Hwaseong Fortress or Suwon Hwaseong is a fortification surrounding the centre of Suwon, the provincial capital of Gyeonggi-do, in South Korea. It was built from 1794 to 1796 by King Jeongjo of the Joseon dynasty to house and honour the remains of his father, Prince Sado. Sado had been executed by being locked alive inside a rice chest by his own father King Yeongjo after failing to obey a command to commit suicide. Located 30 kilometres south of Seoul and enclosing much of central Suwon, the fortress includes King Jeongjo's palace Haenggung; the fortress and enclosed palace were designated as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1997. It comprises among many other features the palace, a perimeter wall, four main gates, two sluicegates over the Suwoncheon, Suwon's main stream, which flows through the centre of the fortress. King Jeongjo built Hwaseong Fortress to prepare for a move of the capital from Seoul to Suwon. Suwon was purported to be strategically positioned to connect Seoul with China.
The king wanted to leave the factional strife of the court to carry out reforms and believed that Suwon had the potential to grow into a new and prosperous capital. To encourage growth, he ordered people to move to Suwon at considerable expense and exempted them from taxes for ten years. King Jeongjo ordered public works, such as the building of educational facilities to better facilitate the city as a capital. Hwaseong Fortress was built over a two and a half-year period, from 1794 to 1796 according to the designs of the architect Jeong Yakyong, who would become a renowned leader of the Silhak movement. Silhak, which means practical learning, encouraged the use of science and industry, Jeong incorporated fortress designs from Korea and China along with contemporary science into his plans; the use of brick as a building material for the fortress and employment of efficient pulleys and cranes were due to the influence of Silhak. Construction of the fortress was a response to the collapse of the Korean front line during the Imjin war.
At the time, the dominant model for building fortresses in Korea was to make a simple wall for the city or town and a separate mountain fortress to which the people could evacuate in times of war. However, this fortress was built to include elements of a wall, defensive fortress, town centre, the four main gates being used as the gates for the town; the arrow-launching platforms built along ramparts with crenellated parapets and battlements were defensive elements of the fortress while the wall included secret gates for offensive actions. The fortress took 700,000 man-hours to build and cost the national treasury 870,000 nyang, the currency at the time, 1500 sacks of rice to pay the workers. In the past, government work had been carried out by corvée labour, but in this case workers were paid by the government, another sign of Silhak influence. A white paper, Hwaseong Seongyeok Uigwe, was published in 1801, shortly after the death of King Jeongjo, it has ten volumes and proved invaluable for the reconstruction effort in 1970 after the fortress had been damaged during the Korean War.
The volumes were divided by subject, with the first covering the plans for building, including blueprints and a list of supervisors. The next six volumes detail the actual implementation of the construction, such as the royal orders and records of the wages of the workers; the final three volumes are supplements and detail the construction of the adjoining palace, Haenggung. Manpower was allocated by speciality, dividing workers by trade, categorising them as foremen, labourers, so on; the records detail the amounts of different materials used. An abridged French translation was published in 1898 by Henry Chevalier, consul of France in Korea, while a full German translation with commentary is provided in a thesis by Doo Won Cho of the University of Bamberg. Drawings of Hwaseong, published 1801 The wall is 5.74 kilometres in length and varies between 4 to 6 metres enclosing 1.3 square kilometres of land. On flat terrain the wall was built higher than that on either of the two hills over which it passes, as higher walls were seen as less necessary along hilltops.
The parapets are made of stone and brick, like most of the fortress, were 1.2 metres in height. All parts are well-maintained and the whole circuit can be walked easily; the 1795 fortress had four gates: Janganmun, Hwaseomun and Changnyongmun. Janganmun and Paldalmun are the largest of the four main gates and resemble Seoul's Namdaemun in roof design and stone and woodwork. Indeed, Janganmun is the largest gate in Korea. Both the north and south gates are topped with two-storey wooden pavilions, while Hwaseomun's and Changyongmun's, those of the west and east gates have only one storey; the four main gates are encircled by miniature fortresses. Meanwhile, Changyoungmun was destroyed during the Korean War and it was restored in 1978. Nowadays, the intra muros Suwon requires large entries for the modern roads needed by visitors and inhabitants; these large roads were built during the period when the wall was down, the 1975 reconstruction had no choice but to preserve these roads. For three of them, the rampart walk has been rebuilt as a bridge between two neighboring structures: The North Entry by a bridge between the North Gate Janganmun and its Eastern Gate Guard Platform.
The East Entry by a bridge between the North-East Crossbow Platform and the North-East Observation Tower The West Entry by a bridge between the West Gate and the North-West Pavilion. Additionally, two small underpas
The Pike County School District is a public school district in Pike County, United States, based in Zebulon. It serves the communities of Concord, Meansville, Molena and Zebulon. Michael Duncan, Ed. D. is the Superintendent of Schools. The Pike County School District has a Pre-K building, two elementary schools, one middle school, a ninth grade academy and two high schools. Zebulon High School ranks in the bottom 1% of Georgia schools according to the Georgia Governor's Office of Student Achievement. Pike County Primary School Pike County Elementary School Pike County Middle School Pike County 9th Grade Academy Pike County High School Zebulon High School Pike County School District
Bernard John Seymour Coleridge, 2nd Baron Coleridge, QC was a British lawyer and Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 until 1894 when he inherited his peerage. Coleridge was the eldest son of John Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge, Lord Chief Justice of England, Jane Fortescue Seymour, his grandfather, John Taylor Coleridge, was the nephew of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He was educated at Oxford, he was called to the bar at Middle Temple in 1877. Coleridge was elected Member of Parliament for Sheffield Attercliffe in the 1885 general election and held the seat until 1894 when he succeeded his father as second Baron Coleridge, he was the first peer to practice at the bar. Coleridge became a QC in 1892 and served as a Judge of the High Court of Justice from 1907 to 1923. Lord Coleridge married Mary Alethea Mackarness, daughter of John Fielder Mackarness, on 3 August 1876, they had one son and two daughters. He died in September 1927, in Honiton, aged 76, was succeeded in the barony by his only son Geoffrey.
The Story of a Devonshire House This for Remembrance Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Works by or about Bernard Coleridge, 2nd Baron Coleridge at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Bernard Coleridge
Edmondo Guido Armando "Ed" Franco was a professional American football player. He earned fame as one of the legendary Seven Blocks of Granite and played professionally for the Boston Yanks, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1980. Ed Franco was the youngest of nine children born to Italian immigrants and Filomena Franco, on Christopher Street, in New York City; the family moved to Jersey City, New Jersey, where Franco began to display his extraordinary athletic ability. He earned All-State honors at William L. Dickinson High School as both guard for the football team and catcher for baseball. After high school, Franco attended Fordham University, where he was elected president of his freshman class, he played guard and tackle for the legendary "Seven Blocks of Granite," coached by the "Sleepy" Jim Crowley, one of the famed Four Horsemen of Notre Dame. The 5 ft 8 in, 196-pound Franco was voted as a consensus All-American for both positions following the 1937 and 1938 seasons, only one of two Fordham players named consensus All-American.
He played alongside the right guard for the Blocks of Granite. In 1935 the Rams posted a 6-1-2 record with five shutouts; the 1936 squad lost only one game, the season finale to New York University. The Blocks saw their peak in 1937 with 8 wins, no losses, no ties. Franco served as captain of the East team in the 1938 East-West Shrine Game. Franco had a brief professional career: He was a 5th round selection of the Cleveland Rams in the 1938 NFL Draft, but didn't stay with the team. On December 9, 1939, Franco married his sweetheart Anna May McGinley, a nursing student at Bayonne Nursing School. Franco decided not to continue his professional career, since at that time football paid little. Franco returned to Fordham as a line coach for six years, where he helped the Rams gain a Cotton Bowl Classic bid in 1941 and a Sugar Bowl bid in 1942. In 1944 Franco returned to the NFL and won the starting tackle job in his first game as a member of the Boston Yanks, he coached the American Association Jersey City Giants.
Franco worked as the eastern scout for the Green Bay Packers and the Washington Redskins along with coach and close friend Lombardi. Franco owned several successful businesses in Jersey City and Secaucus and worked for the Meadowlands Racetrack, he died on November 18, 1992, at the age of 77. He was survived by his three children, Margaret and Rosemary, six grandchildren, seven great-grandchildren. In 1980, Ed Franco was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame; that same year, Franco a Jersey City baseball park was dedicated in his name. On October 24, 2008, Fordham University honored the memory of its legendary defensive line by dedicating a monument on its Rose Hill campus; the monument—made of seven blocks of granite stone—stands by the entrance to Jack Coffey Field
Edward Haghverdian is an Iranian-Armenian poet and journalist, a member of the Writers Union of Armenia. Since 1970, Haghverdian has been living in Armenia and since 1980s, he spent most of his time translating contemporary Persian literary works into Armenian language. Edward Haghvedian was born in 1952 in Iran to Iranian-Armenian parents, his family came from the Iranian city of Khomein in Markazi province of Iran. He has finished his elementary educations in "National School of Aras" and his high school educations, in the Persian-language schools called «Farokh-Manesh», «Paydar» and «Oloum». Thereafter in 1970, he migrated with his family from his birthplace's country Iran, to Armenia and settled in the city of Vagharshapat. Since 1980s, Haghverdian spent most of his times translating contemporary Persian literary works into Armenian language, he is first person who translated the vast majority of modern Iranian literary works into Armenian and published them in Armenia and United States of America.
Armenian literature Persian literature Some poems written by Edward Haghverdian on Shargh newspaper Four poems written by Edward Haghverdain on Farhikhtegan newspaper
A fisheries observer is an independent specialist who serves on board commercial fishing vessels, or in fish processing plants and other platforms, is employed by a fisheries observer program, either directly by a government agency or by a third party contractor. Observers spend anywhere from 1 day to 3 months out at sea before returning to be “debriefed”. A debriefing consists of reviewing any unusual occurrences or observations, violations observed, any safety problems or other hardships they endured during the trip; these data are integrated into the regional agency’s database used to monitor fish quotas. Observers are the only independent data collection source for some types of at-sea information, such as bycatch, catch composition, gear configuration data. Independent data collection in this context refers to data, not biased by the fishermen. Creel surveys, trip reports, other data obtained directly from fishermen can have some dependent bias associated with it. Fisheries-dependent information is critical for the responsible management and conservation of living marine resources, many worldwide marine resource management regimes utilize fisheries observers for the collection of this data.
The integrity of a fisheries observer program is a function of the conduct and performance of its employees. Moreover, the stature and stability of a program has direct bearing on the quality of its data products and on the level of confidence that scientists and policy makers are able to ascribe to the use of this data. A fisheries observer program is responsible for providing the training and support necessary for deploying observers on board fishing vessels in order to collect the fisheries-dependent information essential to achieving the management objectives of the programme. Fisheries observers are required to have an educational background in the biological sciences and a proven ability to handle life at sea. Specific programs have less requirements. Required is an independent attitude, an ability to get along with people in tight quarters and strong personal integrity. "Hang Loose" and "Stand By" are the general mottos for observers because conditions and circumstances change at the last minute.
Fisheries observer programmes vary according to the management objective. The three main objectives are Scientific: including stock assessments and predictions of future fisheries exploitation of stocks. Observer duties include collection of catch composition and environmental / ecological information, biological sampling of catch Monitoring control and surveillance: including assessments of fishing and / or transhipment activities to ensure fisheries management measures are followed. Observer duties include verification of logbooks with fishing and / or transhipment activities and registering compliance with all regulations. Fisheries: including the objectives found in both scientific and MCS observer programmes. Observer duties include the observer duties found in both scientific and MCS observer programs; the International Fisheries Observer and Monitoring Conference develops and enhances effective fishery monitoring programs to ensure sustainable resource management throughout the world’s oceans.
Their mission is to improve fishery monitoring and observing programs worldwide through sharing practices and development of data collection and analysis. Since many observing entities are contracted, this conference allows dialog between agencies and between those that rely upon the data collected by observers. Http://www.apo-observers.org/programs gives a list of observer programs around the world. The mission of the National Observer Program is to provide a support system for observers ensuring that they are supported; the policies must reflect the diverse needs of regional observer programs while enhancing data quality and achieving consistency in key areas of national importance. Observers are assisted by the National Observer Program. Most gear is provided to observers for sampling. Travel mileage and expenses are paid while traveling to and from docks. Observers are supported by strict repercussions against any fisherman impeding or endangering them at the docks or while at sea. Coordinate the National Observer Program Advisory Team.
Communicate and advocate the mission of the National Observer Program and each regional observer program. Develop and support national standards and policies to create high quality, cost effective and productive observer programs. Characterize and qualify the activities and resources of NOAA Fisheries observer programs and advocate for full support Scientific data are the foundation of fisheries management. To manage fisheries, data are needed not only for species targeted by a fishery, but for all species in the ecosystem. Observers are the only source of independent data collection for some types of at-sea information. Bycatch, catch composition, gear configuration cannot be seen otherwise; this data are used to support the National Marine Fisheries Service in their effort for conservation and management activities. These include: Bycatch Reduction, Stock Assessment, Protected Species, Gear Research, Fisheries Regulations. Fisheries inspection programmes, conducted by officials with enforcement powers are not to be considered observer programmes.
Though observers may be tasked to register compliance with fisheries regulations, observers do not have enforcement powers and are not to be considered enforcement agents. In the United States, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration oversees the Domestic Observer program. Davies, S L and Reynolds, J E Guidelines for developing an at-sea f