Hurricane Opal was a large and powerful Category 4 hurricane that caused severe and extensive damage along the northern Gulf Coast of the United States in October 1995. The ninth hurricane and strongest tropical cyclone of the unusually active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season, Opal developed from the interaction of a tropical wave and a low-pressure area near the Yucatán Peninsula on September 27, it crossed the Yucatán Peninsula while still a tropical depression and intensified into a tropical storm on September 30. After entering the Gulf of Mexico and becoming a hurricane on October 2, Opal turned northeastward and strengthened significantly. By October 4, Opal was an intense Category 4 hurricane. However, the cyclone abruptly weakened to a low-end Category 3 hurricane prior to making landfall in the Florida Panhandle near Pensacola that day; the storm weakened inland and became extratropical on October 5. The remnants of Opal persisted until dissipating over Ontario by the following day; the precursor and initial stages of Opal brought heavy rainfall and flooding to Guatemala and Mexico.
In the former and landslides left about 34,000 people homeless and damage to infrastructure and agriculture. A total of 31 deaths occurred in Guatemala. In Mexico, a number of rivers overflowed in Campeche and Tabasco, forcing more than 42,000 people to evacuate; the storm left hundreds of millions of dollars in damage to agriculture in Campeche alone. Nineteen people were killed in Mexico. In Florida, high winds and storm surge left extensive damage in the panhandle. From Wakulla County westward, a number of structures were swept away or experienced some degree of damage. In Escambia and Santa Rosa counties, nearly 300 homes were destroyed and 1,000 others suffered major damage; the storm left at least $2.1 billion in damage in Florida alone. Several other states were impacted by the storm Alabama, where the storm spawned many tornadoes and strong winds downed numerous trees and left about 2.6 million people without electricity. A total of 27 deaths were attributed to Opal in the United States.
The hurricane overall left about $4.7 billion in damage, much of which took place in the United States. Due to its effects, the name Opal was retired in the spring of 1996 and replaced with Olga for the 2001 season; the origins of Hurricane Opal were linked using satellite imagery and synoptic analyses to a tropical wave that left the western coast of Africa on September 11. Ten days the disturbance had crossed the central Atlantic and had reached the Lesser Antilles. Continuing to track westward, the disturbance showed little signs of organization before entering the western Caribbean Sea on September 23. There, the wave became entangled with a broad area of low-pressure east of Nicaragua, the combined system drifted west-northwestward toward the Yucatán Peninsula; the disturbance lacked any significant development. However, a burst of thunderstorm activity occurred near the storm's center on September 27, prompting the National Hurricane Center to declare the system a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC that day.
At the time, the depression was centered 80 mi south-southeast of Mexico. The primordial depression meandered across the Yucatán Peninsula during the three days following tropical cyclogenesis due to the lack of dominant steering currents. Despite remaining over land for an extended period, the depression developed organized rainbands, ships in the region reported weather conditions that were suggestive of a stronger system; as a result, the NHC upgraded the disturbance to tropical storm intensity at 12:00 UTC on September 30 while the storm was over the north-central coast of Yucatán. Over the next two days, Opal would enter the Gulf of Mexico and track west-southwestward into the Bay of Campeche. There, the storm strengthened into a hurricane at 12:00 UTC on October 2. Shortly afterward, a primitive eye began to form. At the same time, a strong trough tracking across the United States caused Opal to turn northeastward. After clearing the Bay of Campeche, Opal accelerated towards the United States Gulf Coast.
The combination of warm sea surface temperatures associated with an unusually warm pocket of warm ocean waters and an upper-level high pressure area over the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a conducive environment for intensification. After a significant reorganization in Opal's internal structure, the hurricane was able to intensify in these favorable conditions. At 12:00 UTC on October 4, Opal reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph, making it a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, and a minimum barometric pressure of 916 hPa. The tropical cyclone's eye measured 12 mi at peak intensity as the storm was beginning an eyewall replacement cycle; the progression of this cycle resulted in Opal's gradual weakening thereafter. At 22:00 UTC that day, Opal made landfall between Pensacola Beach and Navarre Beach, Florida, on a stretch of beach now known as "Opal Beach", as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 115 mph. Weakening quickened as Opal moved further inland, degenerating into a tropical depression over Tennessee less than a day after landfall.
El Sonido Nuevo, subtitled/translated The New Soul Sound, is an album by Latin jazz vibraphonist Cal Tjader and pianist Eddie Palmieri recorded in 1966 and released on the Verve label. The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow stated, "El Sonido Nuevo is a popular collaboration between vibraphonist Cal Tjader and pianist Eddie Palmieri. Despite the claims of greatness expressed in the liners, much of the music is quite lightweight although enjoyable enough, the easy listening melodies and accessible rhythms hold one's interest". All compositions by Cal Tjader and Eddie Palmieri except where noted "Los Jibaros" - 2:40 "Gaujira en Azul" - 3:20 "Ritmo Uni" - 3:45 "Picadillo" - 7:00 "Modesty" - 2:30 "Unidos" - 4:35 "On a Clear Day" - 1:50 "El Sonido Nuevo" - 5:50Recorded at Van Gelder Studio in Englewood Cliffs, NJ on May 24, 1966, May 25, 1966 and May 26, 1966, Cal Tjader - vibraphone Eddie Palmieri - piano, arranger Julian Priester, Jose Rodriguez, Mark Weinstein - trombone Barry Rogers - trombone, congas George Castro - flute, percussion Bobby Rodriguez- bass Tommy Lopez, Manny Oquendo - drums Ismael Quintana - percussion
Valentina Alejandra Durán Medina is an international jurist in environmental and climate change law, both a Professor of Law at Universidad de Chile and Director of the Centre for Environmental Law. In addition to coordinating the Clinic of Environmental Law and Conflict Resolution, Durán is Lead Counsel for Peace and Governance at the Centre for International Sustainable Development Law. Durán completed her undergraduate studies at the Universidad de Chile obtaining a Bachelors of Legal and Social Sciences in 1994 and is a licensed attorney in Chile. Durán obtained a Diplôme d'études approfondies from Paris I Panteón-Sorbonne. Durán began her academic tenure as a Professor at the Universidad de Chile in 2000. In 2017 she was appointed as Director of the Centre for Environmental Law. Durán is Lead Counsel for Peace and Governance at the Centre for International Sustainable Development Law. Durán acts is the Legal manager for consulting firm Gestión de la calidad ambiental, as a consultant for CommunityMujer.
She is the Director of the Association of Lawyers of Chile and a member of the board of think tank Espacio Publico. Durán was a member of the Lithium Commission of the Ministry of Mining in 2014. Representative publications include: Principles of inter-generational equity, public participation and good governance in the Inter American Development Bank's oversight mechanism in Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger, HE Judge Christopher Weeramantry eds. Sustainable Development in International Courts and Tribunals, with Alexandra Harrington. A Legal View on Border Tax Adjustments and Climate Change: A Latin American Perspective, with Rodrigo Polanco Lazo. "Valentina Alejandra Durán Medina". Wikibello. Retrieved 2018-12-29. Valentina Durán, Universidad de Chile