A hymn is a type of song religious written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος, which means "a song of praise". A writer of hymns is known as a hymnist; the singing or composition of hymns is called hymnody. Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymn books. Hymns may not include instrumental accompaniment. Although most familiar to speakers of English in the context of Christianity, hymns are a fixture of other world religions on the Indian subcontinent. Hymns survive from antiquity from Egyptian and Greek cultures; some of the oldest surviving examples of notated music are hymns with Greek texts. Ancient hymns include the Egyptian Great Hymn to the Aten, composed by Pharaoh Akhenaten; the Western tradition of hymnody begins with the Homeric Hymns, a collection of ancient Greek hymns, the oldest of which were written in the 7th century BC, praising deities of the ancient Greek religions.
Surviving from the 3rd century BC is a collection of six literary hymns by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus. Patristic writers began applying the term ὕμνος, or hymnus in Latin, to Christian songs of praise, used the word as a synonym for "psalm". Modeled on the Book of Psalms and other poetic passages in the Scriptures, Christian hymns are directed as praise to the Christian God. Many refer to Jesus Christ either indirectly. Since the earliest times, Christians have sung "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs", both in private devotions and in corporate worship. Non-scriptural hymns from the Early Church still sung today include'Phos Hilaron','Sub tuum praesidium', and'Te Deum'. One definition of a hymn is "...a lyric poem and devotionally conceived, designed to be sung and which expresses the worshipper's attitude toward God or God's purposes in human life. It should be simple and metrical in form, genuinely emotional and literary in style, spiritual in quality, in its ideas so direct and so apparent as to unify a congregation while singing it."Christian hymns are written with special or seasonal themes and these are used on holy days such as Christmas and the Feast of All Saints, or during particular seasons such as Advent and Lent.
Others are used to encourage reverence for the Bible or to celebrate Christian practices such as the eucharist or baptism. Some hymns praise or address individual saints the Blessed Virgin Mary. A writer of hymns is known as a hymnodist, the practice of singing hymns is called hymnody. A collection of hymns is called a hymnary; these may not include music. A student of hymnody is called a hymnologist, the scholarly study of hymns and hymnody is hymnology; the music to which a hymn may be sung is a hymn tune. In many Evangelical churches, traditional songs are classified as hymns while more contemporary worship songs are not considered hymns; the reason for this distinction is unclear, but according to some it is due to the radical shift of style and devotional thinking that began with the Jesus movement and Jesus music. Of note, in recent years, Christian traditional hymns have seen a revival in some churches more Reformed or Calvinistic in nature, as modern hymn writers such as Keith and Kristyn Getty and Sovereign Grace Music have reset old lyrics to new melodies, revised old hymns and republished them, or written a song in accordance with Christian hymn standards such as the hymn, In Christ Alone.
In ancient and medieval times, string instruments such as the harp and lute were used with psalms and hymns. Since there is a lack of musical notation in early writings, the actual musical forms in the early church can only be surmised. During the Middle Ages a rich hymnody developed in the form of Gregorian plainsong; this type was sung in unison, in one of eight church modes, most by monastic choirs. While they were written in Latin, many have been translated. Hymnody in the Western church introduced four-part vocal harmony as the norm, adopting major and minor keys, came to be led by organ and choir, it shares many elements with classical music. Today, except for choirs, more musically inclined congregations and a cappella congregations, hymns are sung in unison. In some cases complementary full settings for organ are published, in others organists and other accompanists are expected to transcribe the four-part vocal score for their instrument of choice. To illustrate Protestant usage, in the traditional services and liturgies of the Methodist churches, which are based upon Anglican practice, hymns are sung during the processional to the altar, during the receiving of communion, during the recessional, sometimes at other points during the service.
These hymns can
Pamela Zoline is an American writer and painter, born in Chicago, living in the United States in Telluride, Colorado. Among science fiction fans, she is known for her controversial short story "The Heat Death of the Universe", published in 1967 in New Worlds. Although she went on to publish further stories in magazines including The New SF, Likely Stories, Interzone, Zoline remains best known for "Heat Death", reprinted since its original publication. Zoline is admired for her experimental approach to both the form of the short story and the genre of science fiction for using the language of science to interrogate the scientific world view. "Heat Death" is structured in a loosely encyclopedic style, with 54 numbered paragraphs narrated in a deliberately matter-of-fact third-person voice. It centers on a day in the life of middle-class housewife Sarah Boyle as she goes about preparing her children's breakfast and organizing a birthday party. Boyle's domestic sphere is presented as a closed system analogous to the universe itself, Boyle as subject to the ravages of literal and metaphorical entropy.
As the narrative veers back and forth among scientific explanations, descriptions of household events, philosophical speculation, the cumulative effect is of a mind and a culture on the verge of collapse. Zoline has written a children's book, libretti for two operas, original science fiction radio plays for the Telluride Science Fiction Project. Zoline lived in the United Kingdom London, for the first two decades of her life, she moved to the United States, where in 1984 she co-founded the Telluride Institute with her husband John Lifton and others. The Heat Death of the Universe and Other Stories, 1988. Annika and the Wolves. Coffee House Press, 1985. Aldiss, Brian W. "Foreword" to "The Heat Death of the Universe". In Robert Silverberg, The Mirror of Infinity: A Critics' Anthology of Science Fiction. New York: Harper & Row, 1973, pp. 267–273. Merril, Judith, "P. A. Zoline..." In England Swings SF. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968, pp. 329–330. Page, Alison. "'The Heat Death of the Universe' by Pamela Zoline: An Appreciation by Alison Page".
On the Ellen Datlow/SCI FICTION Project blog. Hewitt, Elizabeth: "Generic Exhaustion and the'Heat Death' of Science Fiction". SFS 64:3, 1994. "Zoline, Pamela A." In Curtis C. Smith, Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981. "The Heat Death of the Universe" at the Wayback Machine Telluride Institute Photo of Pamela Zoline
Rapunzel's Tangled Adventure is an American animated television series developed by Chris Sonnenburg and Shane Prigmore, produced by Disney Television Animation. It premiered on Disney Channel as a Disney Channel Original Movie titled Tangled: Before Ever After on March 10, 2017, its regular episodes premiered on March 24, 2017. The series is based on the 2010 film Tangled and features the returning voices of Mandy Moore and Zachary Levi, alongside Eden Espinosa, Clancy Brown, Julie Bowen, James Monroe Iglehart, Jeff Ross, Paul F. Tompkins, Jeremy Jordan. In February 2017, ahead of the series premiere, the series was renewed for a second season, which premiered on June 24, 2018. In May 2018, ahead of the premiere of the series' second season, it was announced that the series had been renewed for a third season, which premiered on October 7, 2019. Six months after escaping Mother Gothel and reuniting with her birth parents, King Frederic and Queen Arianna of Corona, Princess Rapunzel is unable to properly adjust due to her father's constant protection.
When she and her handmaiden Cassandra sneak out of the castle, they come upon some magical black rock spikes that magically restores Rapunzel's long blonde hair as they, Eugene Fitzherbert, Pascal the chameleon, Maximus the horse uncover the mystery of her hair's return and its connection to the black rocks growing around Corona. Rapunzel learns that Sundrop Flower's power resides in her with the black rocks directing her to the Dark Kingdom; the second season centers around Rapunzel's group traveling to the Dark Kingdom while accompanied by Lance, Hook Foot, Shorty and joined by the mysterious sword-wielding Adira of the Dark Kingdom. The group soon learn. During the journey, Rapunzel learns the origins of the Sundrop and Moonstone as two halves of an ancient power seeking to be rejoined while sought by a demon warlock called Zhan Tiri, whose evil is mentioned in Corona's legends. Zhan Tiri returns to the physical world as a spirit and manipulates Cassandra into taking the Moonstone and turn on Rapunzel, setting up the third season as Rapunzel copes with Cassandra's betrayal while forced to become acting queen of Corona.
Rapunzel is the long-lost Princess of Corona who adjusts to her new life after escaping her captor, Gothel. After her blonde hair mysteriously regrows, she sets out on an adventure to learn more about the origins of the Sundrop Flower and its connection to the ancient Moonstone Opal and its black moon rocks. Eugene, previous alias Flynn Rider, is an orphaned reformed thief and Princess Rapunzel's boyfriend and a prince of the Dark Kingdom. After giving up his thieving ways, Eugene finds his place in Corona as a royal guard instructor and sets off with Rapunzel on her adventure; as of Flynnpostor, he becomes the new Captain of the Guard. Cassandra is the adopted daughter of the Captain of the Guards and Princess Rapunzel's best friend and lady-in-waiting, she joins Rapunzel on her adventure until she reveals that her birth mother is the late Gothel herself and is manipulated by the dark sorcerer Zhan Tiri to turn on Rapunzel by becoming the host of the all-powerful Moonstone. King Frederic is Rapunzel's overprotective yet loving father.
Queen Arianna is the Queen of Princess Rapunzel's birth mother. Lance Strongbow is Eugene's childhood best friend and former partner-in-crime from his younger thieving days. Hook Foot is the hook-footed younger brother of Hook Hand, he accompanies Rapunzel on her adventure in Season 2. Shorty is a short and crazy thug who joins Rapunzel and Eugene on their adventures in Season 2. Varian is a smart, young alchemist who uses his alchemy and inventions to help others. In Season 1, Varian begins to aid Rapunzel but becomes an antagonist, he reforms in Season 3. Zhan Tiri is an ancient and powerful demon warlock from another reality who serves as the series' main antagonist. Having acted through her minions in the first two seasons, Zhan Tiri appears in a child-like form to manipulate Cassandra in season 3. Tara Fitzgerald as Zhan Tiri's true form. Pascal and Maximus Pascal is best friend of Rapunzel, his backstory is revealed in Episode 11 Pascal's Story. Maximus is a white stallion with the nose of a bloodhound.
He is owned by the Captain of the Guards and by Eugene. Fidella is Maximus's love interest. Ruddiger is Varian's pet raccoon. Corona Royal Guards are servants of King Frederic; the Captain is Cassandra's adopted father. Pete is a member of the Royal Guards. Stan is a member of the Royal Guards; the Pub Thugs are a bunch of thugs that hang out at the Snuggly Duckling pub who were befriended by Rapunzel and Eugene. Big Nose is a big-nosed thug, the romantic of the thugs. Vladimir is a thug in a bull-horned helmet, the strongest of the thugs, he was voiced by Richard Kiel in the movie. Attila Buckethead is a thug in a full metal helmet, he becomes Monty's assistant in One Angry Princess. He was voiced by Byron Howard in the movie. Ulf is a thug. In accordance with his profession, he never speaks. Nigel is King Frederic's adviser. Xavier is a blacksmith who appears to be well-versed with Corona's hi