Hyacinthoides non-scripta is a bulbous perennial plant, found in Atlantic areas from north-western Spain to the British Isles, frequently used as a garden plant. It is known in English as the common bluebell or bluebell, a name, used in Scotland to refer to the harebell, Campanula rotundifolia. In spring, H. non-scripta produces a nodding, one-sided inflorescence of 5–12 tubular, sweet-scented violet–blue flowers, with recurved tepals, 3–6 long, basal leaves. H. non-scripta is associated with ancient woodland where it may dominate the understorey to produce carpets of violet–blue flowers in "bluebell woods", but occurs in more open habitats in western regions. It is protected under UK law, in some other parts of its range. A related species, H. hispanica has been introduced to the British Isles and hybridises with H. non-scripta to produce intermediates known as H. × massartiana. Hyacinthoides non-scripta was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his seminal 1753 work Species Plantarum, as a species in the genus Hyacinthus.
The specific epithet non-scriptus means "unlettered" or "unmarked" and was intended to distinguish this plant from the classical hyacinth of Greek mythology. This mythical flower, certainly not the modern hyacinth, sprang up from the blood of the dying prince Hyacinthus, his lover, the god Apollo, shed tears that marked the new flower's petals with the letters "AIAI" as a sign of his grief. In 1803, Johann Centurius von Hoffmannsegg and Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link transferred the species to the genus Scilla, in 1849 Christian August Friedrich Garcke transferred it to the genus Endymion. In 1934, Pierre Chouard transferred the species to its current placement in the genus Hyacinthoides. Scilla was the original Greek name for Drimia maritima; the type species of Hyacinthoides is H. hispanica, while that of Endymion is "Scilla nutans", described by James Edward Smith in English Botany in 1797, but now treated as a synonym of H. non-scripta. Smith had argued that nutans is a more fitting epithet than non-scriptus, which makes no sense once separated from Hyacinthus, but the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants requires the oldest name to be used, regardless of meaning.
Common names for Hyacinthoides non-scripta include bluebell, common bluebell, English bluebell, British bluebell, wild hyacinth, wood bell, fairy flower and bell bottle. In Scotland, the term "bluebell" is used for Campanula rotundifolia. Hyacinthoides non-scripta forms a clade with three other species – H. hispanica, H. paivae and H. cedretorum – centred on the Iberian Peninsula. H. paivae is restricted to a small area of north-western Iberia, while H. cedretorum is found in mountainous areas of western North Africa. Within Iberia, H. non-scripta and H. hispanica are geographically separated by the Duero river. The genus contains seven further species distributed further east in the Mediterranean Basin. Hyacinthoides non-scripta is a perennial plant, it produces 3–6 linear leaves, all growing from the base of the plant, each 7–16 millimetres wide. An inflorescence of 5–12 flowers is borne on a stem up to 500 mm tall, which droops towards the tip; each flower is 14–20 mm long, with two bracts at the base, the six tepals are recurved at their tips.
The tepals are violet–blue. The three stamens in the outer whorl are fused to the perianth for more than 75% of their length, bear cream-coloured pollen; the flowers are and sweetly scented. The seeds are black, germinate on the soil surface; the bulbs produce contractile roots. This may explain the absence of H. non-scripta from some thin soils over chalk in South East England, since the bulbs are unable to penetrate into sufficiently deep soils. H. Non-scripta differs from H. hispanica, which occurs as an introduced species in the British Isles, in a number of ways. H. hispanica has paler flowers. The outer stamens are fused with the tepals for less than 75% of their length, the anthers are the same colour as the tepals; these two species are thought to have diverged 8000 years ago. The two species hybridise to produce fertile offspring known as Hyacinthoides × massartiana. Hyacinthoides non-scripta is native to the western parts of Atlantic Europe, from north-western Spain to the Netherlands and the British Isles.
It is found in Belgium, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands and Spain, occurs as a naturalized species in Germany and Romania. It has been introduced into various parts of North America, in both the Pacific Northwest, the Great Lakes region and other parts of the United States. Despite the wide distribution of H. non-scripta, it reaches its greatest densities in the British Isles, where
Yang Jisheng was a Chinese court official of the Ming dynasty who held multiple posts during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor. He is remembered as a political opponent of Yan Song, on whose initiative he was arrested and executed; the death sentence was posthumously reversed, the unjust manner of Yang's death led him to be revered as a martyr for Confucian values. In his lifetime, Yang Jisheng was known by the courtesy name Zhongfang, but used the art name Jiaoshan, he was granted the posthumous name Zhongmin. Yang Jisheng was born on June 1516, in the village of Beihezhao, located in Rongcheng County; the son of Yang Fu and a woman surnamed Cao, he was the youngest of three brothers, the elder two being named Jichang and Jimei. His early life was troubled by domestic disputes, as hostility grew between Madame Cao and his father's concubine Chen who had given birth to Jimei; as a result, the Yang family home was split at least once. From an early age, Yang Jisheng received education from a variety of local teachers while seeking employment to support his family.
At the age of ten, after the death of his father, Yang Jisheng spent the winter managing the finances of a wealthy household, replacing his brother Jichang in that job. He was able to participate in the local civil service examinations for the first time in 1533; as a young man he received several offers from wealthy families to marry one of their daughters, but declined all of them in order to marry Zhang Zhen, the niece of his father's concubine Chen, closer to his social position and whose virtue he admired. They were married in November 1534, their marriage would produce two sons, named Yingwei and Yingji, a daughter. In 1536, despite the sudden death of his favorite teacher, Yang Jisheng placed at the county-level exams, he did not pass the provincial exams in 1537 and was unable to make a second attempt for several years. A sudden outbreak of illness in his village caused him to drop his studies in order to care for his family, shortly before the 1540 exams he was forced to come home and deal with a lawsuit brought by corrupt members of a wealthy family who had succeeded in getting his brother Jichang thrown in prison.
After securing his brother's release and passing the provincial exams in 1540, he unsuccessfully attempted the metropolitan exam in 1541, began attending the National University. He became acquainted during this time with the senior court official Xu Jie, who mentored him, he was successful in passing both the metropolitan and palace examinations with high marks in 1547 along with such notables as the future statesman Zhang Juzheng and the renowned writer Wang Shizhen, the latter of whom became a lifelong friend. The beginning of Yang Jisheng's career coincided with prolonged debate over the correct response to raids conducted by Altan Khan. After factional struggle that led to the ouster and execution of war hawks Zeng Xian and Xia Yan, official policy focused on diplomatically engaging with the Mongol nomads by opening horse markets which would lead to a long-term trade relationship; this strategy was championed by Yan Song, a minister, now on the ascendant in Ming political circles and who had become hugely influential over the Jiajing Emperor.
Upon achieving the jinshi degree, Yang Jisheng was posted to the Ministry of Personnel in Nanjing, where he studied with the elderly statesman and music theorist Han Banqi. By 1551, he had returned to Beijing to take a post at the Ministry of War, where he was privy to discussions on foreign affairs. Shortly after his arrival, he submitted a memorial to the throne highlighting ten reasons why the opening of horse markets was bad for the state, five fallacies in the common arguments supporting rapprochement with Altan Khan. Although the Jiajing Emperor was in favor of the proposal, it was criticized harshly by the party of Yan Song. Yang Jisheng was arrested by the Embroidered Uniform Guard and beaten before being demoted and sent to Didao to serve as a low-ranking judicial official. One of the first things that he did while posted to Didao was to found a school for the promotion of Confucian values. To maintain the school, Yang used his personal funds to purchase considerable land, divided into a section growing produce for the students and a section composed of individual plots to be rented out for poorer farmers, providing both income for the school and land for the less affluent members of the community.
He was successful in opening a coal mine through diplomatic engagement with the residents of the mountain where the mine was located, performing public rituals to appease the local spirits. His tenure in Didao was additionally marked by an anti-corruption campaign against wealthy families that were attempting tax evasion. Following the failure of the diplomatic response to Altan Khan, Yang Jisheng was recalled from Didao a year after being sent into exile, he received multiple promotions in rapid succession until he was once again appointed to serve the Ministry of War in Beijing. In the early hours of December 2, 1553, as he recorded in his autobiography, Yang Jisheng stayed up late thinking about his sudden rush of good fortune, his wife, Madame Zhang, approached him to ask about his thoughts.
Stephen Chubin known as "Chube" is a retired American professional basketball player. Born in New York City, Chubin played college basketball at the University of Rhode Island, with the Rhode Island Rams, where he became the school's all-time leading scorer, he was inducted into the University of Rhode Island Athletics Hall of Fame, in 1981. Chubin was selected by the San Francisco Warriors, in the 3rd round, of the 1966 NBA draft. Chubin spent the 1966–67 season playing in the Italian League with Olimpia Milano, which placed second in the FIBA European Champions Cup, behind Real Madrid. Chubin was the top scorer in the EuroLeague Finals, with 34 points. Chubin played for the Anaheim Amigos, by most accounts, was the most popular player with the team's fans. Chubin averaged 18.2 points per game during his first ABA season. During his first year with the Amigos, Chubin ranked second in the league in assists per game. Chubin played for the Los Angeles Stars, Minnesota Pipers, Indiana Pacers, New York Nets, the Pittsburgh Pipers and Kentucky Colonels, in the American Basketball Association, in 226 games.
Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" is one of the oldest Russian higher education institutions. It was founded in 1886 as a Technical College. LETI, as it is popularly called, received the status of a higher education institution in 1899 and became known as Electrotechnical Institute. ETU was the first higher educational institution in Europe to specialize in electrical engineering. In August 2016 ETU “LETI” became the part of the Project 5-100, a Russian academic excellence program; the University has training programs in fields of radio engineering, telecommunications, control processes, computer engineering and IT, biomedical engineering and linguistics. The need to establish a specialized educational institution focused on electrical engineering arose in Russia in 1884. At the time, application of electrical phenomena in telegraph devices was widespread, so the main task for the new Technical College was to teach subjects dealing only with the oldest branch of electrical engineering.
The Chief of the Administration of Posts and Telegraphs made a statement about the need for specialists with higher education in the State Council of the Russian Empire. Count Dmitry Tolstoy, Minister of Interior, submitted a draft of Provisional Regulations to the State Council and the staff of the Technical College. On June 3, 1886, Emperor Alexander III approved of the Provisional Regulations on the Technical College with a three-year term of study. On September 4, 1886, Technical College of the Postal and Telegraph Department, the first civilian electrotechnical educational Institution in Russia, was opened. Nikolai Pisarevsky, an outstanding engineer in the field of electrical communications, became the director of the school; the building of the former Telegraph Department was allocated for the needs of the college. The results of the first study year showed that it was necessary to increase the period of study and expand education programs. On June 11, 1891, Emperor Alexander III signed a decree and renamed Technical College as Electrotechnical Institute with a four-year term of study.
Its graduates had the right to defend their thesis projects after one year of practical work, they were awarded titles of engineers. The curriculum was expanded and departments were established on core subjects - mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering and telegraph devices. Education was free. After Nikolai Pisarevsky passed away in 1895, Nikolai Kachalov became the head of the institute. In the days of his leadership, the university underwent significant changes. On June 4, 1899, ETI was granted the status of a higher education institution with the introduction of a five-year training period; the university began specialist training in all fields of electrical studies. In August 1899, Emperor Nicholas II issued an order to rename the institute in memory of its "unforgettable founder", Alexander III as Electrotechnical Institute of Emperor Alexander III. Graduates have been awarded titles of electrical engineers since 1900; the second industrial revolution in the late XIX century increased the demand for electrical engineering.
It was decided to construct a group of buildings for the Institute on Aptekarsky Island. The architect Alexander Vekshinsky designed the building in pseudo-gothic style; the Institute was granted classrooms, as well as laboratories, a library, an assembly hall. ETI moved to the new location in 1903. Alexander Popov, the inventor of the radio, was appointed as professor of the Department of Physics in 1901, he became the first elected director of the institute in September 1905. Prof. Valentin Kovalenkov, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Prof. Nikolai Scritsky introduced a new Telemechanics major; the Department of Automation and Telemechanics was founded as well. Valentin Vologdin, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, founded a laboratory of high-frequency electrical engineering at LETI in 1935; the laboratory became a research institute of high-frequency currents in 1947. During the Second World War, many academic and administrative staff members, as well as students of the Institute went off to the front.
When Leningrad was besieged, a group of scientists led by Prof. Sergei Rinkevich remained there. In April 1942, Sergei Rinkevich helped establish the Research Bureau affiliated to the People's Commissariat of the Shipbuilding Industry that carried out special tasks to ensure the defense of Leningrad. Prof. A. Alekseev organized welding works on Lake Ladoga, he repaired metal parts of vessels utilized on the Road of Life. A monument dedicated to students and employees of LETI who died in the Great Patriotic War was erected on Instrumentalnaya Street on November 5, 1986. In 1992, the institute received the status of a Technical University. In 1998, the Ugra branch of ETU “LETI” was opened. Bachelors and specialists receive training at 7 full-time faculties. At the Open Faculty, bachelors are entitled to extramural courses. ETU is preparing students in: Bachelor's degree 19 fields of full-time education. Master's degree 15 fields of full-time education, 6 of which in English. Specialist degree 2 specialties of full-time education.28 educational programs were recognized as Best Educational Programs of Innovative Russia in 2017.
The European Association of ENAEE certified 46 educational programs. Qualified scientific personnel receive tr
Goosebumps is a series of children's horror fiction novels by American author R. L. Stine, published by Scholastic Publishing; the stories follow child characters, who find themselves in scary situations involving monsters and other supernatural elements. From 1992 to 1997, sixty-two books were published under the Goosebumps umbrella title. Various spin-off series were written by Stine: Goosebumps Series 2000, Give Yourself Goosebumps, Tales to Give You Goosebumps, Goosebumps Triple Header, Goosebumps HorrorLand, Goosebumps Most Wanted and Goosebumps SlappyWorld. Another series, Goosebumps Gold, was never released. Goosebumps has spawned a television series and merchandise, as well as a series of feature films, starring Jack Black as Stine. Since the release of its first novel, Welcome to Dead House, in July 1992, the series has sold over 400 million books worldwide in thirty-two languages, becoming the second-best-selling book series in history, after J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter. Individual books in the series have been listed in several bestseller lists, including the New York Times Best Seller list for children.
The Goosebumps series falls under the children's fiction and thriller genres, although Stine characterizes the series as "scary books that are funny". Each book features different child settings; the primary protagonists can be either male or female. The primary protagonists of a Goosebumps story are situated in a remote location or somehow isolated from typical societal conventions; this can range anywhere from comfortable suburban areas to boarding schools, foreign villages or campsites. Books feature characters who either moved to a new neighborhood or are sent to stay with relatives; the books in the Goosebumps series feature similar plot structures with fictional children being involved in scary situations. At his peak, Stine was known to complete these stories quickly, some of which were written in only six days; the books are written in first person narrative concluding with twist endings. They contain surreal horror, with characters encountering the supernatural; the author has plot devices.
Stine says he does not have any death in his stories, the children in his novels are never put into situations that would be considered too serious. He attributed the success of his books to their absence of drugs and violence. Books and characters in the series were inspired by films. For example, the character Slappy the Dummy was inspired by the literary classic The Adventures of Pinocchio; some of Stine's ideas for the books came from real life. Stine uses his childhood fears to help him write his books; the author said, "Luckily, I have a great memory. As I write a story, I can remember what it feels like to be afraid and panicky". Stine states he thinks of a title to a novel first lets the title lead him to a story. Two common themes in the series are children triumphing over evil and children facing horrid or frightening situations and using their own wit and imagination to escape them. Stine does not attempt to incorporate moral lessons into his novels, says his books are "strictly reading motivation".
Recurring characters who appear in multiple books and media. Slappy the Dummy is the main villain of the Night of the Living Dummy saga and the most recurring character of the series; the Haunted Mask is the villain of the book saga of the same name. The Horrors serve as the main villain of the HorrorLand book series; the Monster Blood is the titular monster of the book series of the same name. Carly Beth Caldwell is one of the recurring protagonists of the Haunted Mask series. Evan Ross is the main protagonist of the first four books of Monster Blood. Lizzy Morris is the protagonist of the first two HorrorLand books and a major protagonist of the HorrorLand series; the Menace is the main villain of the first story arc of the HorrorLand series. Jonathan Chiller is the main villain of the second arc of the Goosebumps HorrorLand series. Ray Gordon is the narrator character of the last part of the second arc of Goosebumps HorrorLand. Following the success of Stine's young adult horror novels, the co-founder of Parachute Press, Joan Waricha, persuaded him to write scary books for younger children.
Stine says the name for the book series came to him after he saw a TV station's ad in TV Guide that stated "It’s goosebumps week on Channel 11". He signed a six-book deal with the publisher Scholastic, but went on to write 62 books in the original series, the first book being Welcome to Dead House, released in July 1992; the series was aimed at girls, but both boys and girls enjoyed the series with half of Stine's fan mail being sent from boys. The cover illustrations for this series were first done by Tim Jacobus. Thirty-Two of the books from the original series were re-released with new artwork under the Classic Goosebumps rename; the books in the Tales to Give You Goosebumps and Goosebumps Triple Header series were written as short story anthologies, featuring a collection of stories in each book. From 1994 to 1997, six Tales to Give You Goosebumps books were published. Two Goosebumps Triple Header books were released from 1997 to 1998, beginning with Three Shocking Tales of Terror: Book 1.
Fifty Give Yourself Goosebumps books were published from 1995 to 2000, starting with Escape from the Carnival of Horrors. The books in this series were written as gamebooks; the books in this series were ghostwritten by several authors, including Kathryn Lance and Stin
Glenlyon Norfolk School is an independent, co-ed, university preparatory day school in Victoria and Oak Bay, British Columbia, Canada. It was formed in 1986 with the amalgamation of Norfolk House; the school offers instruction from Junior Kindergarten to Grade 12. The school offers the International Baccalaureate at all three levels: the Primary Years Programme, Middle Years Programme and, at the high school level, offers the IB Diploma Programme. Of the 2,124 schools that participate in the IB program in North America and the Caribbean, Glenlyon Norfolk School is one of only 25 schools to offer the program at all three levels. GNS is a member of the International Baccalaureate Organization, Round Square, the Canadian Accredited Independent Schools, Independent Schools Association of British Columbia, National Association of Independent Schools; the current Headmaster is Dr. Glenn Zederayko. GNS was ranked by the Fraser Institute in 2017/2018 as #9 out of 251 British Columbia Secondary Schools.
In 1913, a pair of enterprising British women founded Norfolk House School, an all-girls school on what is now the Pemberton Woods Campus. Miss Atkins and Miss McDermott were dedicated to a rigorous education in academics and values. 20 years Glenlyon Preparatory School for boys was established on the Beach Campus location by Major Ian Simpson. In 1986, the schools joined together. In 2013, GNS celebrated its 100-year anniversary since the founding of Norfolk House. GNS's nearly 700 students occupy two campuses: the Beach Drive Campus, the Pemberton Woods Campus; the Beach Drive Campus is located near Willows Beach in Oak Bay and is home to students in Junior Kindergarten through to Grade Five. The campus is focused around the former home of Sir Francis Rattenbury; the Beach Drive Campus was known as the Junior Boys Campus, reserved for boys from Kindergarten to Grade Seven. In 2003 the school restructured its approach to co-ed learning, for the first time, female students were allowed on the Beach Drive Campus.
The Beach Drive Campus became a primary campus with Grades K to 5 in single-gender classes sharing a co-educational environment. The Pemberton Woods Campus became a Grades 6 to 12 campus with Grades 6 to 12 in co-ed classes; the Pemberton Woods Campus, home to students Grades 6 through to 12, combines the old Norfolk House Campus with a number of new buildings built after the amalgamation. Each Campus has its own Principal, while the entire school is administered by the Head of School, Dr. Glenn Zederayko. In 1996, the school was accepted as an International Baccalaureate World School and began offering the IB Diploma to students in Grades 11 and 12; this was followed by authorization to offer the IB Middle Years Programme in 2004 and the IB Primary Years Programme in 2007, making GNS one of a few schools in Canada to offer the full IB continuum. In June 2007, the Board of Directors approved a plan for comprehensive campus transformation. In 2009, an artificial turf field was installed. In the spring of 2013 Denford Hall, seating over 350, was completed.
A further campaign was launched in 2018 to refurbish the school's two campuses, at Beach Drive and Bank Street, was supported by a $5 million donation by Gordon Denford. On Friday, May 24, the school celebrated the official opening of the school's new Junior Kindergarten and Kindergarten facilities and the re-dedication of the Boathouse, one of the buildings designed by Francis Rattenbury. Together these buildings comprise the first completed projects in the upcoming multi-phase capital campaign initiative that, once completed, will transform both the Junior School campus and the Middle and Senior School campus on nearby Bank Street. GNS's Senior Campus is known for a successful debate program; the school sends debaters to the Worlds and sends students to the Junior and Senior National debate tournaments and seminars. Glenlyon Norfolk identifies three girls sports and three boys sports as the ‘major’ sports of the School: Girls Field Hockey and Soccer. In these 6 sports, the explicit goal is being competitive at the Provincial level.
Since 1986 the Gryphons have won Vancouver Island Championships and Independent School Championships 38 times in 14 different sports and Provincial Championships as follows: Boys Rugby, Climbing, Girls Soccer, Boys Soccer, Boys Basketball, Golf. GNS provides a wide variety of clubs including the Tech Team, the Gryphon Newspaper, the Photography club, the Round Square and the Positivity Project. 1987–1997: David Brooks 1997–2001: Charles Peacock 2001–2004: Barbara Emmerson 2004–2015: Simon Bruce-Lockhart 2015–: Dr Glenn Zederayko Official website