Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Holte is a suburban district in Rudersdal Municipality on the northern outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark. The local town centre is centred on Holte station and is surrounded by areas of single-family, detached homes as well as several lakes. The district has merged with the old villages of Søllerød and Øverød which both belong to Holte postal district, modern Holte is located on land that used to belong to the Dronninggård estate. The name Holte originally referred to the village of Holte located a few kilometres to the northeast of the modern district. When the owner of Holtegård moved his inn to a new site on Kongevejen in the 1780s and this name was adopted for the local railway station when the North Line opened in 1864. The name of the station and the district was changed to Holte while the name of the old village was changed to Gammel Holte. The Søllerød Town Hall, completed in 1942, was designed in the Functionalist style by Arne Jacobsen, the town centre contains the Holte Midtpunkt shopping centre.
Holte Church was completed on the top of Geels Hill in 1945, several lakes are located in the Holte area. There is a leisure craft harbor and a beach at Vejlesø which is connected to the larger lake Furesø on the western boundary of the district by a canal. A small ferry operates on the two lakes in the summer time, Søllerød Lake separates Holte from Søllerød to the east. Holte borders on the natural areas Vaserne, Rude Forest, Søllerød Naturpark and Geels Forest
Ballerup is a Danish town, seat of the Ballerup Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden. There are approximately 25 schools in Ballerup Municipality, Ballerup has its own educational institution specialized in the study and research of music. The town is in the suburbs of Copenhagen and is part of Copenhagens urban area. Ballerup Super Arena is the velodrome of Ballerup and it hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships in 2002 and 2010 and many rounds of the UCI Track Cycling World Cup Classics. Jämsä, Finland East Kilbride, Scotland Prague 10, Czech Republic Ballerup station Ballerup Super Arena Media related to Ballerup at Wikimedia Commons
Absalon or Axel was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death. He was the foremost politician and churchfather of Denmark in the half of the 12th century. He combined the ideals of Gregorian Reform ideals with loyal support of a strong monarchical power, Absalon was born into the powerful Hvide clan, and owned great land possessions. He endowed several church institutions, most prominently his familys Sorø Abbey and he was granted lands by the crown, and built the first fortification of the city that evolved into modern-day Copenhagen. His titles were passed on to his nephews Anders Sunesen and Peder Sunesen and he died in 1201, and was interred at Sorø Abbey. Absalon was born around 1128 near Sorø, due to a name which is unusual in Denmark, it is speculated that he was christened on the Danish Absalon name day, October 30. He was the son of Asser Rig, a magnate of the Hvide clan from Fjenneslev on Zealand and he was a kinsman of Archbishop Eskil of Lund.
He grew up at the castle of his father, and was brought up alongside his older brother Esbern Snare and the young prince Valdemar, who became King Valdemar I of Denmark. During the civil war following the death of Eric III of Denmark in 1146, Absalon travelled abroad to study theology in Paris, at Paris, he was influenced by the Gregorian Reform ideals of churchly independence from Monarchical rule. He befriended the canon William of Æbelholt at the Abbey of St Genevieve and he was a guest at following Roskilde banquet given in 1157 by Sweyn to his rivals Canute V and Valdemar. Both Absalon and Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of Sweyn on this occasion, Absalon probably did not take part in the following battle of Grathe Heath in 1157, in which Sweyn was defeated and slain and led to Valdemar ascending the Danish throne. On Good Friday 1158, bishop Asser of Roskilde died, and Absalon was eventually elected bishop of Roskilde on Zealand with the help of Valdemar, Absalon was a close counsellor of Valdemar, and chief promoter of the Danish crusades against the Wends.
During the Danish civil war, Denmark had been open to coastal raids by the Wends and it was Absalons intention to clear the Baltic Sea of the Wendish pirates who inhabited its southern littoral zone which was called Pomerania. The pirates had raided the Danish coasts during the war of Sweyn III, Canute V. Absalon formed a fleet, built coastal defenses, and led several campaigns against the Wends. He even advocated forgiving the earlier enemies of Valdemar, which helped stabilize Denmark internally, the first expedition against the Wends that was conducted by Absalon in person, set out in 1160. These expeditions were successful, but brought no lasting victories, what started out as mere retribution, eventually evolved into full-fledged campaigns of expansion with religious motives. In 1164 began twenty years of crusades against the Wends, sometimes with the help of German duke Henry the Lion, in 1168 the chief Wendish fortress at Arkona in Rügen, containing the sanctuary of their god Svantevit, was conquered
Frederikssund is a Danish town, seat of the Frederikssund Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden with a population of 15,865. It received the status of town in 1810. The town is famous for its annual Viking Games as well as for the J. F. Willumsen museum, since 1935, it has been connected to Hornsherred via the Kronprins Frederik Bridge. There is evidence of communities dating back to the stone age with a number of burial sites in the area. Located at a point on Roskilde Fjord, Sundby Færge became the harbour for the nearby market town of Slangerup. In 1809-10, the status of town was transferred from Slangerup to Frederikssund. In 1868, a bridge linking Frederikssund to Hornsherred was opened. This was replaced by todays Kronprins Frederik Bridge in 1935, Frederikssund is located on the east coast of Roskilde Fjord, about 45 km north-west of Copenhagen,20 km south of Hillerød and 30 km north of Roskilde. It is less than an hour from Copenhagen by either road or rail, s-trains leave about once every 10 minutes.
Copenhagen Airport can be reached by road or rail in about an hour, the low hills on which Frederikssund lies are formed of moraines from the last Ice Age. The shallow Roskilde Fjord which separates Frederikssund from Hornsherred originated in the same period, the fertile land surrounding Frederikssund is used for mixed farming - with an emphasis on cereals, root crops and pigs. It has all the associated with a modern Danish town, museums, a public library, supermarkets. With a location facing west over the Roskilde Fjord, it has many footpaths along the shores, the local rail and bus services are well developed. Activities range from sailing, cycling, golfing or gliding to simply sitting out on the pedestrian street. There are several clubs and facilities in Frederikssund covering soccer, American football, basketball. Aurskog-Høland Catoira Kumla Ramsgate Sipoo Frederikssund station Frederikssundbanen Media related to Frederikssund at Wikimedia Commons
Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors. Louis Chevrolet and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant started the company on November 3,1911 as the Chevrolet Motor Car Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on May 2,1918. Chevrolet-branded vehicles are sold in most automotive markets worldwide, with the exception of Oceania. However, GM reversed this move in late 2013, announcing that the brand would be withdrawn from Europe, with the exception of the Camaro, Chevrolet vehicles will continue to be marketed in the CIS states, including Russia. After General Motors fully acquired GM Daewoo in 2011 to create GM Korea, in North America, Chevrolet produces and sells a wide range of vehicles, from subcompact automobiles to medium-duty commercial trucks. Durant was cast out from the management of General Motors in 1910 for five years and he took over the Flint Wagon Works, incorporating the Mason and Little companies.
As head of Buick Motor Company prior to founding GM, Durant had hired Louis Chevrolet to drive Buicks in promotional races, Durant planned to use Chevrolets reputation as a racer as the foundation for his new automobile company. Actual design work for the first Chevy, the costly Series C Classic Six, was drawn up by Etienne Planche, the first C prototype was ready months before Chevrolet was actually incorporated. However the first actual production wasnt until the 1913 model, so in essence there were no 1911 or 1912 production models, only the 1 pre-production model was made and fine tuned throughout the early part of 1912. Then in the fall of that year the new 1913 model was introduced at the New York auto show, Chevrolet first used the bowtie emblem logo in 1914 on the H series models and The L Series Model. It may have been designed from wallpaper Durant once saw in a French hotel room, more recent research by historian Ken Kaufmann presents a case that the logo is based on a logo of the Coalettes coal company.
An example of this logo as it appeared in an advertisement for Coalettes appeared in the Atlanta Constitution on November 12,1911, others claim that the design was a stylized Swiss cross, in tribute to the homeland of Chevrolets parents. Chevrolet eventually unified all vehicle models with the gold bowtie in 2004, Louis Chevrolet had differences with Durant over design and in 1914 sold Durant his share in the company. By 1916, Chevrolet was profitable enough with successful sales of the cheaper Series 490 to allow Durant to repurchase a controlling interest in General Motors. After the deal was completed in 1917, Durant became president of General Motors, in 1919, Chevrolets factories were located at Flint, branch assembly locations were located in Tarrytown, N. Y. Norwood, Ohio, St. Louis, Oakland, California, Ft. Worth, Texas, mcLaughlins were given GM Corporation stock for the proprietorship of their Company article Sept.23,1933 Financial Post page 9. In the 1918 model year, Chevrolet introduced the Series D, Sales were poor and it was dropped in 1919
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
Daniel Munthe Agger is a Danish retired professional footballer and tattoo artist who played as a central defender for Brøndby and Liverpool and captained the Denmark national team. Agger was described as a reader of the game, comfortable on the ball. He was the 2007 and 2012 Danish Football Player of the Year and he started his senior career with Brøndby in July 2004, winning the Danish Superliga and the Danish Cup, before moving to Liverpool in January 2006. He made 175 Premier League appearances for the club and won the League Cup, Agger returned to Brøndby for personal reasons in August 2014, and retired a year at the age of 31. A full international since 2005, Agger earned 75 caps and scored 12 goals for Denmark and he represented the nation at the 2010 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euro 2012, captaining his country at the latter. In July 2004, he was moved from the squad to the first team. Agger quickly established himself not only as a first team regular, after the first half of the season Agger was named 2004 talent of the year by Spillerforeningen.
An injury sustained in the 2005–06 Danish Superliga season in September forced him out for the remainder of 2005, on 6 December 2005 and at only 20 years of age, Agger was awarded the Danish talent of the year for all sports. Agger did not travel with his Brøndby teammates for their training camp in January and on 12 January 2006. The £6,000,000 transfer deal made him the most expensive footballer sold by a Danish club to a foreign club, during his first half-season at Liverpool, injuries limited Agger to four first-team appearances, and he missed the clubs victory in the 2006 FA Cup Final. Agger played the game as Liverpool won the 2006 FA Community Shield against Chelsea. Agger scored his first goal for Liverpool on 26 August 2006 in a 2–1 win against West Ham United, Agger was allowed to run unchallenged toward the Kop-end goal and scored from 35 yards out. Liverpool manager Rafael Benítez commented he was not surprised and that Agger has frequently scored such goals in training, the goal was named Goal of the Month for August by the BBCs Match of the Day, and Liverpools Premiership Goal of the Season.
On 4 October 2006, he was given the PFAs fan award for impressive, Agger scored his second goal for the club in a Football League Cup away game against Birmingham City with a volley from close range during the seven minutes of first-half stoppage time. His third was against Arsenal, scoring a header in a 4–1 victory played on 31 March 2007 and he went on to play in the 2007 UEFA Champions League Final which Liverpool lost 2–1 to Milan. Agger started the 2007 pre-season scoring two goals in four games, including a left footed-finish against Hong Kong outfit South China, however, he suffered a metatarsal injury in September, again losing his place to Hyypiä. In January 2008, Agger began training and was attempting to match fitness. After being examined by specialists, it was reported that Agger would miss the remainder of the season to undergo surgery on his foot
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier is a Danish film director and screenwriter. He has a prolific and controversial career spanning almost four decades and his work is known for its genre and technical innovation, confrontational examination of existential and political issues, and treatment of subjects like mercy and mental health. His political and humanitarian work was honored in 2004 with the Cinema for Peace awareness award. Among more than 100 awards and over 200 nominations in festivals worldwide, he has received the Palme dOr, the Grand Prix, the Prix du Jury, in March 2017, Trier began filming The House that Jack Built, an English-language serial killer thriller. Trier was born in Kongens Lyngby, north of Copenhagen, the son of Inger Høst and he received his surname from Høsts husband Ulf Trier, whom he considered his biological father until 1989. The director would become famous for his honesty to journalists about his family and upbringing, as well as the impact it had on his identity, beliefs. Trier studied film theory at the University of Copenhagen and film direction at the National Film School of Denmark.
In 1984, The Element of Crime, Triers breakthrough film, received awards in seven international festivals including the Technical Grand Prize at Cannes. His next film, was shown at Cannes in the Un Certain Regard section. Trier has occasionally referred to his films as falling into thematic and stylistic trilogies and this pattern began with The Element of Crime, the first of the Europa trilogy, which illuminated the traumas of Europe both in the past and the future. It includes The Element of Crime and Europa, Von Trier directed Medea for television, which won him the Jean dArcy prize in France. It is based on a screenplay by Carl Th. Dreyer, Trier completed the Europa trilogy in 1991 with Europa, which won the Prix du Jury at the 1991 Cannes Film Festival and picked up awards at other major festivals. In 1990 he directed the video for Bakerman by Laid Back. This video was reused in 2006 by the English DJ and artist Shaun Baker in a remake of Bakerman, seeking both financial independence and total creative control over their projects, von Trier and producer Peter Aalbæk Jensen founded the film production company Zentropa Entertainment in 1992.
Named after a railway company in Europa, their most recent film at the time, Zentropa has produced many movies other than Triers own. It has produced hardcore sex films, Pink Prison, HotMen CoolBoyz, in 1995, von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg presented their manifesto for a new cinematic movement, which they called Dogme 95. The Dogme 95 concept, which led to international interest in Danish film, in 2008, together with their fellow Dogme directors Kristian Levring and Søren Kragh-Jacobsen, von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg received the European Film Award European Achievement in World Cinema. In 1996, von Trier conducted an unusual experiment in Copenhagen involving 53 actors