Hurricane Isabel

Hurricane Isabel was the strongest Atlantic hurricane since Mitch, the deadliest and most intense hurricane in the 2003 Atlantic hurricane season. The ninth named storm, fifth hurricane, second major hurricane of the season, Isabel formed near the Cape Verde Islands from a tropical wave on September 6, in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, it moved northwestward, within an environment of light wind shear and warm waters, it strengthened to reach peak winds of 165 mph on September 11. After fluctuating in intensity for four days, during which it displayed annular characteristics, Isabel weakened and made landfall on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, with winds of 105 mph on September 18. Isabel weakened over land and became extratropical over western Pennsylvania on the next day. On September 20, the extratropical remnants of Isabel were absorbed into another system over Eastern Canada. In North Carolina, the storm surge from Isabel washed out a portion of Hatteras Island to form what was unofficially known as Isabel Inlet.

Damage was greatest along the Outer Banks, where thousands of homes were damaged or destroyed. The worst of the effects of Isabel occurred in Virginia in the Hampton Roads area and along the shores of rivers as far west and north as Richmond and Baltimore. Virginia reported damage from the hurricane. About 64 % of the damage and 69 % of the deaths occurred in North Virginia. Electric service was disrupted in areas of Virginia for several days, some more rural areas were without electricity for weeks, local flooding caused thousands of dollars in damage. Moderate to severe damage extended up the Atlantic coastline and as far inland as West Virginia. Six million people were left without electric service in the eastern United States from the strong winds of Isabel. Rainfall from the storm extended from South Carolina to Maine, westward to Michigan. Throughout the path of Isabel, damage totalled about $5.5 billion. 16 deaths in seven U. S. states were directly related to the hurricane, with 35 deaths in six states and one Canadian province indirectly related to the hurricane.

A tropical wave moved off the western coast of Africa on September 1. An area of low pressure associated with the wave moved westward, its convection appeared to become better organized. On September 3, as it passed to the south of the Cape Verde islands, organization within the system degraded, though convection increased the next day; the system became better organized, Dvorak classifications began early on September 5. Based on the development of a closed surface circulation, it is estimated the system developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen early on September 6. Hours it intensified into Tropical Storm Isabel, though operationally the National Hurricane Center did not begin issuing advisories until 13 hours after it first developed. Located within an area of light wind shear and warm waters, Isabel organized as curved bands developed around a circular area of deep convection near the center, it strengthened as it moved to the west-northwest, Isabel strengthened to a hurricane on September 7 subsequent to the development of a large, yet ragged eye located near the deepest convection.

The eye, overall convective pattern, outflow improved in organization, deep convection surrounded the 40-mile -wide eye. Isabel intensified on September 8 to reach major hurricane status while located 1,300 miles east-northeast of Barbuda. On September 9, Isabel reached an initial peak intensity of 135 mph for around 24 hours, a minimal Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Early on September 10, the eyewall became less defined, the convection near the eye became eroded, northeasterly outflow became restricted; as a result, Isabel weakened to a Category 3 hurricane. The hurricane turned more to the west due to the influence of the Bermuda-Azores High. On September 10, Isabel restrengthened to a Category 4 hurricane after convection deepened near the organizing eyewall; the hurricane continued to intensify, Isabel reached its peak intensity of 165 mph on September 11, a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Due to an eyewall replacement cycle, Isabel weakened though it retained Category 5 status for 24 hours.

As Isabel underwent another eyewall replacement cycle, outflow degraded in appearance and convection around the eye weakened, early on September 13, Isabel weakened to a strong Category 4 hurricane. A weakness in the ridge to its north allowed the hurricane to turn to the west-northwest. After completing the replacement cycle, the hurricane's large 40 mile wide eye became better defined, late on September 13, Isabel re-attained Category 5 status. During this time, Isabel attained annular characteristics, becoming symmetrical in shape and sporting a wide eye. Hurricane Isabel displayed a "pinwheel" eye, a rare feature, found in some annular tropical cyclones. A NOAA Hurricane Hunter Reconnaissance Aircraft flying into the hurricane launched a dropsonde which measured an instantaneous wind speed of 233 mph, the strongest instantaneous wind speed recorded in an Atlantic hurricane. Cloud tops warmed again shortly thereafter, Isabel weakened to a strong Category 4 hurricane early on September 14.

That day, it re-organized, for the third time, Isabel attained Category 5 status while located 400 miles north of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Cloud tops around the center warmed again early on September 15, Isabel weakened to a Category 4 hurricane; that day, the inner core of deep convect

Treatise of the Three Impostors

The Treatise of the Three Impostors was a supposed book denying all three Abrahamic religions: Christianity and Islam. The three "impostors" of the title were Jesus and Muhammad; the existence of such a book was rumoured from the 13th to the late 17th centuries. Hoaxes supplied texts. Authorship of such a book is laid at the door of various Jewish and Muslim writers; the work that came to be known by this name was published in the early eighteenth century. There were eight published editions, from 1719 to 1793. There was clandestine circulation; the Traité sur les trois imposteurs has been reckoned the most important example of the underground literature in French of the period. The work purported to be a text handed down from generation to generation, it can be traced to the circle around Prosper Marchand, who included Jean Aymon and Jean Rousset de Missy. It detailed how the three major figures of Biblical religion in fact misrepresented what had happened to them. According to Silvia Berti, the book was published as La Vie et L'Esprit de Spinosa, containing both a biography of Benedict Spinoza and the anti-religious essay, was republished under the title Traité sur les trois imposteurs.

The creators of the book have been identified by documentary evidence as Jean Rousset de Missy and the bookseller Charles Levier. The author of the book may have been a young Dutch diplomat called Jan Vroese. Another candidate, to whom Levier attributed the work, is Jean-Maximilien Lucas. Israel places its composition in the 1680s; the content of the Traité has been traced to Spinoza, but with subsequent additions drawn from the ideas of Pierre Charron, Thomas Hobbes, François de La Mothe Le Vayer, Gabriel Naudé and Lucilio Vanini. The reconstruction of the group of authors, given the original text, goes as far as Levier and others such as Aymon and Rousset de Missy. An account based on the testimony of the brother of the publisher Caspar Fritsch, an associate of Marchand, has Levier in 1711 borrowing the original text from Benjamin Furly, it has been suggested that the "three impostors" as trope can be seen as the negative form of the "ring parable", as used in Lessing's Nathan the Wise. Anderson, Abraham.

The Treatise of the Three Imposters and the Problem of the Enlightenment. A New Translation of the Traité des Trois Imposteurs. Lenham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8430-X. Presser, Jacob. Das Buch "De Tribus Impostoribus". Amsterdam, The Netherlands: H. J. Paris. Full Text of Müller's De Tribus Impostoribus provided by Müller's Tribus Impostoribus in the original Latin, provided by Bibliotheca Augustana Bio on Friedrick II -- subheading "Struggle with the papacy." From the Encyclopædia Britannica

Jim Karygiannis

James "Jim" Karygiannis, is a Canadian politician. He served in the House of Commons of Canada as a Liberal MP from 1988 to 2014, as member of the Toronto City Council from 2014 until 2019, when his seat was vacated due to campaign spending violations. Karygiannis served concurrently as the parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development and Minister responsible for Democratic Renewal and was parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Transport. On April 1, 2014, he resigned his seat as a Member of Parliament in order to stand in the Toronto municipal election for Toronto City Councillor in Ward 39, subsequently was elected to that seat. On November 6, 2019, Karygiannis was removed from office for exceeding election expenses in the 2018 municipal election. Karygiannis was born in Greece. Before entering politics, Karygiannis was industrial engineer, he immigrated to Canada in 1966, has a Bachelor of Applied Science degree in Industrial Engineering from the University of Toronto.

He holds a degree of Fellowship of Business Administration from the Canadian School of Management. He is married with four daughters. Karygiannis has been involved with politics as a Liberal since the late 1980s, first in provincial politics and as a federal MP, he ran as a candidate of the Ontario Liberal Party for the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in the 1987 provincial election. He lost to David Reville of the Ontario New Democratic Party by about 1,500 votes, he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons the following year in the federal election, defeating Progressive Conservative incumbent W. Paul McCrossan by 858 votes in the newly created riding of Scarborough—Agincourt. Karygiannis was one of the more conservative members of the Liberal caucus, is opposed to abortion and same-sex marriage. In June 2005, however, he criticized other socially-conservative Liberals who had threatened to bring down the government on the marriage issue, he won a landslide re-election in the 1993 federal election as the Liberals won a majority government, was re-elected in subsequent federal elections.

Karygiannis was a prominent Toronto organizer for Jean Chrétien in the Liberal Party's 1990 leadership contest, was credited with delivering considerable support to Chrétien from the city's Greek community. In 2002, Karygiannis was voted "laziest MP" in a poll of Parliamentary staffers by The Hill Times. In April 2004, Karygiannis brought forward a private member's motion which recognized the death of 1.5 million Armenians between 1915 and 1923 as a genocide. The motion was approved by parliament 153 to 68, with support among Liberal backbench and opposition MPs, though Prime Minister Martin and his cabinet did not show up for the free vote and insisted that the motion is non-binding. Foreign Minister Bill Graham has defended the government's position that the event constituted a "tragedy" rather than the purposeful extermination of minority Armenians. In response to Martin's assertion that foreign policy rests with the cabinet, Karygiannis said that a clear majority of Parliament saw it differently and urged Martin to live up to his promise to give MPs real clout.

The Turkish government was critical of the motion and argued that Canadian MPs were rewriting history, while the Turkish Embassy suggested that relations between the two countries would be harmed as a result. Local press has described his genocide recognition cause as one that "splits cultural communities". Karygiannis played a prominent role in organizing Toronto-area support for victims of the December 2004 earthquake in Southeast Asia, he called for cooperation between the city's Tamil and Sinhalese communities for the relief effort in Sri Lanka, travelled to Sri Lanka to witness the tsunami devastation firsthand. He was criticized by fellow Member of Parliament David Kilgour for traveling to an area of Sri Lanka dominated by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, as the faction was proscribed as a terrorist organisation by many countries. Karygiannis defended his decision, saying that his intent was to confirm that disaster aid was reaching the region. Despite Kilgour's concerns, Karygiannis's travels did not provoke a diplomatic incident with Sri Lanka.

In March 2005, Karygiannis travelled to Guyana to witness the damage that recent floods had done in the country. He helped to secure CIDA aid for Guyana of over CA$2.7 million Canadian. When Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans in September 2005, Karygiannis was one of the first Canadian parliamentarians to organize a Canadian relief effort. In September 2007, the Canadian government announced that it would recognize the country Macedonia as the "Republic of Macedonia" rather than by its previous designation as the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." This decision was criticized by the government of Greece, which claims the name Macedonia as its own. Karygiannis opposed the government's decision and indicated that the Greek-Canadian community would mobilize against it. In February 2009, Immigration Minister Jason Kenney announced that he would review and reduce or eliminate federal funding to the Canadian Arab Federation after its president criticized Kenney's pro-Israel position in the 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict.

Karygiannis subsequently asked the parliamentary ethics commissioner, Mary Dawson, to investigate whether Kenney was abusing his position. During his term of services in the 40th Parliament between November 2008 and December 2010, Kary