US at or below sea level are more susceptible to tides. Coastal features affected by changing sea levels are indirectly affected by climate change. With global sea level rise, the coastlines in the southern US are being altered and leave behind salt marshes filled with dead and dying trees in some areas. Ghost forests can result from tectonic activity. In the Pacific northwest, there is a large, active subduction zone called the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Here, there is a convergent plate boundary where the Gorda plate, the Juan de Fuca plate, the Explorer plate are being subducted underneath the North American plate; as these plates attempt to slide past one another, they become stuck. For several hundred years the plates will be locked in place and the tension builds; as a result of this tension there is orogenic uplift. This is where the tension building between two converging plates gets translated into vertical uplift of the mountains on the coast. Orogenic uplift is associated with earthquakes and mountain building.
But every 500+ years, there is large earthquake in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and all that built up tension is released. The release of this tension results in, and with subsidence the once elevated coastline drops down several meters to below sea level. Here, sea level has not changed, but the coastline has been deformed, making it susceptible to tides. Areas of the coastline can be inundated with sea water, creating marshes and leaving behind ghost forests. In addition to subsidence, large earthquakes can cause tsunamis, it is possible to determine that ghost forests in the Pacific northwest were created by earthquakes and subsidence by looking at the stratigraphic record. Digging down into the earth, adjacent to a ghost forest, different layers of sediment can reveal the stratigraphy in a ghost forest. Layers of material filled with organic material can indicate where the old forest floor was located prior to subsidence. On top of the layer there will be a large sandy deposit; this layer represents the tsunami event, where the coast was flooded with sea water, filled with sandy sediment.
Superimposed on top of the tsunami deposit will be a muddy deposit, representative of an area subjected to ocean tides. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant ecological force at the landscape level; the majority of the life cycle is spent as larvae feeding in the phloem tissue of host pine trees. This feeding activity girdles and kills attacked trees. Global warming has result in increased mountain pine beetle activity; these direct and indirect effects have devastating consequences for whitebark and other high-elevation pines. Neskowin Ghost Forest