A traditional yurt or ger is a portable, round tent covered with skins or felt and used as a dwelling by several distinct nomadic groups in the steppes of Central Asia. The structure comprises an angled assembly or latticework of pieces of wood or bamboo for walls, a door frame, a wheel steam-bent; the roof structure is self-supporting, but large yurts may have interior posts supporting the crown. The top of the wall of self-supporting yurts is prevented from spreading by means of a tension band which opposes the force of the roof ribs. Modern yurts may be permanently built on a wooden platform. Yurt – from a Turkic word referring to the imprint left in the ground by a moved yurt, by extension, sometimes a person's homeland, kinsmen, or feudal appanage; the term came to be used in reference to the physical tent-like dwellings only in other languages. In modern Turkish the word "yurt" is used as the synonym of "homeland" or a "dormitory". In Russian the structure is called "yurta", whence the word came into English.
Гэр – in Mongolian means "home". Тирмә is the Bashkir term for yurt. киіз үй – the Kazakh word, means "felt house". Боз үй – the Kyrgyz term is meaning "grey house", because of the color of the felt. Ak öý and gara öý – In Turkmen the term is both "white house" and "black house", depending on its luxury and elegance. Qara u'y or otaw – in Qaraqalpaq the first term means "black house", while the second means "a newborn family" and is used only to name a young family's yurt. In Hungarian yurt is called "jurta". "Kherga"/"Jirga" – Afghans call them. "Kheyma" is the word for a yurt or a tent-like dwelling in India and Pakistan, from the Arabic:خیمه In Persian yurt is called چادر In Tajik the names are "yurt", "khona-i siyoh", "khayma". Өг is the Tuvan word for yurt. Yurts have been a distinctive feature of life in Central Asia for at least three thousand years, it is suggested that the Indo-European nomads were the first that used yurts and similar tents in Central Asia and parts of Russia and the Ukraine.
The first written description of a yurt used as a dwelling was recorded by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus. He described yurt-like tents as the dwelling place of the Scythians, a horse riding-nomadic nation who lived in the northern Black Sea and Central Asian region from around 600 BC to AD 300. Traditional yurts consist of an expanding wooden circular frame carrying a felt cover; the felt is made from the wool of the flocks of sheep. The timber to make the external structure is not to be found on the treeless steppes, must be obtained by trade in the valleys below; the frame consists of one or more expanding lattice wall-sections, a door-frame, bent roof poles and a crown. The Mongolian Ger has one or more columns to support the crown and straight roof poles; the wood frame is covered with pieces of felt. Depending on availability, felt sun-covers; the frame is held together with more ropes or ribbons. The structure is kept under compression by the weight of the covers, sometimes supplemented by a heavy weight hung from the center of the roof.
They vary with different sizes, relative weight. They provide a large amount of insulation and protection from the outside cold of winters, they are changed to keep the yurts cool for summertime. A yurt is designed to be dismantled and the parts carried compactly on camels or yaks to be rebuilt on another site. Complete construction takes around 2 hours; the traditional decoration within a yurt is pattern-based. These patterns are not according to taste, but are derived from sacred ornaments with certain symbolism. Symbols representing strength are among the most common, including the khas and four powerful beasts, as well as stylized representations of the five elements, considered to be the fundamental, unchanging elements of the cosmos; such patterns are used in the home with the belief that they will bring strength and offer protection. Repeating geometric patterns are widely used; the most widespread geometric pattern is walking pattern. Used as a border decoration, it represents unending strength and constant movement.
Another common pattern is a symbol of long life and happiness. The khamar ugalz and ugalz are derived from the shape of the animal's nose and horns, are the oldest traditional patterns. All patterns can be found among not only the yurts themselves, but on embroidery, books, clothing and other objects; the wooden crown of the yurt is itself emblematic in many Central Asian cultures. In old Kazakh communities, the yurt itself would be repaired and rebuilt, but the shangyrak would remain intact, passed from father to son upon the father's death. A family's length of heritage could be measured by the accumulation of stains on the shangrak from decades of smoke passing through it. A stylized version of the crown is in the center of the coat of arms of Kazakhstan, forms the
The Aleuts, who are known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan, Unangas, Унаңан, are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands. Both the Aleut people and the islands are divided between the U. S. state of Alaska and the Russian administrative division of Kamchatka Krai. Aleut people speak Unangam, the Aleut language, as well as English and Russian in the United States and Russia respectively. An estimated 150 people in the United States and five people in Russia speak Aleut; the language belongs to the Eskimo-Aleut language family and includes three dialects: Eastern Aleut, spoken on the Eastern Aleutian, Shumagin and Pribilof Islands. The Pribilof Islands boast the highest number of active speakers of Aleutian. Most of the Native elders speak Aleut, but it is rare for an everyday person to speak the language fluently. Beginning in 1829, Aleut was written in the Cyrillic script. From 1870, the language has been written in the Latin script. An Aleut dictionary and grammar have been published, portions of the Bible were translated into Aleut.
The Aleut dialects and tribes: Attuan dialect and speaking tribes: Sasignan / Sasxinan / Sasxinas or Near Islanders: in the Near Islands. Kasakam Unangangis or Copper Island Aleut: in the Commander Islands of Russian Federation.? Qax̂un or Rat Islanders: in the Buldir Island and Rat Islands. Atkan dialect or Western Aleut or Aliguutax̂ and speaking tribes: Naahmiĝus or Delarof Islanders: in the Delarof Islands and Andreanof Islands. Niiĝuĝis or Andreanof Islanders: in the Andreanof Islands. Eastern Aleut dialect and speaking tribes: Akuuĝun or Uniiĝun or Islanders of the Four Mountains: in the Islands of Four Mountains. Qawalangin or Fox Islanders: in the Fox Islands. Qigiiĝun or Krenitzen Islanders: in the Krenitzin Islands. Qagaan Tayaĝungin or Sanak Islanders: in the Sanak Islands. Taxtamam Tunuu dialect of Belkofski. Qaĝiiĝun or Shumigan Islanders: in the Shumagin Islands; the Aleut people lived throughout the Aleutian Islands, the Shumagin Islands, the far western part of the Alaska Peninsula, with an estimated population of around 25,000 prior to European contact.
In the 1820s, the Russian-American Company administered a large portion of the North Pacific during a Russian-led expansion of the fur trade. They resettled many Aleut families to the Pribilof Islands; these continue to have majority-Aleut communities. According to the 2000 Census, 11,941 people identified as being Aleut, while 17,000 identified as having partial Aleut ancestry. Prior to sustained European contact 25,000 Aleut lived in the archipelago; the Encyclopædia Britannica Online says more than 15,000 people have Aleut ancestry in the early 21st century. The Aleut suffered high fatalities in the 19th and early 20th centuries from Eurasian infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. In addition, the population suffered. Russian traders and Europeans married Aleut women and had families with them. After the arrival of Russian Orthodox missionaries in the late 18th century, many Aleuts became Christian. Of the numerous Russian Orthodox congregations in Alaska, most are majority Alaska Native in ethnicity.
One of the earliest Christian martyrs in North America was Saint Peter the Aleut. ` In the 18th century, Russia promyshlenniki traders established settlements on the islands. There was high demand for the furs. In May 1784, local Aleuts revolted on Amchitka against the Russian traders. According to what Aleut people said, in an account recorded by Japanese castaways and published in 2004, otters were decreasing year by year; the Russians paid the Aleuts less in goods in return for the furs they made. The Japanese learned; the leading Aleuts negotiated with the Russians, saying they had failed to deliver enough supplies in return for furs. Nezimov, leader of the Russians, ordered two of his men and Kazhimov to kill his mistress Oniishin, the Aleut chief's daughter, because he doubted that Oniishin had tried to dissuade her father and other leaders from pushing for more goods; that evening, hundreds of Aleut men marched to the Russians' houses. When five Russians opened fire, the Aleuts ran away; the next day the Aleut escaped again when the Russians started firing.
While the men attempted another attack the next day, they yelled and moved more towards the house. As Russians opened fire, they started to run away again. After they ran, the Russians noticed; the Russians took around children hostage, forcing the Aleuts to surrender. The Russians killed four Aleut leaders. After the four leaders had been killed, the Aleuts began to move from Amchitka to neighboring islands. Nezimov, leader of the Russian group, was jailed after the whole incident was reported to Russian officials. In 1811, in
An earth lodge is a semi-subterranean building covered or with earth, best known from the Native American cultures of the Great Plains and Eastern Woodlands. Most earth lodges are circular in construction with a dome-like roof with a central or offset smoke hole at the apex of the dome. Earth lodges are well-known from the more-sedentary tribes of the Plains such as the Hidatsa and Arikara, but they have been identified archaeologically among sites of the Mississippian culture in the eastern United States. Earth lodges were constructed using the wattle and daub technique, with a thick coating of earth; the dome-like shape of the earth lodge was achieved by the use of angled tree trunks, although hipped roofs were sometimes used. During construction the workers would dig an area a few feet beneath the surface, allowing the entire building to have a floor somewhat beneath the surrounding ground level, they set posts into holes in the ground around the edges of the earth lodge, made the tops meet in the middle.
This construction technique is sturdy and can produce large buildings, in which more than one family would live. Their size is limited by the length of available tree trunks. Internal vertical support posts were sometimes used to give additional structural support to the roof rafters. After a strong layer of sticks was wrapped through and over the radiating roof timbers, the people applied a layer of thatch as part of the roof; the structure was entirely covered in earth. The earth layer provided insulation against the extreme temperatures of the Plains; the structures consisted of a clay outer shell over an inner shell of long grasses and a woven willow ceiling. The middle of the earth lodge was used as a fire pit, a hole was built into the center; this smoke hole was covered by a bullboat during inclement weather. Logs were sheared them off; the most common wood used was cottonwood. Cottonwood was a soft wood. In Hidatsa culture, men only raised the large logs. Therefore, a lodge was considered to be owned by the woman.
A vestibule of exposed logs provided an entryway. A windbreak was built on the interior of the lodge, blocking the wind and giving privacy to the occupants. Earth lodges also contained cache pits lined with willow and grasses, within which dried vegetables were stored. Earth lodges were built alongside tribal farm fields, alternating with tipis. A reconstructed earth lodge can be seen at Iowa's Lake Park. A village made up of earth-lodges may be seen at New Town, North Dakota; the village consists of one large ceremonial lodge. In addition, a garden area and corrals have been built for authenticity; the park is open to the located west of New Town at the Earthlodge Village Site. The family earth lodges are 40 feet in diameter; the ceremonial earth lodge is more than 90 feet in diameter, the largest such structure in the world. The park is the central point in a rebuilding and cultural renewal effort by the three affiliated tribes of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation; this is the only village of its kind to be constructed by the Mandan and Arikara Nations in over 100 years.
A number of major Mississippian culture mound centers have identified earth lodges, either beneath mound construction or as a mound-top building. Sequential constructions and rebuilding of earth lodges seems to be part of the mechanism of construction for certain mounds. In Kanabec County, the Groundhouse River flows through such a center. According to Newton H. Winchell in The Aborigines of Minnesota, the river was named for the earth lodges of the Hidatsa, who lived in the area before being driven westward to the Missouri River by the Sioux; the Hidatsa lived in wooden huts, covered with earth. Earth house Kiva Quiggly hole Vernacular architecture
Krasnoyarsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia, with its administrative center in the city of Krasnoyarsk—the third-largest city in Siberia. Comprising half of the Siberian Federal District, Krasnoyarsk Krai is the largest krai in the Russian Federation, the second largest federal subject and the third largest subnational governing body by area in the world, after Sakha and the Australian state of Western Australia; the krai covers an area of 2,339,700 square kilometers, nearly one quarter the size of the entire country of Canada, constituting 13% of the Russian Federation's total area and containing a population of 2,828,187, or just under 2% of its population, per the 2010 Census. The krai lies in the middle of Siberia, occupies nearly half of the Siberian Federal District splitting it in half, stretching 3,000 km from the Sayan Mountains in the south along the Yenisei River to the Taymyr Peninsula in the north, it borders the Sakha Republic, the Tuva Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Kemerovo and Tyumen Oblasts, the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The krai is located in the basin of the Arctic Ocean. The main rivers of the krai are the Yenisei, its tributaries: the Kan, the Angara, the Podkamennaya Tunguska, the Nizhnyaya Tunguska. There are several thousand lakes in the krai; the largest lakes include Beloye, Glubokoye, Khantayskoye, Lama, Pyasina and Yessey. The rivers and lakes are rich with fish; the climate is continental with large temperature variations during the year. For the central and southern regions where most of the krai's population lives, long winters and short, hot summers are characteristic; the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai experiences conditions of three climate belts: Arctic and moderate. In the north there are less than 40 days with temperature above 10 °C, while in the south there are 110–120 such days; the average temperature in January is − 18 °C in the south. The average temperature in July is +20 °C in the south; the annual precipitation is 316 millimeters. Snow covers the central regions of the krai from early November until late March.
The peaks of the Sayan Mountains higher than 2,400–2,600 m and those of the Putorana Plateau higher than 1,000–1,300 m are covered with permanent snow. Permafrost is widespread in the north; the coastline contains a number of prominent peninsulas - from west to east the main ones are the Minina Peninsula, Mikhaylova Peninsula, the Taymyr Peninsula and the Khara-Tumus Peninsula. There are a large number of islands off the krai's coast, the most prominent of which are Sibiryakov Island, Nosok Island, Dikson Island, Vern Island, Brekhovskiye Island, Krestovskiy Island, the Kamennye Islands, the Zveroboy Islands, the Labyrintovye Islands, the Plavnikovye Islands, Kolosovykh Island, the Mona Islands, Rykacheva Island, Gavrilova Island and Prodolgovatyy Islands, the Nordenskiöld Archipelago, the Firnley Islands, the Heiberg Islands, Starokadomsky Island, Maly Taymyr Island, the Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, the Faddey Islands, the Saint Peter Islands. There are a number of islands further out that fall under the administration of Krasnoyarsk Krai - the most prominent being Bolshoy Island, Sverdrup Island, the Izvestiy TSIK Islands, the Arkticheskiy Institut Islands, the Kirov Islands, Uyedineniya Island, Voronina Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Ushakov Island.
The highest point of the krai is Grandiozny Peak in the East Sayan Mountains at an elevation of 2,922 meters. According to archaeologists, the first people reached Siberia circa 40,000 BCE; the grave-mounds and monuments of the Scythian culture in Krasnoyarsk Krai belong to the 7th century BCE and are ones of the oldest in Eurasia. A prince's grave, the Kurgan Arshan, discovered in 2001, is located in the krai. Russian settlement of the area began in the 17th century. After the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway the Russian colonization of the area increased. During both the Tsarist and the Bolsheviks' times the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai was used as a place of exile of political enemies; the first leaders of the Soviet state, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin were exiled to what is now the krai in 1897–1900 and 1903, respectively. In Stalin's era numerous Gulag camps were located in the region. In 1822, the Yeniseysk Governorate was created with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center that covered territory similar to that of the current krai.
On June 30, 1908, in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River, there occurred a powerful explosion most to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometers above Earth's surface. The force of the explosion is estimated to be about 10–15 megatons, it killed thousands of reindeer. Krasnoyarsk Krai was created in 1934 after disaggregation of the West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and included Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs and Khakas Autono
A dugout or dug-out known as a pit-house or earth lodge, is a shelter for humans or domesticated animals and livestock based on a hole or depression dug into the ground. Dugouts can be recessed into the earth, with a flat roof covered by ground, or dug into a hillside, they can be semi-recessed, with a constructed wood or sod roof standing out. These structures are one of the most ancient types of human housing known to archaeologists, the same methods have evolved into modern "earth shelter" technology. Dugouts may be temporary shelters constructed as an aid to specific activities, e.g. concealment and protection during warfare or shelter while hunting. First driven underground by enemies who invaded their country, the Berbers of Matmata found underground homes the best defense against summer heat. Burra in South Australia's Mid-North region was the site of the famous'Monster Mine' and home to 4,400 people in 1851, 1,800 of whom were living in dugouts in the Burra Creek. Census data from 1851 shows that nearly 80 percent of the workers living in the dugouts were miners, with the majority being Cornish.
Floods and the Victorian gold rush ended the large scale use of dugouts in Burra, but people were still being'washed' out of the creek in 1859. Coober Pedy is a small outback town in northern South Australia, 846 kilometres north of Adelaide on the Stuart Highway, where opal mining is the dominant industry. Most residents live in caves excavated into the hillsides to avoid the harsh summer temperatures and work underground in mine shafts. White Cliffs, New South Wales is similar, in terms of climate and mining operations. In north China on the Loess Plateau, caves called yaodongs dug into hillsides have been the traditional dwellings from early times; the advantage of a yaodong over an ordinary house is that it needs little heating in winter and no cooling in summer. An estimated 40 million people in northern China live in a yaodong. Many people live in semi-recessed dugout houses in north-western China where hot summer and cold winters prevail. In the Early Jōmon period of Japanese pre-history complex pit houses were the most used method of housing.
During the Bar Kokhba Revolt, Jews used an intricate system of man-made hideout complexes, prepared well in advance of the onset of the revolt. Many such sites were discovered for instance at Horvat ` Ethri. Cappadocia contains at least 36 historical underground cities, carved out of unusual geological formations formed via the eruptions of ancient volcanoes; the cities were inhabited by the Hittites later by early Christians as hiding places. They are now archeological and tourist sites, but are not occupied; the latest large Turkish underground city was discovered in 2007 in Güzelyurt. This city was a stopover on the Silk Road, allowing travelers and their camels to rest in safety, underground, in a'fortress' hotel equivalent to a modern hotel; the well-preserved cave towns of Crimea are Mangup-Kale, Eski-Kermen and Chufut-Kale. The settlement of Mangup-Kale dates back to the 3rd century AD and was fortified by Justinian I in the mid 6th century, it was inhabited and governed by Crimean Goths, became the center of their autonomous principality.
The last inhabitants, a small community of Karaims, abandoned the site in the 1790s. In Iceland, since time immemorial and well into the 20th century, most houses were dug down, with turf or sod walls built up and roofs made of timber and turf/sod. Turf was used because timber was scarce and expensive, stone not practical before the advent of concrete. Matera has gained international fame for its ancient town, the "Sassi di Matera", UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993; the Sassi are houses dug into the volcanic rock itself, known locally as "Tufo", characteristic of Basilicata and Apulia. In the Netherlands the dugout was banned by the housing safety law of 1901. In some areas in the east the country, people lived in dugouts into the 1960s. Dutch dugouts are constructed around an excavated pit with a roof made from heather sod, front and back walls made from slabs of peat. Peat diggers and their families lived in these, in life-shortening conditions of poverty and insect infestation. A small number of these huts survive, can be seen in the open air museums of Arnhem, Barger-Compascuum and Harkema.
Modernized dugouts are available as tourist accommodation in several locations. Dugouts called. In ancient Scotland, earth houses known as yird and Picts' houses, were underground dwellings, extant after the Roman evacuation of Britain. Entry was effected by a passage not much wider than a fox burrow, which sloped downwards 10 or 12 ft. to the floor of the house. Similar dwellings are found in Ireland. In Serbia they are called zemunica; the town of Zemun derived its name from Zemln, akin to zemunica. The most famous feature of the town of Guadix is the cave dwellings in the Barrio. Dugouts were used extensively as protection from shelling during World War I in the Western Front, they were an important part of the trench warfare as they were used as an area to rest and carry out other activities such as eating. They would range in size from dugouts that could hold several men to dugouts that could hold thousands of soldiers; some sophisticated dugouts, such as t
A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope. While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents are anchored using guy ropes tied to stakes or tent pegs. First used as portable homes by nomads, tents are now more used for recreational camping and as temporary shelters. A form of tent called a teepee or tipi, noted for its cone shape and peak smoke-hole, was used by Native American and Canadian aboriginal tribes of the Plains Indians since ancient times, variously estimated from 10,000 years BCE to 4,000 BCE. Tents range in size from "bivouac" structures, just big enough for one person to sleep in, up to huge circus tents capable of seating thousands of people; the bulk of this article is concerned with tents used for recreational camping which have sleeping space for one to ten people. Larger tents are discussed in a separate section below. Tents for recreational camping fall into two categories.
Tents intended to be carried by backpackers are the lightest type. Small tents may be sufficiently light that they can be carried for long distances on a touring bicycle, a boat, or when backpacking; the second type are larger, heavier tents which are carried in a car or other vehicle. Depending on tent size and the experience of the person or people involved, such tents can be assembled in between 5 and 25 minutes; some specialised tents have spring-loaded poles and can be'pitched' in seconds, but take somewhat longer to'strike'. Tents were used at least as far back as the early Iron Age, they are mentioned in the Bible. The Roman Army used leather tents, copies of which have been used by modern re-enactors. Various styles developed over some derived from traditional nomadic tents, such as the yurt. Most military tents throughout history were of a simple ridge design; the major technological advance was the use of linen or hemp canvas for the canopy versus leather for the Romans. The primary use of tents was still to provide portable shelter for a small number of men in the field.
By World War I larger designs were being deployed in rear areas to provide shelter for support activities and supplies. Tents are used as habitation by nomads, recreational campers and disaster victims. Tents are typically used as overhead shelter for festivals, backyard parties, major corporate events, excavation covers, industrial shelters. Tents have traditionally been used by nomadic people all over the world, such as Native Americans, Mongolian and Tibetan Nomads, the Bedouin. Armies all over the world have long used tents as part of their working life. Tents are preferred by the military for their quick setup and take down times, compared to more traditional shelters. One of the world's largest users of tents is the U. S. Department of Defense; the U. S. Department of Defense has strict rules on tent tent specifications; the most common tent uses for the military are temporary barracks, DFAC buildings, field headquarters, Morale and Recreation facilities, security checkpoints. One of the most popular military designs fielded by the U.
S. DoD is the TEMPER Tent. TEMPER is an acronym for Tent Expandable Modular PERsonnel; the U. S. military is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter or DRASH. It is a collapsible tent with provisions for air heating. Camping is a popular form of recreation which involves the use of tents. A tent is practical because of its portability and low environmental impact; these qualities are necessary when used in the backcountry. Tents are used in humanitarian emergencies, such as war and fire; the primary choice of tents in humanitarian emergencies are canvas tents, because a cotton canvas tent allows functional breathability while serving the purpose of temporary shelter. Tents distributed by organisations such as UNHCR are made by various manufacturers, depending on the region where the tents are deployed, as well as depending on the purpose. At times, these temporary shelters become a permanent or semi-permanent home for displaced people living in refugee camps or shanty towns who can't return to their former home and for whom no replacement homes are made available.
Tents are often used as sites and symbols of protest over time. In 1968 Resurrection City saw hundreds of tents set up by anti-poverty campaigners in Washington D. C. In the 1970s and 1980s anti-nuclear peace camps spread across Europe and North America, with the largest women's-only camp to date set up at the Greenham Common United States RAF base in Newbury, England to protest cruise missiles during the Cold War; the 1990s saw environmental protest camps as part of the campaign for the Clayoquot Sound in Canada and the roads protests in the UK. The first No Border Network camp was held in Strasbourg in 2002, becoming the first in a series of international camps that continue to be organised today. Other international camps of the 2000s include summit counter-mobilisations like Horizone at the Gleneagles G8 gathering in 2005 and the start of Camp for Climate Action in 2006. Since September 2011, the tent has been used as a symbol of the Occupy movement, an international protest movement, directed against economic and social inequality.
Occupy protesters use tents to create camps in public places wherein they can form com
A shed is a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden or on an allotment, used for storage, hobbies, or as a workshop. Sheds vary in the complexity of their construction and their size, from small open-sided tin-roofed structures to large wood-framed sheds with shingled roofs and electrical outlets. Sheds used on farms or in industry can be large structures; the main types of shed construction are metal sheathing over a metal frame, plastic sheathing and frame, all-wood construction, vinyl-sided sheds built over a wooden frame. A culture of shed enthusiasts exists in several countries for people who enjoy building sheds and spending time in them for relaxation. In Australia and New Zealand there are magazines called The Shed, an association for shed hobbyists, a book entitled Men and Sheds. Depending on the region and type of use, a shed may be called an "outhouse", "outbuilding" or "shack"; the simplest and least-expensive sheds are available in kit form. These kits are designed for regular people to be able to assemble themselves using available tools.
Both shed kits and DIY plans are available for plastic sheds. Sheds are used to store home and garden tools and equipment such as lawn tractors, gardening supplies. In addition, sheds can be used to store items that are not suitable for indoor storage, such as petrol, pesticides, or herbicides. For homes with small gardens or modest storage needs, there are several types of small sheds; the sheds not only use less ground area but have a low profile less to obstruct the view or clash with the landscaping. These small sheds include corner sheds, which fit into a corner, vertical sheds, horizontal sheds, tool sheds; when a shed is used for tool storage and hooks are used to maximize the storage space. Gambrel-style roofed sheds, which resemble a Dutch-style barn, have a high sloping roofline which increases storage space in the "loft" area; some Gambrel-styles offer the advantage of reduced overall height. Another style of small shed is the saltbox-style shed. Many sheds have either a pent or apex roof shape.
A pent shed features a single roof section, angled downwards to let rainwater run off, with more headroom at the front than the back. This is a simple, practical design that will fit well next to a wall or fence, it is usually lower than the typical apex shed, so could be a better choice if there are any height restrictions. A pent shed may be attached to a wall. An apex shed. Two roof sections meet at a ridge in the middle, providing more headroom in the centre than at the sides; this type is regarded as a more attractive and traditional design, may be preferable if the shed is going to be visible from the house. A twist on the standard apex shape is the reverse apex shed. In this design, the door is set in a side wall instead of the front; the main advantage of the reverse apex design is that the door opens into the widest part of the shed instead of the narrowest, so it's easier to reach into all areas to retrieve or store equipment. Larger, more-expensive sheds are constructed of wood and include features found in house construction, such as windows, a shingled roof, electrical outlets.
Larger sheds provide more space for engaging in hobbies such as gardening, small engine repair, or tinkering. Some sheds have small porches or include furniture, which allows them to be used for relaxation purposes. In some cases and homeworkers in general who live in mild climates use small to medium-sized wooden garden sheds as outdoor offices. There is a growing industry in providing "off the peg" garden offices to cater for this demand in the UK but in the US. Shed owners can customize wooden sheds to match the features of the main house. A number of decorative options can be added to sheds, such as dormers, flowerboxes and weathervanes; as well, practical options can be added such as benches, ventilation systems, electric lighting. Sheds designed for gardening, called "potting sheds" feature windows or skylights for illumination, ventilation grilles, a potter's bench for mixing soil and re-potting plants. Garden sheds — The vast majority of sheds are garden sheds, including allotment sheds.
This class of sheds includes potting sheds and tool sheds. Most modern gardens are too small for more than a single shed, containing garden tools and lawn mowers. Bike sheds contain a framework on which bikes can be supported and locked and a roof to keep rain and/or snow off the bikes. Bike sheds range from little more than a supported roof to more-complex structures with walls and locking doors or gates; the color of a bikeshed is the topic of a well-known adage about the challenges of group work in organizational psychology. Boat sheds are lockable wooden sheds built near a body of water to store small private boats, bathing suits, life vests and related items. Boat sheds used. Wood sheds are sheds used for storage of large quantities of firewood. Woodsheds help protect fir