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A hypernova is a type of stellar explosion which ejects material with an unusually high kinetic energy, an order of magnitude higher than most supernovae. They appear similar to a type Ic supernova, but with unusually broad spectral lines indicating an high expansion velocity. Hypernovae are one of the mechanisms for producing long gamma ray bursts, which range from 2 seconds to over a minute in duration. In the 1980s, the term hypernova was used to describe a theoretical type of supernova now known as a pair-instability supernova, it referred to the high energy of the explosion compared to typical core collapse supernovae. The term had been used to describe hypothetical explosions from diverse events such as hyperstars massive population III stars in the early universe, or from events such as black hole mergers. GRBs were detected on July 2, 1967 by US military satellites in high orbit, which were meant to detect gamma radiation; the US had suspected the USSR of conducting secret nuclear tests despite signing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963, the Vela satellites were capable of detecting explosions behind the moon.

The satellites detected a signal, but it was unlike that of a nuclear weapon signature, nor could it be correlated to solar flares. Over the next few decades, the GRBs posed a compelling mystery. Gamma rays require energetic events to be produced, yet GRBs could not be correlated to supernovae, solar flares, or any other activity in the sky, their brevity made them difficult to trace. Once their direction could be determined, it was found, thus they were not originating from deep space. In February 1997, Dutch-Italian satellite BeppoSAX was able to trace GRB 970508 to a faint galaxy 6 billion light years away. From analyzing the spectroscopic data for both the GRB 970508 and its host galaxy, Bloom et al. concluded in 1998 that a hypernova was the cause. That same year, hypernovae were hypothesized in greater detail by Polish astronomer Bohdan Paczyński as supernovae from rapidly-spinning stars; the usage of the term hypernova from the late 20th century has since been refined to refer to those supernovae with unusually large kinetic energy.

The first hypernova observed was SN 1998bw, with a luminosity 100 times higher than a standard Type Ib. This supernova was the first to be associated with a gamma-ray burst and it produced a shockwave containing an order of magnitude more energy than a normal supernova. Other scientists prefer to call these objects broad-lined type Ic supernovae. Since the term has been applied to a variety of objects, not all of them meeting the standard definition, for example ASASSN-15lh. Hypernovae are now accepted to be supernovae with ejecta having a kinetic energy larger than about 1052 erg, an order of magnitude higher than a typical core collapse supernova; the ejected nickel masses are large and the ejection velocity up to 99% of the speed of light. These are of type Ic, some are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts; the electromagnetic energy released by these events varies from comparable to other type Ic supernova, to some of the most luminous supernovae known such as SN 1999as. The archetypal hypernova SN 1998bw was associated with GRB 980425.

Its spectrum showed no hydrogen and no clear helium features, but strong silicon lines identified it as a type Ic supernova. The main absorption lines were broadened and the light curve showed a rapid brightening phase, reaching the brightness of a type Ia supernova at day 16; the total ejected mass was about 10 M☉ and the mass of nickel ejected about 0.4 M☉. All supernovae associated with GRBs have shown the high-energy ejecta that characterises them as hypernovae. Unusually bright radio supernovae have been observed as counterparts to hypernovae, have been termed radio hypernovae. Models for hypernova focus on the efficient transfer of energy into the ejecta. In normal core collapse supernovae, 99% of neutrinos generated in the collapsing core escape without driving the ejection of material, it is thought that rotation of the supernova progenitor drives a jet that accelerates material away from the explosion at close to the speed of light. Binary systems are being studied as the best method both for stripped of stellar envelopes to leave a bare carbon-oxygen core, for inducing the necessary spin conditions to drive a hypernova.

The collapsar model describes a type of supernova that produces a gravitationally collapsed object, or black hole. The word "collapsar", short for "collapsed star", was used to refer to the end product of stellar gravitational collapse, a stellar-mass black hole; the word is now sometimes used to refer to a specific model for the collapse of a fast-rotating star. When core collapse occurs in a star with a core at least around fifteen times the sun's mass —though chemical composition and rotational rate are significant—the explosion energy is insufficient to expel the outer layers of the star, it will collapse into a black hole without producing a visible supernova outburst. A star with a core mass below this level—in the range of 5–15 M☉—will undergo a supernova explosion, but so much of the ejected mass falls back onto the core remnant that it still collapses into a black hole. If such a star is rotating then it will produce a faint supernova, but if the star is rotating enough the fallback to the black hole will produce relativistic jets.

The energy that these jets transfer into the ejected shell renders the visible outburst more luminous than a standard supernova. The jets beam high energy particles and gamma rays directly outwar


Bandanpur is a small village in Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It has a local post office. Transportation is easily available, there is a small market called Padaua. In Bandanpur, the people are dependent on agriculture. Wheat, sugar cane and mango are the main crops. Bandanpur is situated 5 km from Gosaiganj, and a historical place like Sringirishi ashram is situated 8 km from Bandanpur. Bandanpur has given notable people like JayantiPrasad T Nearby villages include Hardoiya, Aanapur Saraiya, Khirauni, Amsin, Samda, Maya Bazar and Mehbubganj. Jansewa Ashram, primary school Govt Primary School Local Taxi available in 15 minutes. Nearest Railway Station is Goshainganj Railway Station, 5 km apart. Nearest Bus Station is Goshainganj 5 km apart. Local Market Pilgrim Place Shringi Rishi Ashram40 km away from Faizabad after reaching Gosaiganj and 8 km from Bandanpur there is a Market called Mehbubgan where Sherwaghat is famous place. There is an Ashram of Shringi Rishi, he was Rishi of sage Kashyapa's lineage.

He was great saint of the Ramayan era of ancient India. His father was great saint Vibhandak Rishi. Shringi Rishi performed'Putrakameshti Yajya' for King Dashrath of Ayodhya, after that Lord Rama and his three brothers were born. Banks near by Bandanpur 1. UNION BANK OF INDIA, KURHA KESHAVPUR IFSC CODE: ubin0541460. MICR CODE: non micr. 2. BANK OF BARODA, MAYA BAZAR, UP IFSC CODE: barb0mayaba. MICR CODE: 224012503. 3. CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA, CHOWK, FAIZABAD IFSC CODE: cbin0282431. MICR CODE: non-micr. 4. PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK, GOSAINGANJ IFSC CODE: punb0019400. MICR CODE: non-micr

Excélsior TV

Excélsior TV is a Mexican cable news channel owned by Grupo Imagen. It is named for Imagen's Excélsior newspaper and uses the resources of Grupo Imagen's radio stations and its Imagen Televisión national network. Excélsior TV was launched on September 2, 2013. In addition to cable carriage, it was placed on the 27.2 subchannel of XHTRES-TDT, Imagen's existing Mexico City TV station. When Imagen shut down cadenatres in October 2015, Excélsior TV moved from 27.2 to 27.1. Coinciding with the move was a general relaunch of the channel and the migration of the cadenatres news personalities to Excélsior TV. In October 2017, Imagen began transmission of Excélsior TV on 38 Imagen Televisión transmitters, as subchannel 3.4. Excélsior TV fills off hours with infomercials. Excélsior TV is carried on XHTRES-TDT, in the Mexico City area. Outside of Mexico City, broadcast coverage is supplied through the Imagen Televisión transmitter network. Excélsior TV

The Exposed (novel)

The Exposed is the 27th book in the Animorphs series, written by K. A. Applegate, it is known to have been ghostwritten by Laura Battyanyi-Weiss, although due to an editorial oversight, Battyanyi-Weiss was uncredited for this book. It is narrated by Rachel; the front cover quote is. They were wrong...." The inside front cover quote is "Rachel's getting a sinking feeling..." During a shopping trip with Cassie, Rachel discovers Erek having problems: his hologram malfunctions. Managing to get him away in time, they discover all of the Chee are having problems with certain aspects of their technology their holograms, owing to interference with the Pemalite ship hidden in the ocean. Of all the Chee, two are still in danger, while the rest have hidden themselves. One of the Chee in danger, Lourdes, is hidden in a flophouse where drug fencing occurs, but a SWAT team - with a Controller member - are about to raid the house. After rescuing Lourdes, they have to travel to the bottom of the ocean, to fix the problem of the malfunctioning holograms, but have problems thinking of the morph they could use to go in so deep into the ocean.

Cassie found the solution: morphing into a giant squid. But the problem was that none of them had acquired that morph, they had no idea where to get it, though they know for a fact that sperm whales captured giant squids, they were let down until they find out that a sperm whale has conveniently beached, so Rachel and Tobias acquire it and dive to find a squid. Upon finding and battling one, the group all acquire it and release it, dive to the ship, they notice several Yeerk bug fighters en route to the Pemalite ship as well, following the signal. Reaching it first, they use the single-digit access code to infiltrate it and fix the Chee programming, but a self-destruct sequence is initiated too; the group is confronted by a being called the Drode, an aide of sorts to Crayak, who threatens and insults them all. He shows some bizarre fondness for Rachel and tells her that if she wanted favour with the Crayak, she should kill Jake, telling Rachel that her passport to Crayak's side is Jake; the Yeerks emerge into the ship, the group must stand and fight them before allowing them to gain control.

But as the battle reaches a climax, Erek appears - to the shock of the Drode - and activates a violence-dispeller. The Yeerks and Animorphs are forced to leave the ship, the Chee have their holograms restored; the Drode is introduced. Tobias and Rachel's relationship is further explored. Rachel is asked out by someone other than Tobias, she is tempted by the prospect of a normal romantic relationship, but rudely tells him no, concluding in the end that, no matter how tempting the prospect of a normal relationship is, no normal guy would go to the lengths that Tobias has gone to in order to keep her safe. For the first time, Crayak's interest in Rachel is hinted at and explored

David Trist

David George Trist is a former first-class cricketer who played for Canterbury. A right arm fast-medium bowler, he played 24 first-class games between 1968-69 and 1977-78. After retiring he led Eastern Province to victory in the 1989 Currie Cup, he had spells as coach of Hong Kong and the Netherlands. Following New Zealand's tour of England in 1999, Trist replaced Steve Rixon as coach of his home country. Under Trist, New Zealand won the 2000 ICC KnockOut Trophy in Nairobi, New Zealand's only world title. David Trist at Cricinfo David Trist at Cricket Archive

Long Train Runnin'

"Long Train Runnin'" is a song recorded by The Doobie Brothers and written by band member Tom Johnston. It was included on the band's 1973 album The Captain and Me and released as a single, becoming a top 10 hit on the US Billboard Hot 100, peaking at No. 8. It was covered by Italian band Traks in 1982 and by English girl group Bananarama in 1991. In 1993 the Doobie Brothers version was remixed and charted again in several countries, including reaching No. 7 in the UK Singles Chart. The tune evolved from an untitled and ad-libbed jam that the Doobies developed onstage years before it was recorded, its working title, according to Johnston, was "Rosie Pig Moseley" and "Osborn". "I didn't want to cut it," Johnston confessed. "... I just considered it a bar song without a lot of merit. Teddy, on the other hand, thought it had some." Templeman convinced Johnston to write words to the song. Johnston performed the rhythmic guitar strumming that propels the song. Original release In 1982, Italian band Traks covered the song.

This version charted in Germany, where it peaked at No. 62 and No. 18, respectively. 7" single Polydor 2040 365"Long Train Runnin'" – 3:30 "Drums Power" – 4:27 Bananarama's version appeared on their fifth studio album Pop Life in 1991 and was released as the album's third single in the UK. The group discovered the song when they were browsing through the record collection of Youth, producer of the Pop Life album, they needed one more tune decided to go with a cover. The song reached No. 10 in Portugal, No. 18 in Ireland and No. 30 in the UK. Bananarama's music video features them dressed in black Spanish dresses eating at a decadent feast and performing the song on a large bed in a Spanish castle. Bananarama's then-manager Hilary Shaw appears in the feast scene; the video was directed by Nick Egan. UK CD single NANCD 24"Long Train Running" – 3:31 Remixed by Mark'Spike' Stent "Long Train Running" – 6:40 Remixed by Mark'Spike' Stent "Long Train Running" – 4:57 "Outta Sight" – 4:30CD promo single"Long Train Running" – 6:40 Remixed by Mark'Spike' Stent "Long Train Running" – 5:13 Remixed by Mark'Spike' Stent "Outta Sight" – 4:30 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics