Candi of Indonesia
A candi is a Hindu or Buddhist temple in Indonesia built during the Zaman Hindu-Buddha or "Hindu-Buddhist period", between the 4th and 15th centuries. The Great Dictionary of the Indonesian Language of the Language Center defines a candi as an ancient stone building used for worship, or for storing the ashes of cremated Hindu or Buddhist kings and priests. Indonesian archaeologists describe candis as sacred structures of Hindu and Buddhist heritage, used for religious rituals and ceremonies in Indonesia. However, ancient secular structures such as gates, urban ruins and bathing places are called candi too, while a shrine that serves as a tomb is called a cungkup. In Hindu Balinese architecture, the term candi refers to a stone or brick structure of single-celled shrine with portico and stairs, topped with pyramidal roof and located within a pura, it is modeled after East Javanese temples, functions as a shrine to a certain deity. To the Balinese, a candi is not ancient, since candis continue to be built within these puras, such as the reconstructed temple in Alas Purwo, Banyuwangi.
In contemporary Indonesian Buddhist perspective, candi refers to a shrine, either ancient or new. Several contemporary viharas in Indonesia for example, contain the actual-size replica or reconstruction of famous Buddhist temples, such as the replica of Pawon and Plaosan's perwara temples. In Buddhism, the role of a candi as a shrine is sometimes interchangeable with a stupa, a domed structure to store Buddhist relics or the ashes of cremated Buddhist priests, patrons or benefactors. Borobudur, Muara Takus and Batujaya for example are elaborate stupas. In modern Indonesian language, the term candi can be translated as "temple" or similar structure of Hindu and Buddhist faiths, thus temples of Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and India are called candi in Indonesian. Candi refers to a structure based on the Indian type of single-celled shrine, with a pyramidal tower above it, a portico; the term Candi is given as a prefix to the many temple-mountains in Indonesia, built as a representation of the Cosmic Mount Meru, an epitome of the universe.
However, the term applied to many non-religious structures dated from the same period, such as gapura and some of habitation complexes. Examples of non-temple candis are the Bajang Wringin Lawang gates of Majapahit; the "Candi Tikus bathing pool" in Trowulan and Jalatunda in Penanggungan slopes, as well as the remnants of non-religious habitation and urban structures such as Ratu Boko and some of Trowulan city ruins, are considered candi. In ancient Java, a temple was originally called prāsāda, as evidence in the Manjusrigrha inscription, that mentioned "Prasada Vajrasana Manjusrigrha" to refer to the Sewu temple; the term prasad itself refer to a sacrament. This term is in par with Cambodian and Thai term prasat which refer to the towering structure of a temple. From Hindu perspective, the term "candi" itself is believed was derived from Candika, one of the manifestations of the goddess Durga as the goddess of death; this suggests that in ancient Indonesia the "candi" had mortuary functions as well as connections with the afterlife.
The association of the name "candi", candika or durga with Hindu-Buddhist temples is unknown in India and other parts of Southeast Asia outside of Indonesia, such as Cambodia, Thailand, or Burma. Another theory from Buddhist perspective, suggested that the term "candi" might be a localized form of the Pali word cedi — which related to Thai word chedi which refer to a stupa, or it might be related to the bodhisattva Candī. Historians suggest that the temples of ancient Java were used to store the ashes of cremated deceased kings or royalty; this is in line with Buddhist concept of stupas as structures to store Buddhist relics, including the ashes and remains of holy Buddhist priests or the Buddhist king, patrons of Buddhism. The statue of god stored inside the garbhagriha of the temple is modeled after the deceased king and considered to be the deified person of the king portrayed as Vishnu or Shiva according to the concept of devaraja; the example is the statue of king Airlangga from Belahan temple portrayed as Vishnu riding Garuda.
The candi architecture follows the typical Hindu architecture traditions based on Vastu Shastra. The temple layout in central Java period, incorporated mandala temple plan arrangements and the typical high towering spires of Hindu temples; the candi was designed to mimic the holy mountain the abode of gods. The whole temple is a model of Hindu universe according to the layers of Loka; the candi structure and layout recognize the hierarchy of the zones, spanned from the less holy to the holiest realms. The Indic tradition of Hindu-Buddhist architecture recognize the concept of arranging elements in three parts or three elements. Subsequently, the design and layout of the temple follows the rule of space allocation within three elements; the three zones is arranged according to a sacred hierarchy. Each Hindu and Buddhist concepts has their own terms. Either the compound site plan or the temple structure consists of three zones: Bhurloka, the lowest realm of common mortals. Where humans still bound by their lust and unholy way of life.
The outer courtyard and the foot part of each t
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Sanghyang is a sacred Balinese dance, based on the idea that a force enters the body of an entranced performer. The force, identified as hyang, is important spiritual entities in ancient Indonesian mythology; the sanghyang dances are considered sacred ritual dances that should be performed only in Hindu Balinese religious events, never to entertain tourists. The dancer is a man accompanied by a chorus of chanting Sanghyang. Before it began, the dancer went through the phases of summoning ape spirits. After conceding, the dancer will mimic the behavior of an ape; this dance only found at Karangasem. This is Sanghyang dance variant only found at Duda, danced by a man using clothing from palm fiber, he went around and mimicked the movements of a pig. Sanghyang dedari is a dance performed by pre-pubescent girls, similar in some ways to the Legong dance; the girls are carried on the shoulders of men, trance is associated with this ritual. Survived by a pair of not yet puberty little girls who entered the spirit of Goddess Sri.
Each dancer holds a tree linked to a thread where two suspended dolls are made from a lontar leaf called deling. This danced by 23 person. Sanghyang jaran is a dance performed by boys who ride coconut hobbyhorses around a fire. Trance is associated with this ritual. Drawn by a girl who has conceded a spirit with an intermediate broomstick, moved to the left and right. There are similar dances which are a piece of bamboo, called Sanghyang Bungbung dance. Balinese dance Youtube video of Sanghyang Sanghyang-Jaran-Dance sanghyang
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Balinese Hinduism is the form of Hinduism practiced by the majority of the population of Bali. This is associated with the Balinese people residing on the island, represents a distinct form of Hindu worship incorporating local animism, ancestor worship or Pitru Paksha, reverence for Buddhist saints or Bodhisattava; the population of Indonesian islands is predominantly Muslim. The island of Bali is an exception. Upon independence from the Dutch colonial rule, the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia guaranteed the freedom of religion to all its citizens. In 1952, states Michel Picard – an anthropologist and scholar of Balinese history and religion, the Indonesian Ministry of Religion came under the control of Islamists who constrained an acceptable definition of a "religion". To be acceptable as an official Indonesian religion, the ministry defined "religion" as one, monotheistic, has codified religious law and added a number of requirements. Further, Indonesia denied the rights of citizenship such as the right to vote to anyone not belonging to an recognized monotheistic religion.
The minority Balinese Hindus adapted and declared their form of Hinduism to be monotheistic, presented it in a form to be politically eligible for the status of "agama". Balinese Hinduism has been formally recognized by the Indonesian government as one of the official religions practiced in Bali. Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. Historical evidence is unclear about the diffusion process of cultural and spiritual ideas from India. Java legends refer to Saka-era, traced to 78 AD. Stories from the Mahabharata Epic have been traced in Indonesian islands to the 1st century; the Javanese prose work Tantu Pagelaran of the 14th century, a collection of ancient tales and crafts of Indonesia, extensively uses Sanskrit words, Indian deity names and religious concepts. Ancient Chandis excavated in Java and western Indonesian islands, as well as ancient inscriptions such as the 8th century Canggal inscription discovered in Indonesia, confirm widespread adoption of Shiva lingam iconography, his companion goddess Parvati, Vishnu, Brahma and other Hindu deities by about the middle to late 1st millennium AD.
Ancient Chinese records of Fa Hien on his return voyage from Ceylon to China in 414 AD mention two schools of Hinduism in Java, while Chinese documents from 8th century refer to the Hindu kingdom of King Sanjaya as Holing, calling it "exceedingly wealthy," and that it coexisted peacefully with Buddhist people and Sailendra ruler in Kedu Plain of the Java island. About 1400 CE, the kingdoms on the Indonesian islands were attacked from coast-based Muslim armies. Over the 15th and 16th centuries, this Muslim campaign led by Sultans targeted Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and various communities in the Indonesian archipelago, with each Sultan trying to carve out a region or island for control. Four diverse and contentious Islamic Sultanates emerged in north Sumatra, south Sumatra and central Java, in southern Borneo; the violence ended the Hindu-Buddhist communities in many of the islands of Indonesia. In other cases and Buddhists left and concentrated as communities in islands that they could defend.
Hindus of western Java moved east and to the island of Bali and the neighboring small islands, thus starting Balinese Hinduism. While this era of religious conflict and inter-Sultanate warfare was unfolding, new power centers were attempting to consolidate regions under their control, European colonialism arrived; the Indonesian archipelago was soon dominated by the Dutch colonial empire. The Dutch colonial empire helped prevent inter-religious conflict, it began the process of excavating and preserving Indonesia's ancient Hindu-Buddhist cultural foundations in Java and western islands of Indonesia. Upon independence from the Dutch colonial rule, Article 29 of the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia guaranteed the freedom of religion to all its citizens. In 1952, states Michel Picard, the Indonesian Ministry of Religion came under the control of Islamists who constrained an acceptable definition of a "religion". To be acceptable as an official Indonesian religion, the ministry defined "religion" as one, monotheistic, has codified religious law, possess a prophet and a Holy Book amongst other requirements.
Balinese Hindus were declared as "people without a religion", available to be converted. Balinese Hindus disagreed, debated and declared their form of Hinduism to be monotheistic, presented it in a form to be eligible for the status of "agama" under the 1952 amended articles. To accomplish this, the Balinese Hindus initiated a series of student and cultural exchange initiatives between Bali and India helped formulate the core principles behind Balinese Hinduism. In particular, the political self-determination movement in Bali in mid 1950s led to the joint petition of 1958 which demanded Indonesian government recognize Hindu Dharma; this joint petition quoted the following Sanskrit mantra from the Hindu scriptures, Om tat sat ekam eva advitiyamTranslation: Om, thus is the essence of the all prevading, undivided one. The petition's focus on the "undivided one" was to satisfy the constitutional requirement that Indonesian citizens have a monotheistic belief in one God; the petitioners identified Ida Sanghyang Widhi Wasa a
The Sundanese are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. They number 40 million, form Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, after the neighboring Javanese. In their language, the Sundanese refer to themselves as Urang Sunda, while Orang Sunda or Suku Sunda is its Indonesian equivalent; the Sundanese have traditionally been concentrated in the provinces of West Java, Banten and the western part of Central Java. Sundanese migrants can be found in Lampung and South Sumatra, to lesser extent in Central Java and East Java; the name Sunda derives from the Sanskrit prefix su- which means "goodness" or "possessing good quality". An example is suvarna used to describe gold. Sunda is another name for Hindu God Vishnu. In Sanskrit, the term Sundara or Sundari means "beautiful" or "excellence"; the term Sunda means bright, purity and white. The Sundanese are of Austronesian origins who are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated through the Philippines, reached Java between 1,500 BC and 1,000 BC.
There is a hypothesis that argues that the Austronesian ancestors of contemporary Sundanese people came from Sundaland, a sunken massive peninsula that today forms the Java Sea, the Malacca and Sunda straits, the islands between them. According to recent genetic study, together with Javanese and Balinese has equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian and Austroasiatic heritages; the Sunda Wiwitan belief contains the mythical origin of Sundanese people. The oldest of these bataras is called Batara Cikal and is considered the ancestor of the Kanekes people. Other six bataras ruled various locations in Sunda lands in Western Java. A Sundanese legend of Sangkuriang contain the memory of the prehistoric ancient lake in Bandung basin highland, which suggest that Sundanese inhabit the region since Mesolithic era, at least 20,000 years ago. Another popular Sundanese proverb and legend mentioned about the creation of Parahyangan highlands, the heartland of Sundanese realm; this legend suggested the Parahyangan highland as the playland or the abode of gods, as well as suggesting its natural beauty.
The earliest historical polity which appeared in the Sundanese realm in the Western part of Java was the kingdom of Tarumanagara, which flourished between the 4th and 7th century. Hindu influences reached the Sundanese people as early as the 4th century CE as is evident in Tarumanagara inscriptions; the adoption of this dharmic faith in Sundanese way of life was, never as intense as their Javanese counterparts. It seems that despite the central court beginning to adopt Hindu-Buddhist culture and institution, the majority of common Sundanese still retained their native natural and ancestral worship. By the 4th century, the older megalithic culture was still alive and well next to the penetrating Hindu influences. Court cultures flourished in ancient times, for example, during the era of Sunda Kingdom, however the Sundanese appear not to have had the resources nor desire to construct large religious monuments similar to those built by Javanese in Central and East Java; the traditional rural Sundanese method of rice farming, by ladang or huma, in contrast to Javanese irrigated sawah wet rice cultivation contributed to small populations of sparsely inhabited Sundanese villages.
Geographic constraints that isolate each region led Sundanese villages to enjoy their simple way of life and their independence more. That was the factor that would contribute to the carefree nature, conservative and somewhat individualistic social outlook of Sundanese people; the Sundanese seem to love and revere their nature in spiritual ways, leading to them adopting some taboos in order to conserve the nature and maintain the ecosystem. The conservative tendency and their somewhat opposition to foreign influences, is demonstrated in extreme isolationist measures adopted keenly by Kanekes or Baduy people, they have rules against interacting with outsiders and adopting foreign ideas and ways of life. They have set some taboos, such as not cutting trees nor harming forest creatures, in order to conserve their natural ecosystem. One of the earliest historical records that mentions the name "Sunda" appears in the Sanghyang Tapak inscription dated 952 saka discovered in Cibadak, near Sukabumi.
In 1225, a Chinese writer named Chou Ju-kua, in his book Chu-fan-chi, describes the port of Sin-t'o, which refers to the port of Banten or Kalapa. By examining these records, it seems that the name "Sunda" started to appear in the early 11th century as a Javanese term used to designate their western neighbours. A Chinese source more refers to it as the port of Banten or Sunda Kelapa. After the formation and consolidation of the Sunda Kingdom's unity and identity during the Pajajaran era under the rule of Sri Baduga Maharaja, the shared common identity of Sundanese people was more established, they adopted the name "Sunda" to identify their people and their language. Inland Pasundan is mountainous and hilly, until the 19th century, was thickly forested and sparsely populated; the Sundanese traditionally live in small and isolat
The Balinese people are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali. The Balinese population of 4.2 million live on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population. There are significant populations on the island of Lombok and in the easternmost regions of Java; the Balinese originated from three periods of migration. The first waves of immigrants came from Java and Kalimantan in prehistoric times and were of proto-Malay stock; the second wave of Balinese came over the years from Java during the Hindu period. The third and final wave came from Java, between the 15th and 16th centuries, about the same time as the conversion to Islam in Java, causing aristocrats and peasants to flee to Bali after the collapse of the Javanese Hindu Majapahit Empire in order to escape Mataram's Islamic conversion; this in turn reshaped the Balinese culture into a syncretic form of classical Javanese culture mixed with many Balinese elements. A DNA study in 2005 by Karafet et al. found that 12% of Balinese Y-chromosomes are of Indian origin, while 84% are of Austronesian origin, 2% of Melanesian origin.
Balinese culture is a mix of Balinese Hindu-Buddhist Balinese customs. It is most known for its dance and sculpture; the island is known for its Wayang kulit or Shadow play theatre. In rural and neglected villages, beautiful temples are a common sight. Layered pieces of palm leaf and neat fruit arrangements made as offerings by Balinese women have an artistic side to them. According to Mexican art historian José Miguel Covarrubias, works of art made by amateur Balinese artists are regarded as a form of spiritual offering, therefore these artists do not care about recognition of their works. Balinese artists are skilled in duplicating art works such as carvings that resemble Chinese deities or decorating vehicles based on what is seen in foreign magazines; the culture is noted for its use of the gamelan in music and in various traditional events of Balinese society. Each type of music is designated for a specific type of event. For example, music for a piodalan is different from music used for a metatah ceremony, just as it is for weddings, Melasti and so forth.
The diverse types of gamelan are specified according to the different types of dance in Bali. According to Walter Spies, the art of dancing is an integral part of Balinese life as well as an endless critical element in a series of ceremonies or for personal interests. Traditionally, displaying of female breasts is not regarded as immodest. Balinese women can be seen with bared chests. In modern Bali these customs are not observed, but visitors visiting Balinese temples are advised to cover their legs. In the Balinese naming system, a person's rank of birth or caste is reflected in the name. A puputan is an act of mass suicide through frontal assaults in battle, was first noted by the Dutch during the colonization of Bali; the latest act of puputan was during the Indonesian war of Independence, with Lt. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai as the leader in the battle of Margarana; the airport in Bali is named after him in commemoration. The vast majority of the Balinese believe in Agama Tirta, "holy-water religion".
It is a Shivaite sect of Hinduism. Traveling Indian priests are said to have introduced the people to the sacred literature of Hinduism and Buddhism centuries ago; the people combined it with their own pre-Hindu mythologies. The Balinese from before the third wave of immigration, known as the Bali Aga, are not followers of Agama Tirta, but retain their own animist traditions. Balinese people celebrate multiple festivals, including the Kuta Carnival, the Sanur Village Festival, the Bali Kite Festival, where participants fly fish-, bird-, leaf-shaped kites while an orchestra plays traditional music. Balinese Hinduism Balinese architecture Balinese caste system Bali Kingdom Balinese Kshatriya Galungan Nyepi Saraswati Ngaben Legong Sanghyang Kecak Canang sari