The Hutu known as the Abahutu, are a Bantu ethnic or social group native to the African Great Lakes region of Africa, an area now in Burundi and Rwanda. They live in Rwanda and the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they form one of the principal ethnic groups alongside the Tutsi and the Twa; the Hutu is the largest of the four main population divisions in Rwanda. According to the Central Intelligence Agency, 84% of Rwandans and 85% of Burundians are Hutu, with Tutsis the next largest ethnic group at 15% and 14% of residents in Rwanda and Burundi, respectively; the Twa pygmies, the smallest of the two countries' principal populations share language and culture with the Hutu and Tutsi. However, they are distinguished by a shorter stature; the Hutu are believed to have first emigrated to the Great Lake region from Central Africa in the great Bantu expansion. Various theories have emerged to explain the purported physical differences between them and their fellow Bantu-speaking neighbors, the Tutsi.
These pastoralists were reckoned to have established aristocracies over the sedentary Hutu and Twa. Through intermarriage with the local Bantus, the herders were assimilated culturally and racially. Others suggest that the two groups are related but not identical, that differences between them were exacerbated by Europeans, or by a gradual, natural split, as those who owned cattle became known as Tutsi and those who did not became Hutu. Mahmood Mamdani states that the Belgian colonial power designated people as Tutsi or Hutu on the basis of cattle ownership, physical measurements and church records; the debate over the ethnic origins of the Hutu and Tutsi within Rwandan politics predates the Rwandan genocide, continues to the present day, with the government of Rwanda no longer using the distinction. Modern-day genetic studies of the Y-chromosome suggest that the Hutu, like the Tutsi, are of Bantu extraction. Paternal genetic influences associated with the Horn of Africa and North Africa are few, are ascribed to much earlier inhabitants who were assimilated.
However, the Hutu have fewer Nilo-Saharan paternal lineages than the Tutsi. In general, the Hutu appear to share a close genetic kinship with neighboring Bantu populations the Tutsi. However, it is unclear whether this similarity is due to extensive genetic exchanges between these communities through intermarriage or whether it stems from common origins: generations of gene flow obliterated whatever clear-cut physical distinctions may have once existed between these two Bantu peoples – renowned to be height, body build, facial features. With a spectrum of physical variation in the peoples, Belgian authorities mandated ethnic affiliation in the 1920s, based on economic criteria. Formal and discrete social divisions were imposed upon ambiguous biological distinctions. To some extent, the permeability of these categories in the intervening decades helped to reify the biological distinctions, generating a taller elite and a shorter underclass, but with little relation to the gene pools that had existed a few centuries ago.
The social categories are thus real, but there is little if any detectable genetic differentiation between Hutu and Tutsi. Tishkoff et al. found their mixed Hutu and Tutsi samples from Rwanda to be predominately of Bantu origin, with minor gene flow from Afro-Asiatic communities. Hutus speak Rwanda-Rundi as their native tongue, a member of the Bantu subgroup of the Niger–Congo language family. Rwanda-Rundi is subdivided into the Kinyarwanda and Kirundi dialects, which have been standardized as official languages of Rwanda and Burundi respectively, it is spoken as a mother tongue by the Tutsi and Twa. Additionally, a small portion of Hutu speak French, the other official language of Rwanda and Burundi, as a lingua franca, although the population is dwindling given the poor relations between Rwanda and France; the Belgian-sponsored Tutsi monarchy survived until 1959. In Burundi, who are the minority, maintained control of the government and military. In Rwanda, the political power was transferred from the minority Tutsi to the majority Hutu.
In Rwanda, this led to the "Social revolution" and Hutu violence against Tutsis. Tens of thousands of Tutsis were killed and many others fled to neighboring countries, such as Burundi and expanding the Banyamulenge Tutsi ethnic group in the South Kivu region of the Belgian Congo. Exiled Tutsis from Burundi invaded Rwanda, prompting Rwanda to close its border with Burundi. In Burundi, a campaign of genocide was conducted against Hutu population in 1972, an estimated 100,000 Hutus died. In 1993, Burundi's first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, Hutu, was believed to be assassinated by Tutsi officers, as was the person constitutionally entitled to succeed him; this sparked a genocide in Burundi between Hutu political structures and the Tutsi military, in which an estimated 500,000 Burundians died. There were many mass killings of moderate Hutus. While Tutsi remained in control of Burundi, the conflict resulted in genocide in Rwanda as well. A Tutsi rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, invaded Rwanda from Uganda, which started a civil war against Rwanda's Hutu government in 1990.
A peace agreement was signed, but violence erupted again, culminating in the Rwandan genocide of 1994, when Hutu extremists killed an
The Snow Train Rolling Stock, located in Railroad Heritage Park in Laramie, consists of five pieces of Union Pacific Railroad rolling stock. The five vehicles, which are a snow plow, tender, bunk car, caboose, form a snow train, a type of train used to clear snow from rail lines; the snow plow was built as a tender and converted to a wedge-shaped plow in 1953. The locomotive was built in 1903 and served in Wyoming from 1947 to 1957; the bunk car was built as an automobile car in 1929 and became a bunk car in 1955. The tender was built between 1907 and 1920, the caboose was built in 1955. Wyoming snow trains did not function as pre-assembled units and were put together when they were needed to clear snow. While these five pieces of rolling stock never operated together as a snow train, they are nonetheless representative of Wyoming snow trains; the pieces were moved to the park in 2011 from various locations around Laramie. The Snow Train Rolling Stock was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 8, 2013.
Railroad Heritage Park Snow Train Rolling Stock at the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office
Ernest Lee Thomas is an American actor. He is best known for his role as Roger "Raj" Thomas on the 1970s ABC sitcom What's Happening!!, its 1980s syndicated sequel, What's Happening Now!!, for his recurring role as Mr. Omar on Everybody Hates Chris. Thomas was born in Gary and began his professional acting career as a Broadway actor, appearing in the 1974 revival production of Love for Love and in the 1975 revival of The Member of the Wedding. Both shows starred actress Glenn Close. Shortly after he moved to Los Angeles to pursue a career as a TV/film actor. In the fall of 1975 he received a role on an episode of The Jeffersons, it was during the taping of the show that he learned of an audition for the upcoming comedy sitcom What's Happening!!, loosely based on the 1975 film Cooley High. He went on to win the role of Roger "Raj" Thomas on the show, which aired from 1976 to 1979. During the show's run, Thomas was involved in other acting film and TV projects including Baretta, The Brady Bunch Hour and the film A Piece of the Action starring Sidney Poitier and Bill Cosby.
Though the series rated well, What's Happening!! was cancelled after its third season in the early spring of 1979. After a six-year hiatus from TV and film acting, Ernest resumed his role as Roger "Raj" Thomas in the sequel What's Happening Now!! The show aired in first-run syndication from 1985 to 1988. Ernest Thomas is one of the stars of rocker/horror movie director Rob Zombie's 2012 film The Lords of Salem in which he plays a local town's radio DJ. Since the show's cancellation Thomas has guest starred on a number of popular TV dramas and sitcoms including In the Heat of the Night, The Parent'Hood, Soul Food, The Steve Harvey Show, All About the Andersons and more Just Jordan, he has appeared in a number of films, including a supporting role in Malcolm X and a cameo in Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star. He had a recurring role as funeral director, Mr. Omar, on the TV sitcom Everybody Hates Chris, he had an uncredited guest spot as Ernest T "Bass" on the TV Show Are We There Yet? It was titled, "The Satchel Paige Episode" and had him playing a Flavor Flav type personality.
He has an eye condition called amblyopia. 1976-1979: What's Happening!! - Roger'Raj' Thomas 1977: A Piece of the Action - John 1985-1988: What's Happening Now!! - Roger'Raj' Thomas 1991: Kiss and Be Killed - Det. Ross 1992: Malcolm X - Sidney 2003: The Watermelon Heist - Jailer 2003: Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star - Ernest Thomas 2005-2009: Everybody Hates Chris - Mr. Omar / Funeral Director / Radical Man 2007: Paroled - Royce Henderson 2009: Funny People - Yo Teach Principal 2012: The Lords of Salem - Chip McDonald 2013: The Pastor and Mrs. Jones - Pastor 2014: Basketball Girlfriend - Lenny 2014: Revenge - Neville 2014: The Slimbones - Uncle AB 2015: Mega Shark vs. Kolossus - Admiral Titus Jackson 2015: Chocolate City - Diner Manager 2016:'79 Parts - Priore 2016: Stop Bullying Now: Live from the Big House - Himself 2016 - Earworm 2017: Chocolate City: Vegas Strip - Mr. Williams 2017: The Gods - Olympus 2017: Two Wolves - Olivier Ernest Lee Thomas on IMDb
Stargate games are inspired by the Stargate franchise, which started with the 1994 film, Stargate directed by Roland Emmerich. The games in this article are not related to the 1981 arcade game Stargate by Williams Electronics. Stargate SG-3000 is a simulator thrill ride based around the successful MGM television series Stargate SG-1 that made its debut at The Space Centre in Bremen, Germany in December, 2003. A reproduction has now been built at Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom, Six Flags Great America and Six Flags Marine World; as of 2006, Six Flags Great America no longer shows Stargate SG-3000. The contract with the park expired and the movie was pulled about a month before the season started. Stargate is a 1995 pinball game, released by Gottlieb; the game is based on the film Stargate, not the television show Stargate SG-1. It has many modes, including several multi-ball modes. A "pyramid" is the main feature of this game, it has a top that opens by lowering. A moving "Glidercraft" ship will be extended from the pyramid.
The "Glidercraft" will zigzag left-right, in front of the pyramid, with about 90 degrees of horizontal movement. This game features two "Horus" targets; these are the reverse of drop targets: they are targets that, rather than dropping down into the playfield when hit, rise up into the air. Each target is attached to a large "Horus" structure, itself attached to a pivot that can raise and lower; these Horus structures drop to block the player from reaching two key shots. The game raises them, allowing the player to temporarily make the shots. Part of the development involved having actor James Spader record the voice parts of Daniel Jackson. Stargate Trading Card Game is a trading card game based on the long-running Stargate series, it released in both online and physical card formats in April 2007. The three sets released were based on Stargate SG-1; the Stargate TCG is published by Comic Images. The TCG pulls players into the Stargate universe as they put their favorite characters together to form a team and send them through the gate to accomplish missions.
New gameplay lets characters "learn" from their accomplishments and mistakes to increase their capabilities. There are three different ways to win: Earning experience points, collecting glyphs, or scoring Adversaries. By completing missions, players can play glyphs onto their characters which unlock abilities that could help them win the game; the online version of the game has since been discontinued. It contained the same cards. However, being online it gave players the advantage of a more diverse group of opponents to play against at any time of day or night, it included an online deck builder and collection management system, making it easy to manage physical and virtual collections. There were online tournaments with rewards of free cards and increased player rankings in worldwide standings. There was at one point a redemption program known as "Through the Gate"; this allowed players to collect the full set of digital cards, redeem them online for physical cards. The online game went live on April 27, 2007.
The first set of cards contains 292 cards. Starter decks feature Jack O'Neill, Daniel Jackson, Samantha Carter, Teal'c, are playable, each containing sixty cards including four team character cards that are based on the heroes of the show. Booster packs each contain eleven additional cards, including characters, missions and other gear, as well as obstacles that players can use to enhance their deck; the set is made up of 66 Rare cards, 66 Uncommon cards, 100 Common cards, 6 Ultra-Rare cards, 54 Starter-deck-only cards. Released on August 16, 2007, the second set contains 292 cards and is based on the Goa'uld System Lords. Set two focuses on expanding the villain aspect of Stargate TCG. Starter Decks feature Ba'al, Osiris, Yu, it introduced a new feature called Dominion and expanded upon existing traits from the Stargate SG-1 set such as Russians, Tok'ra, NID. The set is made up of 66 Rare cards, 66 Uncommon cards, 100 Common cards, 6 Ultra-Rare cards, 54 Starter-deck-only cards. Released on May 9, 2008, the third entitled Rise of the Ori, includes 240 cards and it introduces Ships, Promotion Tokens, the Blockade ability.
A fourth set was announced and was going to be based on the spin-off television show, Stargate Atlantis. However, The game was discontinued before the fourth set was released; the Stargate SG-1 Adventure Game was a role-playing game based on the Canadian-American television series Stargate SG-1. In 1998, West End Games obtained a license to develop derivative works from the television show, they hired John Scott Tynes to develop the property for them using WEG's D6 System. WEG ran into financial difficulties and the Stargate SG-1 Adventure Game project was cancelled, after Tynes had completed about two-thirds of the game. Tynes was refused payment for his work, he subsequently made the incomplete game available for download from his website; the Stargate SG-1 Roleplaying Game is a role-playing game based on the Canadian-American television series Stargate SG-1, released in 2003 by Alderac Entertainment Group. The game, based on AEG's Spycraft, uses the d20 System, it was considered canon by the publishers and the staff of MGM.
When Sony purchased MGM, MGM lost the license to produce Stargate game products and the development license is unassigned. The Stargate Roleplaying Game is an upcoming role-playing game based on the Canadian-American television series Stargate SG-1, it is being developed by Wyvern Gaming through a collaboration with M
Sir Robert Warrand Carlyle was an Indian Civil Servant, historian on Western medieval period. Beginning as an administrator in India, Carlyle came to hold the post of Inspector-General of Bengal Police, he oversaw the construction of the imperial capital of the Raj to Delhi. Robert Warrand was born at Brechin, the elder son of James Edward Carlyle and his wife Jessie Margaret Carlyle, he was related to Thomas Carlyle through his father's side. Robert was educated served as chaplain of Chursh of Scotland in Bombay and Pietermaritzburg. Graduating from Glasgow University, Carlyle joined the Indian Civil Service in 1880, he began his service as assistant magistrate at Midnapore in Bengal and served as under-secretary to Government of Bengal a number of times. In 1894, Carlyle was transferred to Darbhanga in present-day Bihar, his transfer coincided with the Famine of 1896. Leading the famine relief effort, Carlyle earned the praise of Commissioner of Patna J. A. Bourdillon, he was created CIE in 1898 for his famine work.
In 1902 Carlyle was appointed inspector-general of the Bengal police, in 1904 he was appointed chief secretary to the Bengal government. In 1907 he was promoted to Agriculture Secretary to The Raj, he rose to be the head of the department of Revenue and Agriculture in 1910 with an appointment to the Viceroy's Executive Council. In 1911 he oversaw the planning and construction of the new imperial capital at Delhi for transfer of capital from Calcutta, he was appointed KCSI IN 1911. Carlyle moved to Essex in England. After his retirement he worked with his younger brother Alexander in publishing histories of medieval political theory in the west. Between 1916 and 1918 Carlyle served in the central tribune. 1919 he was appointed a trustee of the King's fund. Carlyle died in Florence, May 1934. Carlyle married Isabel Jane Barton in September 1903. Lady Carlyle was awarded the kaisar-i-Hind gold medal in 1916 for her work in organizing comfort packages for the troops in Mesopotamia; the marriage remained childless.
Following his retirement he took interest in the work of the Church Army through his cousin Prebendary Wilson Carlile. Carlyle was an advocate of lighter revenue demands. Working in the Revenue and Agriculture department, he presided over an increased investment in agriculture and expanded the fledgeling co-operative rural credit movement, he was renowned for forthcoming views and uncompromising expression of opinion, us said to have disliked secretariat work and debates at thelegislative council. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Dictionary of National Biography
Federico Umberto D'Amato was an Italian secret agent, who led the Office for Reserved Affairs of the Ministry of Interior from the 1950s till the 1970s, when the activity of the intelligence service was undercover and not publicly known. D'Amato was born in Marseille, during World War II he worked for the US Office of Strategic Services. After the end of the conflict he was at the head of the North Atlantic Treaty Special Office, a link between NATO and the United States. At the end of World War II US intelligence recruited large numbers of officials from the Republic of Salò and from the Italian Special Forces, Decima MAS, with the help of D'Amato to operate in the newly founded Italian state; this recruitment program included prominent figures such as Prince Valerio Borghese, Pino Rauti and Licio Gelli, who are believed to have played a major role in the terrorist attacks in Cold War Italy. D'Amato's contact with the CIA was James Jesus Angleton, he entered the Office for Reserved Affairs of the Italian of the Minister of Interior in 1957.
In 1974, two days after the Piazza della Loggia bombing, he was removed from the position and assigned to the boundary police, although he kept a strong influence on the office until the 1980s. For his activity as the office's director he has been accused of sidetracking numerous investigations about the massacres occurred in that period. D'Amato was a member of Propaganda 2, a secret masonic lodge involved in numerous political and economical scandals in the 1970s. An expert of gastronomy, he held a column in the weekly L'espresso, under the pseudonym of Federico Godio. Propaganda Due Kidnapping of Aldo Moro Strategy of tension