A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The title and distinctive dress of these horsemen were subsequently adopted by light cavalry regiments in European armies in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. A number of armored or ceremonial mounted; the term derives from the cavalry of late medieval Hungary, under Matthias Corvinus with Serb warriors. Etymologists are divided over the derivation of the word hussar. Several alternative theories are summarised below. According to Webster's Dictionary, the word hussar stems from the Hungarian huszár, which in turn originates from the medieval Serbian husar, meaning brigand, from the Medieval Latin cursarius. Another theory is that the term is an original Hungarian one, having nothing in common with the Serbian "gusar", the hussars' tactics, riding skills are characteristic of the early Hungarian warriors and in the ancient and early medieval ages was used by many ethnicities on the Eurasian steppe, like Huns, Pechenegs, Cumans and by the Mongols and Tatars.
This type of light cavalry was characteristic of the Hungarian armies, at first equipped with bows, arrows and sabers, changed only to rifles and carbines. The first written use of the word hussarones is found in documents dating from 1432 in Southern Hungary. A type of irregular light horsemen was well-established by the 15th century in medieval Hungary. Byzantinist scholars argue that the term originated in Roman military practice, the cursarii. 10th-century Byzantine military manuals mention chonsarioi, light cavalry, recruited in the Balkans Serbs, "ideal for scouting and raiding". This word was subsequently reintroduced to Western European military practice after its original usage had been lost with the collapse of Rome in the west. A further premise notes that húsz means'twenty' in Hungarian whilst ár is a unit of land measurement or acre. Accordingly, it is suggested that Hussars are so named as they were a form of military levy introduced after 1458 whereby any landowner with twenty acres was duty bound to provide a mounted and equipped soldier to the king's army at his own expense..
The hussars originated in bands of Serb warriors, crossing into southern Hungary after the Ottoman conquest of Serbia at the end of the 14th century. Regent-Governor John Hunyadi created mounted units inspired by the Ottomans, his son, Matthias Corvinus king of Hungary, is unanimously accepted as the creator of these troops called Rác. They fought in small bands, but were reorganised into larger, trained formations during the reign of King Matthias Corvinus; the Hussars occur in the Hungarian Kingdom as heavy cavalry and they fight with a spear and shield. The 16th and 17th centuries saw a major change and during the Thirty Years' War they fought as light cavalry and used firearms; the first hussar regiments comprised the light cavalry of the Black Army of Hungary. Under Corvinus' command, the hussars took part in the war against the Ottoman Empire in 1485 and proved successful against the sipahis as well as against the Bohemians and Poles. After the king's death, in 1490, hussars became the standard form of cavalry in Hungary in addition to the heavy cavalry.
The Habsburg emperors hired Hungarian hussars as mercenaries to serve against the Ottomans and on various battlefields throughout Western Europe. Early hussars wore armor when they could afford it, as did the Polish hussars. Hungarian hussars abandoned the use of shields and, at a date, armor; the first units of Polish Hussars in the Kingdom of Poland were formed around 1500. The Polish heavy hussars of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were far more manoeuvrable than the armoured lancers employed; the hussars proved vital to the Polish–Lithuanian victories at the Orsza, the Obertyn and the Battle of Vienna. Over the course of the 16th century, hussars in Transylvania and Hungary became heavier in character: They had abandoned wooden shields and adopted plate-metal body armour; when Stephen Báthory, a Transylvanian-Hungarian prince, was elected King of Poland in 1576, he reorganised the Polish-Lithuanian Hussars of his Royal Guard along Hungarian lines, making them a heavy formation, equipped with a long lance as their main weapon.
By the reign of King Stephen Báthory, the hussars had replaced medieval-style lancers in the Polish–Lithuanian army, they now formed the bulk of the Polish cavalry. By the 1590s, most Polish–Lithuanian hussar units had been reformed along the same'heavy', Hungarian model. Due to the same resemblance, the Polish heavy hussars came with their own style, the Polish winged hussars or Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth winged husaria; the people of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth recognized the winged hussars as husarskie anioły. In the Battle of Lubieszów, in 1577, the'Golden Age' of the husaria began. Up to and including the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Polish–Lithuanian hussars fought countless actions against a variety of enemies. In the battles of Byczyna, Kok
William Frierson Cooper was a lawyer and politician. He was nominated to the Supreme Court of the Confederate States of America by President Jefferson Davis, but the court never sat because of the American Civil War. After the war, he served as the Dean of the Vanderbilt University Law School from 1874 to 1875, he was a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1878 to 1886. Cooper was born on March 1820 in Franklin, Tennessee, his father, Matthew D. Cooper, was a merchant who became a banker in Columbia, Tennessee, his mother was Mary Agnes Frierson. His paternal grandfather, Robert Cooper, served in the American Revolutionary War, he had three brothers, including Senator Henry Cooper, two half-brothers, including Duncan Brown Cooper. He grew up in Columbia, where he was raised as a Presbyterian, he wintered in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1832, learned to speak French. Cooper graduated from Yale College in 1838. While he was at Yale, one of his professors was Alphonso Taft. Following college, he began the study of medicine.
After two years' study in Tennessee, he went to Philadelphia, where he attended medical lectures at the University of Pennsylvania abandoned the medical field for law. He joined the law offices of his uncle, Chancellor Samuel Davies Frierson, in Maury County, Tennessee, he was admitted to the bar in 1841. Cooper was the manager of his family Mulberry Hill Plantation in Maury County, Tennessee from 1840 to 1845. Meanwhile, he practised the law alongside Samuel Davies Frierson. From 1845 to 1846, he formed a law firm with Alfred Osborne Pope Nicolson. From 1846 to 1851, he practised the law on his own. In 1851-1852, with Return J. Meigs III, Cooper were appointed to codify the laws of Tennessee, they completed their project in 1858, their work was adopted without modification, as the state's official code. Cooper was reluctant to embrace secession, but he supported the Confederate States of America once it was established. Meanwhile, he was nominated to the Supreme Court of the CSA by President Jefferson Davis, but the court never came to fruition.
Meanwhile, he traveled in Europe. Cooper resumed legal practice in Nashville after the war, he served as the Dean of the Vanderbilt University Law School from 1874 to 1875, when he was succeeded by Thomas H. Malone, he was elected again to the Tennessee Supreme Court in August 1878 and served on the court until 1886. In 1890 he was awarded honorary degrees by Yale University, the University of Tennessee, the University of Nashville. Cooper never married, he resided at Riverview in East Nashville until he purchased Riverwood, another mansion in Nashville, in 1859. He renamed the property Riverwood because of its location on bluffs on the north side of the Cumberland River. Cooper died on May 1909 in Brooklyn, New York City, he was buried at the Zion Presbyterian Church Cemetery in Tennessee. Upon his death, Riverwood passed to Duncan Brown Cooper. Works by or about William Frierson Cooper at Internet Archive William Frierson Cooper at Find a Grave
Scott E. Reske was a Democratic member of the Indiana House of Representatives, representing the 37th District, he is a former chair of the Midwestern Legislative Conference, the Midwestern office of The Council of State Governments. Reske was a candidate for United States Representative in Indiana's 5th congressional district, he lost the election to Republican Susan Brooks. Scott Reske moved to Indiana with his family in 1964 when his father began work as a plant engineer in Lapel, Indiana, he was raised in Madison County and graduated from Pendleton Heights High School in 1978. He attended Purdue University studying Engineering, he volunteered as a firefighter. While in college, he joined the United States Marine Corps, he attended Officer Candidate School and was an Honor Graduate from The Basic School in Quantico, Virginia. After graduating in 1983, Scott was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps and became a Marine aviator, he joined the Marine Corps reserves. While serving in the Marines, he earned a Masters of Public Administration from City University of Seattle.
In 2004 Scott was placed on active duty to support the Marine Corps review of the deployment process and in-country use of the Rapid Deployment Force in Haiti. After 60 days of his assignment, he and his team were re-positioned to Iraq in support of a focused collection effort on multiple assigned areas of interest. Mr. Reske only spent 32 days in Iraq. Scott continued his military service in the Marine Corps Reserve. Serving a total of 28 years, Scott retired as a colonel in 2009, he was a member of the Pendleton Volunteer Fire Department. He's a reserve deputy with the Madison County Sheriff's Department. After leaving active duty in 1992, Scott joined the family business and moved his family back to Pendleton. Scott was a business owner and principal of one of Indiana's major civil engineering firms, which employs over 100 people, he is involved with construction products companies. After redistricting, Reske decided to run for the Indiana House of Representatives in the 37th House District and defeated Republican Rob Steele 51%-49%.
In 2004, he won re-election to a second term with 63% of the vote. In 2006, he won re-election to a third term unopposed. In 2008, he won re-election to a fourth term with 51% of the vote. In 2010, he won re-election to a fifth term with 49% of the vote. Reske's term in the Indiana House ended in 2012. Iraq WarIn 2003, he was the only member in the state legislature that had the possibility of being deployed into the Iraq War; this would bring the Democrats majority down to just two seats. Indiana Pacers NBA teamReske criticized the City of Indianapolis for pledging to spend $33 million on a new stadium deal for the Indiana Pacers, he said ``, they're wrong. As long as I represent this district, Madison County won't pay for the mismanagement in Indianapolis." House Committee on Commerce, Small Business, Economic Development House Committee on Government and Regulatory Reform House Committee on Public Health In September 2011, Reske announced his plans to run for a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives.
He ran in Indiana's 5th congressional district, vacated by retiring Republican U. S. Congressman Dan Burton. Reske lost the election to Republican Susan Brooks, 58%-37%. After retiring from the Indiana legislature in 2012, Reske was hired by the newly elected Indiana Superintendent of Public Instruction, Glenda Ritz. Reske serves as the executive director of government and public affairs for the Indiana Department of Education. Scott has four children. Scott Reske at Ballotpedia Indiana State Legislature - Representative Scott Reske Official government website Reske for Congress Official Congressional campaign website Project Vote Smart - Representative Scott E. Reske profile Follow the Money – Scott E Reske 2006 2004 2002 campaign contributions List of United States Marines