Eureka is a side-wheel paddle steamboat, built in 1890, now preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park in San Francisco, California. Named Ukiah to commemorate the railway's recent extension into the City of Ukiah, the boat was built by the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad Company at their Tiburon yard. Eureka has been designated a National Historic Landmark and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on April 24, 1973, it is the largest existing wooden ship in the world. The ship carried people between San Francisco and Tiburon during the day and hauled railroad freight cars at night. In 1907, Ukiah was re-routed to the Sausalito–San Francisco Ferry Building route by its new owners, Northwestern Pacific Railroad; as automobiles became more common, motorists wanted to "drive across the bay". Since there were no bridges on San Francisco Bay at the time, Ukiah was able to meet this demand via a refitted lower deck designed to handle vehicles; the deck above was expanded for passengers.
During World War I, Ukiah carried munition-filled rail cars for the war effort. Overloading of the ship caused hull strains so severe that the government paid for complete rebuilding of the ship. Shipwrights at the Southern Pacific yard labored for two years—eventually replacing all of its structure above the waterline; this kind of reconstruction was called "jacking up the whistle and sliding a new boat underneath." The refurbished ferry was christened Eureka in honor of the Northern California city, which happened to be the new northern termination of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. As a passenger ferry, she could carry 2,300 passengers and 120 automobiles. At that time, she was the biggest and the fastest double-ended passenger ferry boat in the world—299 feet 6 inches long, with an extreme width of 78 feet and gross tonnage of 2,420 tons. Between 1922 and 1941 Eureka was on the Sausalito commuter run; as the largest of the Northwestern boats, Eureka made the heaviest commuter trips - the 7:30 from Sausalito and the 5:15 from San Francisco.
Each trip averaged 2,200 passengers. During this period the upper deck included seating areas, a magazine stand, a restaurant that served full meals. Eureka was a passenger boat, carrying few cars. After 1929, she sometimes made an extra run from the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco, carrying autos on Sundays. Completion of the Golden Gate Bridge between San Francisco and Marin in 1937 doomed ferry service. Northwestern Pacific first cut service abandoned ferries altogether in 1941. During the war years, Eureka joined a number of bay ferries in the work of transporting troops from Camp Stoneman in Pittsburg, California, up the Sacramento River, to the Port of Embarkation piers in San Francisco. By the 1950s Eureka served by linking Southern Pacific's cross-country trains, which terminated at Oakland, with San Francisco until 1957, when she snapped an engine crank pin; that service was discontinued the following year. In 1958, Eureka joined the fleet of historic ships now at the National Historical Park.
In the late 1990s she was used as a main filming location for the TV-show Nash Bridges. In October 1999, Eureka entered San Francisco Drydock for a $1 million restoration project focusing on the vessel's superstructure—the above-water portions of the vessel. A significant portion of that restoration was the replacement of the boat's "kingposts"--four large wooden structures that support the paddlewheels and upper decks. Although a number of large ferryboats survive in the US, Eureka is the only one with a wooden hull, she is one of the most impressive remaining examples of traditional American wooden shipbuilding. Beneath her upperworks, the round-bottomed hull is 42 feet wide and 277 feet long; the house rests on a platform extending 18 feet from the hull on either side. Her walking beam engine was powered by coal-fired boilers that were converted to oil in 1905; the engine was built in 1890 by the Fulton Iron Works in San Francisco. It is the only walking beam engine in the United States preserved in a floating vessel.
With the increased length of 5 feet, Eureka became the largest wooden passenger ferry built. She was certified to carry 3,500 people. Ferries of San Francisco Bay Notes Bibliography"Eureka". World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area. National Park Service. Retrieved April 1, 2007. Welts, Allen W.. "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form / Eureka". National Park Service. Retrieved October 10, 2012."Accompanying Photos". National Park Service. Retrieved October 10, 2012. "National Register #73000229: "Eureka" Steam Ferryboat in San Francisco, California". Noehill.com
Balclutha known as Star of Alaska, Pacific Queen, or Sailing Ship Balclutha, is a steel-hulled full rigged ship, built in 1886. She is the only square rigged ship left in the San Francisco Bay area and is representative of several different commercial ventures, including lumber and grain, she is a U. S. National Historic Landmark and is preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park in San Francisco, California, she was added to the National Register of Historic Places on 7 November 1976. Balclutha was built in 1886 by Charles Connell and Company of Scotstoun in Glasgow, for Robert McMillan, of Dumbarton, Scotland, her namesake is said to be the eponymous town of Balclutha, New Zealand, but her name refers to her first homeport, Scotland, a "City on the Clyde" - the meaning of her name derived from the Gaelic Baile Chluaidh. Designed as a general trader, Balclutha rounded Cape Horn 17 times in thirteen years. During this period she carried cargoes such as wine, case oil, coal from Europe and the East Coast of the United States to various ports in the Pacific.
These included Chile for nitrate and New Zealand for wool, Burma for rice, San Francisco for grain, the Pacific Northwest for timber. In 1899 Balclutha transferred to the registry of Hawaii, traded timber from the Pacific Northwest to Australia, returning to San Francisco with Australian coal. In 1902 Balclutha was chartered to the Alaska Packers' Association. After having struck a reef off of Sitkinak Island near Kodiak Island on 16 May 1904, she was renamed the Star of Alaska when bought by APA for $500. After extended repairs she joined the salmon fishing trade, sailing north from the San Francisco area to the Chignik Bay, Alaska, in April with supplies and cannery workers, returned in September with a cargo of canned salmon. For this trade she carried over 200 crew and passengers, as compared to the 26-man crew she carried as the Balclutha. In 1911 the poop deck was extended to the main mast to accommodate Scandinavian workers; this expansion is called the shelter deck. In the'tween deck, bunks for Chinese workers were built.
Her last voyage in this trade was in 1930, when she was laid up after her return home. In 1933, Star of Alaska was renamed Pacific Queen by her new owner Frank Kissinger. In this guise she appeared in the film Mutiny on the Bounty starring Clark Gable and Charles Laughton, she eked out an existence as an exhibition ship deteriorating, was for a while exhibited as a "pirate ship". In 1954, Pacific Queen was acquired by the San Francisco Maritime Museum, which restored her and renamed her Balclutha and moored her at Pier 41 East. In 1985 she was designated a National Historic Landmark. In 1988, she was moved to her present mooring at Hyde Street Pier of the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, she is host to a monthly Chantey Sing in the shelter deck 8pm to midnight on the first Saturday of every month. List of large sailing vessels "National Park Service". Archived from the original on 2005-02-05. Retrieved 2006-04-06. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, retrieved 23:40 GMT 22 January 2005 Entry in Houghton Mifflin's Ships of the World, retrieved 23:50 GMT 22 January 2005 Balclutha history - San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park Balclutha - BlooSee.com Comedian Jonathan Winters Detained In San Francisco.
Winters was arrested in 1949, after climbing in the rigging of the Balclutha
Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the one-mile-wide strait connecting San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The structure links the American city of San Francisco, California – the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula – to Marin County, carrying both U. S. Route 101 and California State Route 1 across the strait; the bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco and the United States. It has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers; the Frommer's travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as "possibly the most beautiful the most photographed, bridge in the world." At the time of its opening in 1937, it was both the longest and the tallest suspension bridge in the world, with a main span of 4,200 feet and a total height of 746 feet. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay.
A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. The Sausalito Land and Ferry Company service, launched in 1867 became the Golden Gate Ferry Company, a Southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s. Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacific's automobile ferries became profitable and important to the regional economy; the ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County took 20 minutes and cost $1.00 per vehicle, a price reduced to compete with the new bridge. The trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County. San Francisco was the largest American city still served by ferry boats; because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city's growth rate was below the national average.
Many experts said that a bridge could not be built across the 6,700-foot strait, which had strong, swirling tides and currents, with water 372 ft deep at the center of the channel, frequent strong winds. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent operation. Although the idea of a bridge spanning the Golden Gate was not new, the proposal that took hold was made in a 1916 San Francisco Bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins. San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, impractical for the time, he asked bridge engineers. One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an ambitious engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis, designed a 55-mile-long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strauss's initial drawings were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, which Strauss promised could be built for $17 million.
Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy. Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California; the bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources. The Department of War was concerned; the navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees. Southern Pacific Railroad, one of the most powerful business interests in California, opposed the bridge as competition to its ferry fleet and filed a lawsuit against the project, leading to a mass boycott of the ferry service. In May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Deakyne, on behalf of the Secretary of War, approved the transfer of land needed for the bridge structure and leading roads to the "Bridging the Golden Gate Association" and both San Francisco County and Marin County, pending further bridge plans by Strauss.
Another ally was the fledgling automobile industry, which supported the development of roads and bridges to increase demand for automobiles. The bridge's name was first used when the project was discussed in 1917 by M. M. O'Shaughnessy, city engineer of San Francisco, Strauss; the name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the state legislature in 1923, creating a special district to design and finance the bridge. San Francisco and most of the counties along the North Coast of California joined the Golden Gate Bridge District, with the exception being Humboldt County, whose residents opposed the bridge's construction and the traffic it would generate. Strauss was chief engineer in charge of overall construction of the bridge project. However, because he had little understanding or experience with cable-suspension designs, responsibility for much of the engineering and architecture fell on other experts. Strauss's initial design proposal was unacceptable from a visual standpoint.
The final graceful suspension design was conceived and championed by Leon Moisseiff, the engineer of the Manhattan Bri
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco
Fisherman's Wharf is a neighborhood and popular tourist attraction in San Francisco, California. It encompasses the northern waterfront area of San Francisco from Ghirardelli Square or Van Ness Avenue east to Pier 35 or Kearny Street; the F Market streetcar runs through the area, the Powell-Hyde cable car lines runs to Aquatic Park, at the edge of Fisherman's Wharf, the Powell-Mason cable car line runs a few blocks away. San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf gets its name and neighborhood characteristics from the city's early days of the mid to 1800s when Italian immigrant fishermen came to the city by the bay to take advantage of the influx of population due to the gold rush. One, Achille Paladini, found success wholesaling local fish as owner of the Paladini Fish Company, came to be known as the "Fish King". Most of the Italian immigrant fishermen settled in the North Beach area close to the wharf and fished for the local delicacies and the now famed Dungeness crab. From until the present day it remained the home base of San Francisco's fishing fleet.
Despite its redevelopment into a tourist attraction during the 1970s and 1980s, the area is still home to many active fishermen and their fleets. In 2010, a $15 million development plan was proposed by city officials hoping to revitalize its appearance for tourists, to reverse the area's downward trend in popularity among San Francisco residents, who have shunned the locale over the years. One of the busiest and well known tourist attractions in the western United States, Fisherman's Wharf is best known for being the location of Pier 39, the Cannery Shopping Center, Ghirardelli Square, a Ripley's Believe it or Not museum, the Musée Mécanique, Wax Museum at Fishermans Wharf, the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park. Seafood restaurants are plenty in the area; some include the floating Forbes Island restaurant at Pier 39 to stands that serve fresh seafood, most notably Dungeness crab and clam chowder served in a sourdough bread bowl. Some of the restaurants, including Fishermen's Grotto, Pompei's Grotto and Alioto's, go back for three generations of the same family ownership.
Other restaurants include chains like Bubba Gump Shrimp Co.. The area has an In-N-Out Burger. Nearby Pier 45 has a chapel in memory of the "Lost Fishermen" of San Francisco and Northern California. There is a sea lion colony next to Pier 39, they "took-up" residence months before the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989. The sea lions lie on wooden docks that were used for docking boats. Fisherman's Wharf plays host to many San Francisco events, including a world-class fireworks display for Fourth of July, some of the best views of the Fleet Week air shows featuring The Blue Angels. In 1985, the wharf was used as a filming location in the James Bond film A View to a Kill, where Bond met with CIA agent Chuck Lee in his quest to eliminate the villain of the film, Max Zorin. Hyde Street Pier old automobile ferry site made obsolete by the Golden Gate and Bay Bridges 49-Mile Scenic Drive Fisherman's Wharfs in other places F Market, the San Francisco Municipal Railway historic streetcar linking the Wharf to Market Street Pier 39 Musée Mécanique Red and White Fleet Bay Cruises San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf, Alessandro Baccari Jr. Arcadia Publishing Fisherman's Wharf Merchants Association JB Monaco Fisherman's Wharf Photo Gallery
San Francisco Bay Ferry
San Francisco Bay Ferry is a public transit passenger ferry service in the San Francisco Bay, administered by the San Francisco Bay Area Water Emergency Transportation Authority. San Francisco Bay Ferry is a different system from Golden Gate Ferry, which provides passenger ferry service from San Francisco to Marin County. San Francisco Bay Ferry operates six commuter ferry routes: Alameda Harbor Bay: Weekday peak-hour-only service between the Harbor Bay Ferry Terminal on Bay Farm Island and the San Francisco Ferry Building Alameda/Oakland: All-day weekday and weekend service between Oakland Ferry Terminal in Oakland, Main Street Terminal in Alameda, the Ferry Building, with some service operated to Pier 41 in San Francisco Richmond: Weekday peak-hour service between Richmond Ferry Terminal in Richmond and the Ferry Building South San Francisco: Weekday peak-hour-only service between South San Francisco Ferry Terminal in South San Francisco, Main Street Terminal, Oakland Ferry Terminal South San Francisco–Harbor Bay: Weekday peak-hour-only service between South San Francisco Ferry Terminal and Harbor Bay Ferry Terminal Vallejo/Mare Island: All-day weekday and weekend service between Mare Island Ferry Terminal on Mare Island, Vallejo Ferry Terminal in Vallejo, the Ferry Building, with some service operated to Pier 41.
Additional special service is operated to China Basin Ferry Terminal adjacent to Oracle Park for all San Francisco Giants home games. These gameday services operate on the Oakland/Alameda routes. In the days and weeks following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, ferry service was hastily restored between San Francisco and the East Bay while the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge was closed for repairs; the popularity of the revived ferries and the need for a robust ferry system in the event that the region's roads and tunnels become impassable in an emergency led to the creation of the San Francisco Bay Ferry system. The San Francisco Bay Area Water Emergency Transportation Authority is a government entity created by the California state legislature in 2007 by Senate Bill 976; the organization was the San Francisco Bay Water Transit Authority, which the legislature established in 1999. Commuter service to Vallejo began in September 1986, it operated by Red & White Fleet without subsidy, though Vallejo funded the simultaneously-opened ferry terminal.
The company lost money on the commuter service. The passage of Regional Measure 1 the next month provided additional funding. After the 1989 earthquake, service was temporarily increased using three ferries rented from the Washington State Ferries system; the 1990 passage of Proposition 116 provided $10 million for the purchase of new vessels, with an additional $17 million from the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. A new vessel and a new operator began operations on July 1, 1994. Two high-speed catamarans were put into service in May 1997 under a new Baylink brand; the MV Solano was added in 2004. WETA has assumed ferry service operated by the City of Alameda and Port of Oakland; the ferry lines operated under the Alameda/Oakland Alameda Harbor Bay Ferry names. Service to the city of South San Francisco began on 4 June 2012, which coincided with use of the new San Francisco Bay Ferry name. WETA assumed control of Baylink service on July 1, 2012. Ferry service from Vallejo to San Francisco dates back to 1986.
Half of the agency's operating funds come from Regional Measure 2, a $1 toll increase on Bay Area bridges approved in 2004, the other half comes from fares. Since 2011, the private Blue & Gold Fleet has been under contract to operate the ferries on behalf of WETA. On April 29, 2013, a third evening trip from South San Francisco to Oakland was added, as well as a midday leisure-oriented round trip on Wednesdays and Fridays between South San Francisco and Pier 41 via the Ferry Building. San Francisco service was expanded to Monday through Friday on November 3, 2014, with the Pier 41 segment dropped; the single reverse commute trip on the South San Francisco–Oakland/Alameda route was dropped on May 4, 2015, leaving only three peak-direction round trips. South San Francisco–Ferry Building service ended on July 2, 2018. Seasonal direct service between Oakland/Alameda and Angel Island ended on October 26, 2014. On January 2, 2017, WETA increased weekday Vallejo service to 14 southbound and 13 northbound trips, with route 200 bus service discontinued.
SolTrans began operating a single northbound route 82 bus trip via the Ferry Building in the late evening, intended for passengers who miss the last ferry to Vallejo. On March 6, 2017, service to Mare Island began as a short extension of Vallejo service. Seven weekday round trips and four weekend round trips were extended to Mare Island. Weekday commuter service from a remodeled Richmond Ferry Terminal, in Richmond's Marina Bay District, to San Francisco was approved for funding and planning in 2015 to become operational by 2018. Service commenced on January 2019 with commute and limited reverse commute services. On January 7, 2019, WETA began a three-month pilot of weekday peak-hour service between South San Francisco and Harbor Bay; the single round trip runs to South San Francisco in the evening. The pilot program allowed the addition of a morning Harbor Bay-to-San Francisco trip. WETA plans to establish new service from Redwood City to San Francisco, its lo