Royal Welch Fusiliers
The Royal Welch Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales Division. It was founded in 1689 to oppose James II and to part in the imminent war with France. The Royal accolade was earned fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713 and it was one of the oldest infantry regiments in the British Army, hence the archaic spelling of the word Welch instead of Welsh.56. During those decades, the regiment itself unofficially used the Welch form, the regiment was amalgamated with the Royal Regiment of Wales on 1 March 2006, to become the 1st Battalion, Royal Welsh. The regiment primarily recruited from North Wales and it should not be confused with the Welch Regiment, which recruited from South and West Wales. The regiment was formed by Lord Henry Herbert at Ludlow in March 1689 to oppose James II, in the following year, it fought at the Siege of Athlone in June and the Battle of Aughrim in July. The regiment embarked for Flanders in 1694 for service in the Nine Years War and it fought at the Siege of Namur in July 1695.
The regiment returned to Flanders in 1701 for service in the War of the Spanish Succession, it saw action at the Battle of Schellenberg in July 1704, the regiment returned to Flanders in 1742 for service in the War of the Austrian Succession. It was in action at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743, the regiment embarked for Germany in 1758 for service in the Seven Years War. It fought at Battle of Minden in August 1759, the Battle of Warburg in July 1760, the regiment was sent to North America for service in the American Revolutionary War in 1773. The light infantry and grenadier companies of the Fusiliers saw bloody action at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, All companies, except the grenadiers who were garrisoning New York City, fought at the Battle of Guilford Court House in March 1781. The regiment participated in every campaign up to the Siege of Yorktown in September 1781. At the surrender of Yorktown, the Royal Welch Fusiliers was the only British regiment not to surrender its colours, the regiment embarked for the West Indies in 1794 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars.
It took part in the capture of Port-au-Prince in Haiti in 1795 before returning home in 1796 and it took part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799 and fought at the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799. It went to Egypt for the Battle of Alexandria in March 1801, the regiment embarked for the Peninsula in 1810. It saw action at the Battle of Albuera in May 1811, the Siege of Badajoz in May 1811 and the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812. It pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. It took part in the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 when it fought under Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Mitchell, in the nineteenth century, the regiment took part in the Crimean War, the Second Opium War, the Indian Mutiny and the Third Anglo-Burmese War
George Orson Welles was an American actor, director and producer who worked in theatre and film. In 1937 he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941. It reportedly caused widespread panic when listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was actually occurring, although some contemporary sources claim these reports of panic were mostly false and overstated, they rocketed Welles to notoriety. His first film was Citizen Kane, which he co-wrote, directed, Welles was an outsider to the studio system and directed only 13 full-length films in his career. He has been praised as the ultimate auteur, Welles followed up Citizen Kane with critically acclaimed films including The Magnificent Ambersons in 1942 and Touch of Evil in 1958. Although these three are his most acclaimed films, critics have argued other works of his, such as The Lady from Shanghai and Chimes at Midnight, are underappreciated.
Known for his voice, Welles was an actor in radio and film, a Shakespearean stage actor. George Orson Welles was born May 6,1915, in Kenosha, son of Richard Head Welles and he was named after his paternal great-grandfather, influential Kenosha attorney Orson S. Head, and his brother George Head. Despite his familys affluence, Welles encountered hardship in childhood and his parents separated and moved to Chicago in 1919. His father, who made a fortune as the inventor of a bicycle lamp, became an alcoholic. Beatrice died of hepatitis in a Chicago hospital May 10,1924, the Gordon String Quartet, which had made its first appearance at her home in 1921, played at Beatrices funeral. After his mothers death Welles ceased pursuing music and it was decided that he would spend the summer with the Watson family at a private art colony in Wyoming, New York, established by Lydia Avery Coonley Ward. There he played and became friends with the children of the Aga Khan, Welles briefly attended public school before his alcoholic father left business altogether and took him along on his travels to Jamaica and the Far East.
When they returned they settled in a hotel in Grand Detour, when the hotel burned down and his father took to the road again. During the three years that Orson lived with his father, some observers wondered who took care of whom, in some ways, he was never really a young boy, you know, said Roger Hill, who became Welless teacher and lifelong friend. Welles briefly attended school in Madison, enrolled in the fourth grade. At Todd School, Welles came under the influence of Roger Hill, Hill provided Welles with an ad hoc educational environment that proved invaluable to his creative experience, allowing Welles to concentrate on subjects that interested him. Welles performed and staged theatrical experiments and productions there, Todd provided Welles with many valuable experiences, wrote critic Richard France
The original purpose of medieval grammar schools was the teaching of Latin. Over time the curriculum was broadened, first to include Ancient Greek, and English and other European languages, natural sciences, history and other subjects. In the late Victorian era grammar schools were reorganised to provide secondary education throughout England and Wales, Grammar schools of these types were established in British territories overseas, where they have evolved in different ways. With the move to comprehensive schools in the 1960s and 1970s, some grammar schools became fully independent and charged fees. In both cases, many of these schools kept grammar school in their names, more recently, a number of state grammar schools still retaining their selective intake gained academy status, meaning that they are independent of the Local Education Authority. Some parts of England retain forms of the Tripartite System, some of the remaining grammar schools can trace their histories to before the 16th century.
The schools were attached to cathedrals and monasteries, teaching Latin – the language of the church – to future priests, other subjects required for religious work were occasionally added, including music and verse and mathematics and law. With the foundation of the ancient universities from the late 12th century, grammar schools became the point to a liberal arts education. Pupils were usually educated in schools up to the age of 14, after which they would look to universities. An example of a grammar school founded by a medieval borough corporation unconnected with church or university is Bridgnorth Grammar School. During the English Reformation in the 16th century, most cathedral schools were closed and replaced by new foundations funded from the dissolution of the monasteries. For example, the oldest extant schools in Wales – Christ College, with the increased emphasis on studying the scriptures after the Reformation, many schools added Greek and, in a few cases, Hebrew. The teaching of languages was hampered by a shortage of non-Latin type.
Many of these are commemorated in annual Founders Day services and ceremonies at surviving schools. The usual pattern was to create an endowment to pay the wages of a master to instruct boys in Latin. The school day ran from 6 a. m. to 5 p. m. with a two-hour break for lunch, in winter, school started at 7 a. m. Most of the day was spent in the learning of Latin. To encourage fluency, some schoolmasters recommended punishing any pupil who spoke in English, by the end of their studies at age 14, they would be quite familiar with the great Latin authors, and with Latin drama and rhetoric
Bangor University is a Welsh university in the city of Bangor in the county of Gwynedd in North Wales. It received its Royal Charter in 1885 and was one of the member institutions of the former federal University of Wales. It was officially known for most of its history as the University College of North Wales, from September 2007 it became known as Bangor University, having become independent from the federal University of Wales. In 2012 Bangor was ranked 251st among the top universities. According to the Sunday Times University Guide 2012, it is rated top in Wales for teaching excellence and is among the top 15 universities in the UK in this category. The university was founded as the University College of North Wales on 18 October 1884, with an address by the Earl of Powis. There was a procession to the college including 3,000 quarrymen, the college was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1885. Its students received degrees from the University of London until 1893, during the Second World War paintings from national art galleries were stored in the Prichard-Jones Hall at UCNW to protect them from enemy bombing.
They were moved to mines at Blaenau Ffestiniog. Students from University College, were evacuated to continue their studies in an environment at Bangor. During the 1960s the university shared in the expansion of higher education in the UK following the Robbins Report, with a number of new departments. On 22 November 1965, during construction of an extension to the Department of Electronic Engineering in Dean Street, the three-ton counterweight hit the second-floor lecture theatre in the original building about thirty minutes before it would have been occupied by about 80 first-year students. The counterweight went through to the ground floor, Student protests at UCNW in the 1970s focused mainly on calls to expand the role of the Welsh language. The merger of St Marys into UCNW was concluded in 1977, the university occupies a substantial proportion of Bangor and has some departments in Wrexham. The university was based in an old coaching inn, the Penrhyn Arms Hotel. In 1911 it moved to a larger new building, which is now the old part of the Main Arts Building.
This building, designed by Henry Hare, had its foundation laid by King Edward VII on 9 July 1907. The iconic building, which occupies a highly visible position overlooking Bangor, the building became a Grade I listed building in 1949
Order of the British Empire
There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire, nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bill Gates or Bob Geldof, for example. In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War, when first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was divided into Military. The Orders motto is For God and the Empire, at the foundation of the Order, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership.
In 1922, this was renamed the British Empire Medal, in addition, the BEM is awarded by the Cook Islands and by some other Commonwealth nations. The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, and appoints all members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales, Queen Mary, and the current Grand Master, the Duke of Edinburgh. The Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross,845 Knights and Dames Commander, and 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the number of members of the fourth and fifth classes. Foreign recipients, as members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, and so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, and second-lowest of knighthood. Because of this, Dame Commander is awarded in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor, for example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges become Knights Bachelor.
The Order has six officials, the Prelate, the Dean, the Secretary, the Registrar, the King of Arms, the Bishop of London, a senior bishop in the Church of England, serves as the Orders Prelate. The Dean of St Pauls is ex officio the Dean of the Order, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, as are many other heraldic officers. From time to time, individuals are appointed to a higher grade within the Order, thereby ceasing usage of the junior post-nominal letters
London School of Economics
The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London. LSE is located in Westminster, central London, near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn, the area is historically known as Clare Market. The LSE has more than 10,000 students and 3,300 staff and it had a total income of £340.7 million in 2015/16, of which £30.3 million was from research grants. 155 nationalities are represented amongst LSEs student body and the school has the highest percentage of students of all British universities. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of legal studies, in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the School had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. The LSE is usually considered part of the triangle of highly research-intensive universities in southeast England.
It is a member of organisations such as the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association. LSE has produced notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, business, media. Alumni and staff include 52 past or present heads of state or government and 20 members of the current British House of Commons. To 2016, 27% of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, LSE alumni and staff have won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes, and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of U. S dollar billionaires, LSE graduates earn higher incomes on average than those of any other British university. The London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb, Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the Fabian Society, left the money in trust, to be put towards advancing its objects in any way they deem advisable.
The five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, William de Mattos, LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Graham Wallas and George Bernard Shaw. The proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the City of Westminster. The School joined the federal University of London in 1900, and was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university, the University of London degrees of BSc and DSc were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding rapidly over the years, the school moved initially to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace, to Clare Market. The foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920, the 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. The dispute concerned the question of the role
Kew Gardens is a botanical garden in southwest London that houses the largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world. The library contains more than 750,000 volumes, and the collection contains more than 175,000 prints. It is one of Londons top tourist attractions and is a World Heritage Site, Kew Gardens has its own police force, Kew Constabulary, which has been in operation since 1847. Kew, the area in which Kew Gardens are situated, consists mainly of the gardens themselves, Royal residences in the area which would influence the layout and construction of the gardens began in 1299 when Edward I moved his court to a manor house in neighbouring Richmond. That manor house was abandoned, Henry VII built Sheen Palace in 1501. Around the start of the 16th century courtiers attending Richmond Palace settled in Kew, early royal residences at Kew included Mary Tudors house, which was in existence by 1522 when a driveway was built to connect it to the palace at Richmond.
Around 1600, the land that would become the gardens was known as Kew Field, the exotic garden at Kew Park, formed by Lord Capel John of Tewkesbury, was enlarged and extended by Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales, the widow of Frederick, Prince of Wales. The origins of Kew Gardens can be traced to the merging of the estates of Richmond. William Chambers built several structures, including the lofty Chinese pagoda built in 1761 which still remains. George III enriched the gardens, aided by William Aiton and Sir Joseph Banks, the old Kew Park, was demolished in 1802. The Dutch House adjoining was purchased by George III in 1781 as a nursery for the royal children and it is a plain brick structure now known as Kew Palace. Some early plants came from the garden established by William Coys at Stubbers in North Ockendon. The collections grew somewhat haphazardly until the appointment of the first collector, Francis Masson, capability Brown, who became Englands most renowned landscape architect, applied for the position of master gardener at Kew, and was rejected.
In 1840 the gardens were adopted as a botanical garden, in large part due to the efforts of the Royal Horticultural Society. Under Kews director, William Hooker, the gardens were increased to 30 hectares and the grounds, or arboretum, extended to 109 hectares. The first curator was John Smith, the Palm House was built by architect Decimus Burton and iron-maker Richard Turner between 1844 and 1848, and was the first large-scale structural use of wrought iron. It is considered the worlds most important surviving Victorian glass and iron structure, the structures panes of glass are all hand-blown. The Temperate House, which is twice as large as the Palm House and it is now the largest Victorian glasshouse in existence
Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant and keyboardist John Paul Jones, after changing their name from the New Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin signed a deal with Atlantic Records that afforded them considerable artistic freedom. Their fourth album, which features the track Stairway to Heaven, is among the most popular and influential works in rock music, Page wrote most of Led Zeppelins music, particularly early in their career, while Plant generally supplied the lyrics. Jones keyboard-based compositions became central to the catalogue, which featured increasing experimentation. The latter half of their career saw a series of record-breaking tours that earned the group a reputation for excess, in the decades that followed, the surviving members sporadically collaborated and participated in one-off Led Zeppelin reunions. The most successful of these was the 2007 Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in London, Led Zeppelin are widely considered one of the most successful and influential rock groups in history.
They are one of the music artists in the history of audio recording. With RIAA-certified sales of 111.5 million units, they are the band in the US. Each of their nine studio albums placed in the top 10 of the Billboard album chart and they achieved eight consecutive UK number-one albums. Rolling Stone magazine described them as the heaviest band of all time, the biggest band of the Seventies, and unquestionably one of the most enduring bands in rock history. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995, in 1966, London-based session guitarist Jimmy Page joined the blues-influenced rock band the Yardbirds to replace bassist Paul Samwell-Smith. Page soon switched from bass to guitar, creating a dual lead guitar line-up with Jeff Beck. Following Becks departure in October 1966, the Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, Page wanted to form a supergroup with him and Beck on guitars, and the Whos Keith Moon and John Entwistle on drums and bass, respectively. Vocalists Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were considered for the project, the group never formed, although Page and Moon did record a song together in 1966, Becks Bolero, in a session that included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones.
The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968 at Luton College of Technology in Bedfordshire and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Pages first choice for the singer was Terry Reid, but Reid declined the offer and suggested Robert Plant. Plant eventually accepted the position, recommending former Band of Joy drummer John Bonham, Jones inquired about the vacant position at the suggestion of his wife after Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer. Page had known Jones since they were both musicians and agreed to let him join as the final member
Festival of Britain
The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951. Up and down the land, lesser festivals enlisted much civic, Labour cabinet member Herbert Morrison was the prime mover, in 1947 he started with the original plan to celebrate the centennial of the Great Exhibition of 1851. However it was not to be another World Fair, for international themes were absent, instead the 1951 festival focused entirely on Britain and its achievements, it was funded chiefly by the government, with a budget of £12 million. The Festivals centrepiece was in London on the South Bank of the Thames, there were events in Poplar, South Kensington and Glasgow. The Festival became a beacon for change that proved popular with thousands of elite visitors. It helped reshape British arts, crafts and sports for a generation, journalist Harry Hopkins highlights the widespread impact of the Festival style. It was, clean and new, in 1945, the government appointed a committee under Lord Ramsden to consider how exhibitions and fairs could promote exports.
When the committee reported a year later, it was decided not to continue with the idea of an international exhibition because of its cost at a time when reconstruction was a high priority, Morrison insisted there be no politics, explicit or implicit. Much of London lay in ruins and models of redevelopment were needed, the Festival was an attempt to give Britons a feeling of recovery and progress and to promote better-quality design in the rebuilding of British towns and cities. The Festival of Britain described itself as one united act of national reassessment, gerald Barry, the Festival Director, described it as a tonic to the nation. A Festival Council to advise the government was set up under General Lord Ismay, responsibility for organisation devolved upon the Lord President of the Council, Herbert Morrison, the deputy leader of the Labour Party, who had been London County Council leader. In March 1948, a Festival Headquarters was set up, which was to be the nucleus of the Festival of Britain Office, Festival projects in Northern Ireland were undertaken by the government of Northern Ireland.
Associated with the Festival of Britain Office were the Arts Council of Great Britain, the Council of Industrial Design, the British Film Institute and the National Book League. Government grants were made to the Arts Council, the Council of Industrial Design, the British Film Institute and the National Museum of Wales for work undertaken as part of the Festival. A long-time editor with left-leaning, middle-brow views, he was energetic and optimistic, with an eye for what would be popular, unlike Morrison, Barry was not seen as a Labour ideologue. Barry selected the next rank, giving preference to young architects and they thought along the same lines socially and aesthetically, as middle-class intellectuals with progressive sympathies. Thanks to Barry a collegial sentiments prevailed that minimised stress and delay, the arts were displayed in a series of country-wide musical and dramatic performances. Achievements in architecture were to presented in a new neighbourhood, the Lansbury Estate, built, there were other displays elsewhere, each intended to be complete in itself, yet each part of the one single conception
Bettany Hughes is an English historian and broadcaster. Hughes was born and brought up in west London and she is the daughter of actor Peter Hughes and the sister of cricketer and journalist Simon Hughes. Hughes is married to Adrian Evans, who, in 2012, was the Pageant Master for the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Hughes won a bursary to attend Notting Hill and Ealing High School in Ealing. She was awarded a scholarship to St Hildas College, Oxford. Hughes has written two books on Ancient Greek subjects and her first, Helen of Troy, Princess, has been translated into ten languages. Her second, The Hemlock Cup, Socrates and the Search for the Good Life, was Book of the Week on BBC Radio 4 and was well received. Hughes was nominated as a finalist for the Writers Guild Award and it was chosen as Book of the Year in several publications. Hughes has written and presented films and series on both ancient and modern subjects for National Geographic, BBC, Discovery Channel, PBS, The History Channel and Channel 4.
In July 2012, she began to co-present a series on ITV with Michael Buerk called Britains Secret Treasures, Hughes has received numerous accolades for her broadcasting work. She has awarded the 2012 Norton Medlicott Award for services to history by the Historical Association. She was asked to chair the 2011 Orange Prize for Fiction, Hughes is a long-standing patron and supporter of educational and campaigning charity the Iris Project, which has been promoting and teaching Latin and Greek in state schools since 2006. She is a patron of Classics For All, a national campaign to get classical languages. She is an advisor to the Foundation for Science, Hughes sits on the tutor panel of Cambridge Universitys Institute of Continuing Education. In 2014, she was made a Distinguished Friend of the University of Oxford, in 2016, Hughes delivered the British Humanist Associations annual Voltaire Lecture, which took place in London. Leviathan – BBC2 –1999 Breaking the Seal, the Spartans – produced by Lion TV, three 60-minute episodes.
Seven Ages of Britain – a social history from the Ice Age to the Industrial Revolution, the Minotaurs Island – produced by Lion TV. The Minoans – produced by Lion TV, Helen of Troy – produced by Lion TV. When the Moors Ruled in Europe, former title Athens, the Truth about Democracy
Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment)
The Buffs, formerly the 3rd Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army traditionally raised in the English county of Kent and garrisoned at Canterbury. It had a history dating back to 1572 and was one of the oldest regiments in the British Army, the regiment provided distinguished service over a period of almost four hundred years accumulating one hundred and sixteen battle honours. In 1881, under the Childers Reforms, it was known as the Buffs and and this regiment was, in turn, amalgamated with the Royal Hampshire Regiment, in September 1992, to create the Princess of Waless Royal Regiment. The origins of the regiment lay in Thomas Morgans Company of Foot, The London Trained Bands and it fought in the Low Countries during the Dutch Revolt and in the Anglo Spanish War, taking part in many sieges and battles in that time. In 1665, when the Second Anglo-Dutch War started, the British, using his own funds, Sir George Downing, the English ambassador to the Netherlands, raised the Holland Regiment from the starving remnants of those who refused to sign.
In 1665, it was known as the 4th Regiment and by 1668 as the 4th Regiment, in 1688, it became the 4th The Lord High Admirals Regiment and in 1689 it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot. The regiment wore coats with buff facings, whereas the 19th Regiment used coats faced in green, the nickname, The Old Buffs, arises from the need to distinguish the regiment from The Young Buffs, a nickname for the 31st Regiment of Foot. The regiment fought at the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709 before returning to England in August 1714. The regiment was sent to Ostend in August 1742 for service in the War of the Austrian Succession and fought at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 and at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745. The regiment was named, as regiments, after the Colonel Commanding until 1744, at which point it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot. It returned to the Netherlands in April 1747 and saw action at the Battle of Lauffeld in July 1747 and it became the 3rd Regiment of Foot, The Buffs in 1751.
The regiment embarked for the West Indies in autumn 1758 for service in the Seven Years War and took part in the attack on Martinique in January 1759, after returning home, it took part in the capture of Belle Île in June 1761. It moved to Portugal and fought at the Battle of Valencia de Alcántara in August 1762 before returning to England in spring 1771, the regiment was sent to the West Indies in December 1795 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars. The regiment embarked for Portugal in August 1808 for service in the Peninsular War, the grenadier company of the regiment served under Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 before being evacuated to England that month. The rest of the regiment remained on the Peninsula and fought at the Battle of Talavera in July 1809 and it saw action at Battle of Albuera in May 1811 and the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813. It became part of the Army of Occupation of France in 1816 before returning home in autumn 1818, the regiment had a tour of service from 1821 until 1827 in the British colony of New South Wales.
For the duration of their service, The Buffs was divided into four detachments, the first was based in Sydney from 1821. The second arrived in Hobart in 1822, the third, entitled The Buffs Headquarters, arrived in Sydney in 1823
Dads Army is a BBC television sitcom about the British Home Guard during the Second World War. It was written by Jimmy Perry and David Croft and broadcast on the BBC from 1968 to 1977, the sitcom ran for 9 series and 80 episodes in total, plus a radio version based on the television scripts, a feature film and a stage show. The series regularly gained audiences of 18 million viewers and is still repeated worldwide, the Home Guard consisted of local volunteers otherwise ineligible for military service, either because of age or by being in professions exempt from conscription. Dads Army deals almost exclusively with over age men and featured older British actors, including Arthur Lowe, John Le Mesurier, Arnold Ridley, younger members in the cast included Ian Lavender, Clive Dunn, Frank Williams, James Beck, and Bill Pertwee. In 2004, Dads Army was voted fourth in a BBC poll to find Britains Best Sitcom and it had been placed 13th in a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes drawn up by the British Film Institute in 2000 and voted for by industry professionals.
The series has influenced British popular culture, with the series catchphrases and it highlighted a forgotten aspect of defence during the Second World War, although it greatly distorted the true history and function of the Home Guard. The Radio Times magazine listed Captain Mainwarings You stupid boy, among the 25 greatest put-downs on TV. A new feature film of Dads Army with a different cast was released in 2016, originally intended to be called The Fighting Tigers, Dads Army was based partly on co-writer and creator Jimmy Perrys experiences in the Local Defence Volunteers. Perry was only 17 years old when he joined the 10th Hertfordshire Battalion and his mother did not like him being out at night and feared he might catch cold, he partly resembled the character of Private Pike. An elderly lance corporal in the often referred to fighting under Kitchener against the Fuzzy Wuzzies and was the model for Corporal Jones. Other influences included the work of such as Will Hay whose film Oh. Featured a pompous ass, an old man and a man which gave him Mainwaring, Godfrey.
Another influence was the Lancastrian comedian Robb Wilton, who portrayed a work-shy husband who joined the Home Guard in numerous sketches during WW2. Croft was impressed and sent the script to Michael Mills, the BBCs Head of Comedy, in his book Dads Army, Graham McCann explained that the show owes much to Michael Mills. It was he who renamed the show Dads Army and he did not like Brightsea-on-Sea so the location was changed to Walmington-on-Sea. He suggested adding a Scot, Jimmy Perry had produced the original idea but needed an experienced man to see it through. Mills suggested David Croft and so their partnership began, when an episode was shown to members of the public, to gauge audience reaction prior to broadcast of the first series, the majority of the audience thought it was very poor. The production team put the report containing the negative comments at the bottom of David Crofts in-tray and he only saw it several months later, after the series had been broadcast and had received great acclamation