Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Faulk County, South Dakota
Faulk County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,364, its county seat is Faulkton. The county was founded in 1873 and organized in 1883, it is named for the third Governor of Dakota Territory. The terrain of Faulk County consists of low rolling hills devoted to agriculture, sloping to the east; the highest point of the terrain is the county's SW corner, at 1,916' ASL. The county has a total area of 1,006 square miles, of which 982 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water. Lake Faulkton State Game Refuge Ingalls State Game Production Area Gerkin State Game Production Area & Wildlife Refuge Lake Faulkton State Game Production Area Lake Faulkton State Lakeside Use Area North Scatterwood Lake State Waterfowl Refuge Sprague State Game Production Area South Scatterwood State Game Production Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 2,640 people, 1,014 households, 708 families in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile.
There were 1,235 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 99.47% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.27% from two or more races. 0.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 65.0 % were of 5.2 % Norwegian ancestry. There were 1,014 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.40% were married couples living together, 3.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 29.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.18. The county population contained 26.60% under the age of 18, 5.40% from 18 to 24, 23.10% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 22.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $30,237, the median income for a family was $34,508. Males had a median income of $25,085 versus $16,346 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,660. About 12.60% of families and 18.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.60% of those under age 18 and 7.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,364 people, 869 households, 532 families in the county; the population density was 2.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,136 housing units at an average density of 1.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.9% white, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.0% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 70.0% were German, 9.6% were Irish, 7.1% were English, 5.7% were Norwegian, 4.3% were American. Of the 869 households, 20.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 4.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families, 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.79. The median age was 46.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,203 and the median income for a family was $55,234. Males had a median income of $40,641 versus $23,571 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,898. About 14.4% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 14.3% of those age 65 or over. Faulkton Faulk County voters have voted Republican for several decades. In only two national elections since 1944 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Faulk County, South Dakota
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota. The Dakota Territory consisted of the northernmost part of the land acquired in the Louisiana purchase in 1803, as well as the southernmost part of Rupert's Land, acquired in 1818 when the boundary was changed to the 49th parallel; the name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux tribes. Most of Dakota Territory was part of the Minnesota and Nebraska territories; when Minnesota became a state in 1858, the leftover area between the Missouri River and Minnesota's western boundary fell unorganized. When the Yankton Treaty was signed that year, ceding much of what had been Sioux Indian land to the U. S. Government, early settlers formed an unofficial provisional government and unsuccessfully lobbied for United States territory status.
Three years President-elect Abraham Lincoln's cousin-in-law, J. B. S. Todd lobbied for territory status and the U. S. Congress formally created Dakota Territory, it became an organized territory on March 2, 1861. Upon creation, Dakota Territory included much of present-day Montana and Wyoming as well as all of present-day North Dakota and South Dakota and a small portion of present-day Nebraska. A small patch of land known as "Lost Dakota" existed as a remote exclave of Dakota Territory until it became part of Gallatin County, Montana Territory, in 1873. Dakota Territory was not directly involved in the American Civil War but did raise some troops to defend the settlements following the Dakota War of 1862 which triggered hostilities with the Sioux tribes of Dakota Territory; the Department of the Northwest sent expeditions into Dakota Territory in 1863, 1864 and 1865. It established forts in Dakota Territory to protect the frontier settlements of the Territory and Minnesota and the traffic along the Missouri River.
Following the Civil War, hostilities continued with the Sioux until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. By 1868, creation of new territories reduced Dakota Territory to the present boundaries of the Dakotas. Territorial counties were defined including Bottineau County, Cass County and others. During the existence of the organized territory, the population first increased slowly and very with the "Dakota Boom" from 1870 to 1880; because the Sioux were considered hostile and a threat to early settlers, the white population grew slowly. The settlers' population grew and the Sioux were not considered as severe a threat; the population increase can be attributed to the growth of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Settlers who came to the Dakota Territory were from other western territories as well as many from northern and western Europe; these included large numbers of Norwegians, Germans and Canadians. Commerce was organized around the fur trade. Furs were carried by steamboat along the rivers to the settlements.
Gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874 and attracted more settlers, setting off the last Sioux War. The population surge increased the demand for meat spurring expanded cattle ranching on the territory's vast open ranges. With the advent of the railroad agriculture intensified: wheat became the territory's main cash crop. Economic hardship hit the territory in the 1880s due to a drought; the territorial capital was Yankton from 1861 until 1883. The Dakota Territory was divided into the states of North Dakota and South Dakota on November 2, 1889; the admission of two states, as opposed to one, was done for a number of reasons. The two population centers in the territory were in the northeast and southeast corners of the territory, several hundred miles away from each other. On a national level, there was pressure from the Republican Party to admit two states to add to their political power in the Senate. Admission of new western states was a party political battleground with each party looking at how the proposed new states were to vote.
At the beginning of 1888, the Democrats under president Grover Cleveland proposed that the four territories of Montana, New Mexico and Washington should be admitted together. The first two were expected to vote Democratic and the latter two were expected to vote Republican so this was seen as a compromise acceptable to both parties. However, the Republicans won majorities in Congress and the Senate that year. To head off the possibility that Congress might only admit Republican territories to statehood, the Democrats agreed to a less favorable deal in which Dakota was divided in two and New Mexico was left out altogether. Cleveland signed it into law on February 22, 1889 and the territories could become states in nine months time after that. However, incoming Republican president Benjamin Harrison had a problem with South Dakota. There had been previous attempts to open up the territory, but these had foundered because the Treaty of Fort Laramie required that 75% of Sioux adult males on the reservation had to agree to any treaty change.
Most a commission headed by Richard Henry Pratt in 1888 had failed to get the necessary signatures in the face of opposition from Sioux leaders and government worker Elaine Goodale Superintendent of Indian Education for the Dakotas. The government believed that the Dawes Act, which attempted to move the Indians from hunting to farming, in theory meant that they needed less land (but in reality was an economic dis
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
U.S. Route 14
U. S. Route 14, an east–west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926, it has a length of 1,398 miles, but it had a peak length of 1,429 miles. For much of its length, it runs parallel to Interstate 90; as of 2004, the highway's eastern terminus is in Chicago, Illinois. Its western terminus is the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, with the western terminus of U. S. Route 16 and the western terminus of the eastern segment of U. S. Route 20. U. S. 14 begins at the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park, along with U. S. 16 and the eastern segment of U. S. 20. It travels through the Shoshone National Forest to Cody, where U. S. 14A splits off to the north. Both routes traverse the dry Bighorn Basin, followed by a steep ascent up the Big Horn Mountains and through the Bighorn National Forest, where they rejoin at Burgess Junction; the highway descends the eastern slope of the Bighorns between Burgess Junction and Dayton. U. S. 14 follows I-90 south from Ranchester to Sheridan.
The highway turns east and south to again join I-90 near Gillette. It splits off for a short time to Carlile rejoins I-90 which it follows to the state line; the South Dakota section of U. S. 14, other than a concurrency with Interstate 90, is defined in the South Dakota Codified Laws. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway incorporates U. S. 14 from South Dakota in the west to Rochester, Minnesota, in the east, where the historic roadway continues on U. S. 63. The author moved to De Smet, SD from Walnut Grove, MN via the Chicago and Northwestern, which parallels the highway from the Black Hills to La Crosse, WI. In South Dakota and Minnesota, the road parallels the Rapid City and Eastern Railroad the Dakota and Eastern Railroad. US 14 and US 83 are the only national routes serving Pierre, South Dakota, one of only four state capitals not on the Interstate Highway System. U. S. 14 enters the state from South Dakota west of Lake Benton. It goes east through several small towns such as Balaton, Revere, Lamberton and Sleepy Eye, on a two-lane road until New Ulm, where it is a divided highway.
From New Ulm to Mankato, the highway lies north of the Minnesota River. Shortly before coming to the Mankato/North Mankato area, U. S. 14 becomes a freeway bypass, which becomes an expressway east of Mankato. This section is part of the Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway as it passes through Walnut Grove, it continues east south of Waseca and at Owatonna, it crosses Interstate 35. It heads east towards Rochester, with an expressway segment beginning at Minnesota State Highway 56 and continuing east into Rochester. Once it enters Rochester, it has a concurrency with U. S. Route 52. After the concurrency, it continues through Rochester as a divided highway. After Rochester, the highway parallels Interstate 90 until Winona, where U. S. 14 gets picked up by U. S. Route 61; the two highways run concurrently the rest of the way in Minnesota, cross the Mississippi River at La Crescent over the La Crosse West Channel Bridge. U. S. 14 was extended to a full, limited-access freeway from three miles west of Janesville to Interstate 35 at Owatonna.
Most of the new route is located south of the existing alignment so as to avoid overlapping Interstate 35. The expansion was opened to traffic on August 31, 2012, creating a continuous 4-lane route from North Mankato to Owatonna; the section from Waseca to Janesville has yet to be upgraded to freeway standards. The Minnesota section of U. S. 14 is defined as part of Constitutional Route 7 and Trunk Highways 121 and 122 in the Minnesota Statutes. U. S. 14 enters the state of Wisconsin along with U. S. Route 61 across the Mississippi River into La Crosse. Running through rural southern Wisconsin, the route passes through Madison and the village square of Walworth. U. S. 14 exits into Illinois at Big Foot Prairie. In the state of Illinois, U. S. 14 runs southeast from north of Harvard to Chicago via Woodstock and the northwest suburbs. Southeast of Route 47, U. S. 14 has four lanes. Continuing southeastward from just after the overpass above Route 31, U. S. 14 passes beneath and closely parallels the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad's Harvard Subdivision.
Through the northwest suburbs of Chicago, this route is referred to as "Northwest Highway" and is a busy thoroughfare. East of Des Plaines, U. S. 14 becomes Dempster Street until its intersection with Waukegan Road. From here, U. S. 14 follows Waukegan Road, Caldwell Avenue, Peterson Avenue, Ridge Avenue to its eastern end, at the corner of Broadway and U. S. 41. At an earlier point, U. S. 14 extended south on Lake Shore Drive onto Michigan Avenue. U. S. 14 was the "Black and Yellow Trail", so named as it connected Minnesota with the Black Hills and Yellowstone National Park. In Chicago's Northwest Suburbs, it is known as Northwest Highway due to its direction as well as it paralleling the old Chicago and North Western railroad It was called the Northwest Highway from Chicago to New Ulm and some street signs in New Ulm and towns in between still show the old designation. From Ucross west to Sheridan, Wyoming, US 14 was designated U. S. Route 116 in 1926. US 116 was extended west to Cody in 1933, absorbing the Deaver-Cody US 420.
The next year, US 116 became an extension of US 14. Part of this extension, including all of US 420, is now US 14A. Wyoming US 16 / US 20 at the East Entrance to Yellowstone National Park, southeast of Pahaska Tepee; the highways travel concurrently to Greybull. US 310 west-northwest of Greybull I‑90 / US 87 northe
Buffalo County, South Dakota
Buffalo County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,912, its county seat is Gann Valley which, at 14 people, is the least populous county seat in the United States. The county was created in 1864, was organized in 1871 as part of the Dakota Territory. In 2010, the center of population of South Dakota was located in eastern Buffalo County; the Crow Creek Indian Reservation, inhabited by the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe makes up the majority of Buffalo County. According to the 2013 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates of the US Census Bureau, about 41% of county residents live in poverty, making it the fifth-poorest county in South Dakota; this is a far higher poverty rate than the national poverty rate of 15.8%. Median household income in 2013 was $21,572, making it the lowest-earning county in South Dakota and the United States. In March 2015, the county unemployment rate was 8.5%. As of 2002, many homes lack indoor plumbing; the Missouri River flows southerly along the county's western boundary.
The county terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills sloping to the south and east. Some area is devoted to agriculture; the south and west parts of the county are drained by Crow Creek, which discharges into the river at the county's SW corner. The county has a total area of 488 square miles, of which 471 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Bedashosha Lake Lake Francis Case Lake Sharpe As first organized, the county occupied an extensive area, bounded on the north by Canada and west by the Missouri River, having Montana for a part of its northwest boundary, comprising a large portion of the “Plateau du Coteau du Missouri,” and a part of the Miniwakan or Devil's Lake, thus its original boundary contained a portion of the future North Dakota, which became a separate unit when the Dakota Territory was admitted into the Union in 1889 as two separate states. As of the 2000 United States Census, there are 2,032 people, 526 households, 422 families in the county; the population density is 4 people per square mile.
There are 602 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county is 81.59% Native American, 16.34% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.30% from other races, 1.67% from two or more races. 0.89 % of the population are Latino of any race. 8.9% were of German ancestry. There are 526 households out of which 47.10% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.60% are married couples living together, 31.40% have a female householder with no husband present, 19.80% are non-families. 16.00% of all households are made up of individuals and 5.90% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.83 and the average family size is 4.23. The county population contains 41.30% under the age of 18, 11.00% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 16.10% from 45 to 64, 6.50% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 23 years. For every 100 females there are 105.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 98 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $12,692, the median income for a family was $14,167. Males had a median income of $18,650 versus $19,554 for females; the per capita income for the county was the lowest in the nation. About 55.70% of families and 56.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 61.50% of those under age 18 and 50.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,912 people, 532 households, 407 families in the county; the population density was 4.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 609 housing units at an average density of 1.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84.0% Native American, 14.8% white, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.0% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.6% were German, 0.0% were American. Of the 532 households, 55.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.1% were married couples living together, 33.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.5% were non-families, 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 3.59 and the average family size was 4.06. The median age was 25.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,926 and the median income for a family was $28,333. Males had a median income of $38,920 versus $18,542 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,410. About 44.4% of families and 49.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 58.2% of those under age 18 and 36.3% of those age 65 or over. Elvira In 2016, Hillary Clinton won the votes in Buffalo County due to support from Native Americans. Democratic Party nominees have won every presidential election since 1956 except the 1980 and 1984 elections which Ronald Reagan won. National Register of Historic Places listings in Buffalo County, South Dakota "Buffalo County". South Dakota Magazine. Part of a series on South Dakota counties
Lyman County, South Dakota
Lyman County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,755, its county seat is Kennebec. Lyman County was created by the Dakota Territorial Legislature on January 8, 1873, but was not organized until May 21, 1893, its boundaries were altered in 1891, 1897, 1898, 1916. The county was named for a politician. Lyman County was created in 1873 and organized in 1893. Oacoma served as its first county seat in 1891. Lyman County is bordered on the north and east by the Missouri River, which flows southerly along its edge, the western portion of its south line is delineated by the White River, which continued flowing eastward through the county's eastern area to discharge into the Missouri, its upper central portion is drained by the Bad Horse Creek, which discharges into the Missouri near the midpoint of the county's north boundary. The county terrain consists of rolling hills, its area is devoted to agriculture. The county has a total area of 1,707 square miles, of which 1,642 square miles is land and 65 square miles is water.
Lake Francis Case Lake Sharpe As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 3,895 people, 1,400 households, 1,009 families in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,636 housing units at an average density of 1.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 64.75% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 33.27% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.05% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. 0.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,400 households out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.40% were married couples living together, 13.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.90% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.29. The county population contained 32.10% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 104.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,509, the median income for a family was $32,028. Males had a median income of $22,628 versus $18,672 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,862. About 19.40% of families and 24.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.00% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,755 people, 1,392 households, 967 families in the county; the population density was 2.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,704 housing units at an average density of 1.04 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.3% white, 38.2% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.1% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.3% were German, 9.2% were Irish, 9.1% were Norwegian, 1.0% were American.
Of the 1,392 households, 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families, 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.19. The median age was 36.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $36,323 and the median income for a family was $45,045. Males had a median income of $32,760 versus $25,512 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,930. About 17.4% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Presho Kennebec Oacoma Reliance Lower Brule Vivian Iona Lyman Lyman County voters have been Republican for decades. In no national election has the county selected a Democratic Party candidate since 1964, although Jimmy Carter, Michael Dukakis, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama have all managed to exceed forty percent.
When Hillary Clinton ran on the Democratic ticket in 2016, she won 26 percent of the county’s vote, for the lowest Democratic result since Alton B. Parker in 1904. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lyman County, South Dakota USS Lyman County Lyman County Herald Lyman County website