Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula H2O:HCl. Hydrochloric acid has a distinctive pungent smell, it is classified as acidic and can attack the skin over a wide composition range, since the hydrogen chloride dissociates in aqueous solution. Hydrochloric acid is the simplest chlorine-based acid system containing water, it is a solution of hydrogen chloride and water, a variety of other chemical species, including hydronium and chloride ions. It is a naturally-occurring component of the gastric acid produced in the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans. Hydrochloric acid is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used in the production of polyvinyl chloride for plastic. In households, diluted hydrochloric acid is used as a descaling agent. In the food industry, hydrochloric acid is used in the production of gelatin. Hydrochloric acid is used in leather processing. Hydrochloric acid was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800 AD.

It was called acidum salis and spirits of salt because it was produced from rock salt and "green vitriol" and from the chemically similar common salt and sulfuric acid. Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius, it was used by chemists such as Glauber and Davy in their scientific research. Unless pressurized or cooled, hydrochloric acid will turn into a gas if there is around 60% or less of water. Hydrochloric acid is known as hydronium chloride, in contrast to its anhydrous parent known as hydrogen chloride, or dry HCl. Hydrochloric acid was known to European alchemists as spirits of acidum salis. Both names are still used in other languages, such as German: Salzsäure, Dutch: Zoutzuur, Swedish: Saltsyra, Turkish: Tuz Ruhu, Polish: kwas solny, Bulgarian: солна киселина, Russian: соляная кислота, Chinese: 盐酸, Korean: 염산, Taiwanese: iâm-sng. Gaseous HCl was called marine acid air; the old name muriatic acid has the same origin, this name is still sometimes used.

The name hydrochloric acid was coined by the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1814. Hydrochloric acid has been an important and used chemical from early history and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800 AD. Aqua regia, a mixture consisting of hydrochloric and nitric acids, prepared by dissolving sal ammoniac in nitric acid, was described in the works of Pseudo-Geber, a 13th-century European alchemist. Other references suggest that the first mention of aqua regia is in Byzantine manuscripts dating to the end of the 13th century. Free hydrochloric acid was first formally described in the 16th century by Libavius, who prepared it by heating salt in clay crucibles. Other authors claim that pure hydrochloric acid was first discovered by the German Benedictine monk Basil Valentine in the 15th century, when he heated common salt and green vitriol, whereas others argue that there is no clear reference to the preparation of pure hydrochloric acid until the end of the 16th century.

In the 17th century, Johann Rudolf Glauber from Karlstadt am Main, Germany used sodium chloride salt and sulfuric acid for the preparation of sodium sulfate in the Mannheim process, releasing hydrogen chloride gas. Joseph Priestley of Leeds, England prepared pure hydrogen chloride in 1772, by 1808 Humphry Davy of Penzance, England had proved that the chemical composition included hydrogen and chlorine. During the Industrial Revolution in Europe, demand for alkaline substances increased. A new industrial process developed by Nicolas Leblanc of Issoudun, France enabled cheap large-scale production of sodium carbonate. In this Leblanc process, common salt is converted to soda ash, using sulfuric acid and coal, releasing hydrogen chloride as a by-product; until the British Alkali Act 1863 and similar legislation in other countries, the excess HCl was vented into the air. After the passage of the act, soda ash producers were obliged to absorb the waste gas in water, producing hydrochloric acid on an industrial scale.

In the 20th century, the Leblanc process was replaced by the Solvay process without a hydrochloric acid by-product. Since hydrochloric acid was fully settled as an important chemical in numerous applications, the commercial interest initiated other production methods, some of which are still used today. After the year 2000, hydrochloric acid is made by absorbing by-product hydrogen chloride from industrial organic compounds production. Since 1988, hydrochloric acid has been listed as a Table II precursor under the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances because of its use in the production of heroin and methamphetamine. Hydrochloric acid is the salt of H3O + and chloride, it is prepared by treating HCl with water. HCl + H 2 O ⟶ H 3 O + + Cl − However, the speciation of hydrochloric acid is more complicated than this simple equation implies; the structure of bulk water is infamously complex, the formula H3O+ is a gross oversimplification of the true nature of the solvated proton, H+, present in hydrochloric acid.

A combined IR, Raman, X-ray and neutron diffraction study of concentrated solutions of hydrochloric

Sounds from the Marr-Ket Place

Sounds from the Marr-Ket Place is an album by organist Hank Marr, released by the King label in 1968. The AllMusic review by Wilson McCloy stated the album "is a solid soul-jazz outing with tight, funky arrangements and several blues. James Blood Ulmer makes his recording debut here". "The Marr-Ket Place" – 2:29 "Soup Spoon" – 2:50 "Smothered Soul" – 5:00 "I Remember Acapulco" – 3:00 "Greens A-Go-Go" – 2:48 "Down in the Bottom" – 2:57 "My Dream Just Passed" – 3:07 "Home Fries" – 2:47 "Come and Get It" – 4:10 "Get On Down" – 3:20 Hank Marr – Hammond organ Rusty Bryanttenor saxophone James Blood Ulmer – guitar Other unidentified musicians

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Joshua Rogers is an American gospel singer who rose to prominence in 2012 when he became the first male and youngest winner of BET's Sunday Best during the show's fifth season. A native of Greeleyville, South Carolina, Rogers grew up singing and playing the drums in the Apostolic church pastored by his grandmother, he graduated from C. E. Murray High School in 2012. Rogers auditioned for the fifth season of Sunday Best in Atlanta, was a favorite of fans and the celebrity judging panel of Yolanda Adams, Donnie McClurkin, CeCe Winans. Sunday Best host Kirk Franklin gave Rogers the nickname "Young Buck". After weeks of consistent performances of songs such as Vanessa Bell Armstrong's "Peace Be Still", Deitrick Haddon's "Well Done", Andrae Crouch's "We Expect You", Rogers landed in the finals of Sunday Best alongside another teen singer, Alexis Spight, with Rogers going on to win, he became youngest champion. With his win, Rogers received a cash prize, a 2013 Ford Escape, a recording contract with Music World Entertainment.

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