The Hussites were a Czech pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation. The Hussite movement began in the Kingdom of Bohemia and spread throughout the remaining Lands of the Bohemian Crown, including Moravia and Silesia, it made inroads into the northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, but was rejected and gained infamy for the plundering behavior of the Hussite soldiers. There were very small temporary communities in Poland-Lithuania and Transylvania which moved to Bohemia after being confronted with religious intolerance, it was a regional movement. Hussites emerged as a majority Utraquist movement with a significant Taborite faction, smaller regional ones that included Adamites and Orphans. Major Hussite theologians included Petr Chelcicky, Jerome of Prague, others. A number of Czech national heroes were Hussite, including Jan Žižka, who led a fierce resistance to five consecutive crusades proclaimed on Hussite Bohemia by the Papacy.
Hussites were one of the most important forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. After the Council of Constance lured Jan Hus in with a letter of indemnity tried him for heresy and put him to death at the stake on 6 July 1415, the Hussites fought the Hussite Wars for their religious and political cause. After the Hussite Wars ended, the Catholic-supported Utraquist side came out victorious from conflict with the Taborites and became the most common representation of the Hussite faith in Bohemia. Catholics and Utraquists were emancipated in Bohemia after the religious peace of Kutná Hora in 1485. Bohemia and Moravia, or what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, remained majority Hussite for two centuries until Roman Catholic Christianity was reimposed by the Holy Roman Emperor after the 1620 Battle of White Mountain during the Thirty Years' War. Due to this event and centuries of Habsburg persecution, Hussite traditions are represented in the Moravian Church, Unity of the Brethren, the refounded Czechoslovak Hussite churches among present-day Christians.
The arrest of Hus in 1414 caused considerable resentment in Czech lands. The authorities of both countries appealed urgently and to King Sigismund to release Jan Hus; when news of his death at the Council of Constance in 1415 arrived, disturbances broke out, directed against the clergy and against the monks. The Archbishop narrowly escaped from the effects of this popular anger; the treatment of Hus was felt to be a disgrace inflicted upon the whole country and his death was seen as a criminal act. King Wenceslaus, prompted by his grudge against Sigismund, at first gave free vent to his indignation at the course of events in Constance, his wife favoured the friends of Hus. Avowed Hussites stood at the head of the government. A league was formed by certain lords, who pledged themselves to protect the free preaching of the Gospel upon all their possessions and estates and to obey the power of the Bishops only where their orders accorded with the injunctions of the Bible; the university would arbitrate any disputed points.
The entire Hussite nobility joined the league. Other than verbal protest of the council's treatment of Hus, there was little evidence of any actions taken by the nobility until 1417. At that point several of the lesser nobility and some barons, signatories of the 1415 protest letter, removed Romanist priests from their parishes, replacing them with priests willing to give communion in both wine and bread; the chalice of wine became the central identifying symbol of the Hussite movement. If the king had joined, its resolutions would have received the sanction of the law; the prospect of a civil war began to emerge. Pope Martin V as Cardinal Otto of Colonna had attacked Hus with relentless severity, he energetically resumed the battle against Hus's teaching after the enactments of the Council of Constance. He wished to eradicate the doctrine of Hus, for which purpose the co-operation of King Wenceslaus had to be obtained. In 1418, Sigismund succeeded in winning his brother over to the standpoint of the council by pointing out the inevitability of a religious war if the heretics in Bohemia found further protection.
Hussite statesmen and army leaders had to leave the country and Roman Catholic priests were reinstated. These measures caused a general commotion which hastened the death of King Wenceslaus by a paralytic stroke in 1419, his heir was Sigismund. Hussitism organised itself during the years 1415–1419. From the beginning, there formed two parties, with a smaller number of people withdrawing from both parties around the pacifist Petr Chelčický, whose teachings would form the foundation of the Unitas Fratrum; the moderate party, who followed Hus more sought to conduct reform while leaving the whole hierarchical and liturgical order of the Church untouched. The more radical party identified itself more boldly with the doctrines of John Wycliffe, sharing his passionate hatred of the monastic clergy, his desire to return the Church to its supposed condition during the time of the apostles; this required the removal of the existing hierarchy and the secularisation of ecclesiastical possessions. The radicals preached the "sufficientia legis Christi"—the divine law is the sole rule and canon for human society, not only in the church, but in politica
Nobody's Girl is a novel by Hector Malot. The story was translated into English as The Story of Perrine by Gil. There is Perrine Monogatari based on the novel, it is part of the World Masterpiece Theater collection, which adapted Nobody's Boy, another of Malot's novels, into an anime called Remi, Nobody's Girl. The story follows 13-year-old Perrine, she arrives in Paris with her ill mother in a cart with few possessions pulled by a donkey, Palikare. She stays at the Guillot field, where her mother gets ill. In order to have enough money for medicine, Perrine sells Palikare, with the help of Grain-of-Salt to La Rouquerie. Despite all the care, Perrine's mother dies, leaving Perrine as an orphan, so Perrine sets off on foot penniless, to find her relatives in Maraucourt, she makes a friend, who shows the Factories of Mr. Vulfran, lets her lodge at her grandmother's for a little money. Perrine refrains from letting anybody in Maraucourt know her real name, uses the pseudonym Aurelie til the end of the book.
As Perrine is one of the few people who can speak English, except for Mr. Benndite, she soon comes close to Mr. Vulfran, who lets her stay with him; as the book progresses Mr Vulfran learns to love Perrine, it is only in the end where he finds out that Perrine is his own granddaughter. Nobody's Girl fulltext
Sadie Farrell was an alleged semi-folklorish American criminal, gang leader and river pirate known under the pseudonym Sadie the Goat. However, there exists doubt as to her historical existence, she is believed to have been a vicious street mugger in New York's "Bloody" Fourth Ward. Upon encountering a lone traveler, she would headbutt like a charging goat a man in the stomach and her male accomplice would hit the victim with a slungshot and rob him. Sadie, according to popular underworld lore, was engaged in a long-time feud with a tough, six-feet-tall female bouncer Gallus Mag, who bit off Sadie's ear in a bar fight, as Mag was known to do, albeit with male trouble-makers. Folklore has it that, leaving the area in disgrace, she ventured to the waterfront area in West Side Manhattan, it was while wandering the dockyards in the spring of 1869 that she witnessed members of the Charlton Street Gang unsuccessfully attempting to board a small sloop anchored in mid-river. Watching the men being driven back across the river by a handful of the ship's crew, she offered her services to the men and became the gang's leader.
Within days, she engineered the successful hijacking of a larger sloop and, with "the Jolly Roger flying from the masthead", she and her crew reputedly sailed up and down the Hudson and Harlem Rivers raiding small villages, robbing farm houses and riverside mansions, kidnapping men and children for ransom. She was said to have made several male prisoners "walk the plank", she and her men continued their activities for several months and stashed their cargo in several hiding spots until they could be disposed of through fences and pawn shops along the Hudson and East Rivers. By the end of the summer, the farmers had begun resisting the raids, attacking landing parties with gunfire; the group abandoned the sloop and Sadie returned to the Fourth Ward, where she was now known as the "Queen of the Waterfront". She claimed to have made a truce with Gallus Mag, who returned Sadie's ear. Mag had displayed it in a pickled jar in the bar. Sadie wore it around her neck for the rest of her life. Unknown Sadie is referenced in several historical novels, most notably, J. T. Edson's Law of the Gun, Tom Murphy's Lily Cigar, Bart Sheldon's Ruby Sweetwater and the Ringo Kid and Thomas J. Fleming's A Passionate Girl.
She served as the subject of popular songs, including an historical ballad by the indie folk-rock band Nehedar, "The Ballad of Sadie Farrell", nehedar.com. In the film Gangs of New York the Hell Cat Maggie character is part of a combination of Hell Cat, Sadie Ferrall and Gallus Mag, she was portrayed by Kat Dennings in the "Scoundrels" episode of the Comedy Central series Drunk History. Charlton Street Gang Daybreak Boys Gallus Mag George Gastlin Hell-Cat Maggie Hook Gang Patsy Conroy Patsy Conroy Gang River pirate Lorimer, Sara. Booty: Girl Pirates on the High Seas. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2001; the Dictionary of Historic Nicknames: A Treasury of More Than 7,500 Famous and Infamous Nicknames from World History. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1984.