click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hypersaline lake

A hypersaline lake is a landlocked body of water that contains significant concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts, with saline levels surpassing that of ocean water. Specific microbial and crustacean species thrive in these high-salinity environments that are inhospitable to most lifeforms; some of these species enter a dormant state when desiccated, some species are thought to survive for over 250 million years. The water of hypersaline lakes has great buoyancy due to its high salt content; the most saline water body in the world is the Don Juan Pond, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. Its volume is some 3,000 cubic meters, but is changing; the Don Juan Pond has a salinity level of over 44%. Its high salinity prevents the Don Juan from freezing when temperatures are below −50 °C. There are larger hypersaline water bodies, lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys such as Lake Vanda with salinity of over 35%, they are covered with ice in the winter. The most saline lake outside of Antarctica is Lake Assal, in Djibouti, which has a salinity of 34.8%.

The best-known hypersaline lakes are the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake in the state of Utah, USA. The Dead Sea, dividing Israel and the Palestinian West Bank from Jordan, is the world's deepest hypersaline lake, the Araruama Lagoon in Brazil is the world's largest; the Great Salt Lake, located in Utah, while having nearly three times the surface area of the Dead Sea, is shallower and experiences much greater fluctuations in salinity. At its lowest recorded water levels, it approaches 7.7 times the salinity of ocean water, but when its levels are high, its salinity drops to only higher than that of the ocean. Hypersaline lakes are found on every continent in arid or semi-arid regions; the Devon Ice Cap contains two subglacial lakes. Brine pool – large area of brine on the ocean basin Halocline – Stratification of a body of water due to salinity differences Halophile List of bodies of water by salinity Salt lake

Perasma

Perasma is a village and a former municipality in Florina regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Florina, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 211.023 km2. It is located in 6 km southeast of Florina; the population was 4,234 in 2011. Perasma is neighboured by the villages of Ammochori, Skopia and Tropaiouchos. Before the Hellenisation of the village name in 1926, the village was locally known as Kučkoveni. Before it was known as Kruševo or Blizna Kruša; the reason for this name was because the village flourished with vegetation Pears. During the Byzantine era, the village was called Tumbata. Before Tumbata, it was called Kitutsi; the name Kučkoveni/Kuchkoveni has said to come about during the 15th century. Kučko in the local Slavic dialect means female dog, which depicts an old tale, passed down from the great forefathers of the region. There was a church, situated just north of the initial village. During this time, the locals believed that their town and people were under a so-called curse which resulted with many dying, with the reason unknown.

One day, a female dog ran past the village's church and had ten little babies, all of whom were healthy and were nurtured by their mother. A male villager, making his way to hunt rabbits over the hills saw the little puppies nestling peacefully; the man was astonished by what he had seen, a sign of healthy life, so went back to the main village in order to explain to the others. Once the locals heard, they believed that the area was blessed by their great monastery. So, as time went on, they decided to burn down the original village and create a new one north of the church. From them on, this plague which killed nearly everything in the region had stopped and the population overall grew miraculously; the new Greek name for the village, directly translates to pathway. In some other historical documents, the name in Greek has been Skylochori meaning dog village; the settlement was first mentioned in an Ottoman defter of 1481, under the name of Kučkovjani, was described as having sixty-seven households.

The locals of the village produced many freshly-grown crops that were kept or sold in the Florinian markets, like garlic and onions. The village had 100,000 kg of wheat, 150,000 kg of corn and 25,000 kg of rye at one point in time; the houses were said to have been made from soil, which as a result created a type of brick. During the times of the Ottoman Empire, Perasma was under the Church Dioscese of Kastoria, when their main monastery, Agioi Anargyroi, was built in 1300. In 1845 the Russian slavist Victor Grigorovich recorded Kuchkovini as Bulgarian village. During the 17th and early 18th centuries, the village was Orthodox and refused to fall under the Muslim supremacy of the Turks; the first school of the village taught the Greek language to the pupils, included the following teachers: A. Kousmanis from the village of Skopia, G. Konstantinidis, K. Gitskalis, P. Klekatsis, G. Papadimitriou and Papanousis from Drosopigi; as a result of the rise of Bulgarian nationalism in Macedonia the village created such revolutionary figures as Koche Deloff - the Florina leader of the Bulgarian Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, killed by the Young Turks near the villages of Flambouro and Drosopigi.

According to the Bulgarian council in Monastir, Andrey Toshev, the population of the village became under the supremacy of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1902. The "La Macédoine et sa Population Chrétienne" survey by Dimitar Mishev concluded that the Christian population in 1905 was composed of 760 Bulgarian Exarchists. During the Nazi occupation of Greece in World War II, the Germans placed a Bulgarian council in Perasma, which consisted of local people from the village such as Kosta Nedelkoff, Todor Popdimitroff, Nase Gagapoff, Iliya Popstoyanoff, Dimitriya Kincharoff, Pandel Gichkaloff, Nikola Popstoyanoff, Iliya Pirganoff and Boris Nedelkoff. Once the Axis powers lost their complete control over the Greek region, many of these men were sentenced to years in prison - some were sent as far as Gyaros Island in the Aegean gulf; the history mentions a range of killings and thievery by German troops who entered the village during the middle 1940s. Once the Greek Civil War erupted post WWII, most Perasmiotes sided with the communist parties - KKE and/or NOF.

In 1948, 300 men from Perasma were sentenced to prison by the Greek government for being former "collaborators with the Bulgarian Ohrana troops during WWII". When the Civil War was won by the royal army of Greece, many villagers were forced to flee the village and move elsewhere past the borders; the majority of them settled in Yugoslavia, but some in Poland, Russia. During and after the Greek Civil War, many villagers were exiled to communist countries. Others immigrated to nations with much more security and wealth to offer - Australia and United States; the people still found many ways to keep their community alive and together, by setting up various clubs around the different cities. The Kouchkovski Social Club, Melbourne Australia is one of the most well-known groups around today, having commenced in the 1950s; these clubs are aimed at increasing health and well-being by participating in community activities and various programs. Th

San Juan Bay

San Juan Bay is the inlet adjacent to Old San Juan in northeastern Puerto Rico. It is about 3.5 miles in length, the largest body of water in an estuary of about 97 square miles of channels and eight interconnected lagoons. The San Juan bay is home to the island's busiest harbor and its history dates back to at least 1508; the bay is a semi-enclosed body of water with an elaborate system of loops and channels at the center of Puerto Rico's most significant historical monuments and largest communities. San Juan Bay provides recreation and tourist attractions, its curved shape offers a variety of docking facilities for watercraft; because of commercial expansion and environmental stress on the region, the estuary has been the focus of restoration ecology projects. In 2015, the San Juan Estuary Program began using green flags to mark the condition of the bay's waters. On a map, San Juan Bay appears to connect two adjacent lakes; this impression comes from a neck of land, which projects from the Islet of San Juan Bautista into the center of the bay and approaches another protuberance stretching from the other side of a larger island.

The illusion demonstrates the bay's irregular shape. Next to Puntilla are docks which are the busiest in the Caribbean. Part of the Port of San Juan, they are on the Islet of San Juan Bautista at the entrance to San António Channel. Three bridges between the islet and the mainland cross the channel, which connects the bay to Laguna del Condado and the Atlantic Ocean. One of these bridges is the historic Bridge of Two Brothers. Before their construction, the Condado Lagoon was the bay's narrowest entrance. On the other side, across the Isla Grande peninsula, the bay's interior is shaped like a triangle, it contains the busy Bahía de Puerto Nuevo, closer to inland transportation networks than the Port of San Juan. The bay is fed by the Río Piedras; the 3.75-mile channel connects the city of Río Piedras. The Spanish conquistadors of the New World thought in terms of urban landscapes and municipal organization, they did not launch their conquista de las Indias from ocean-going caravels or itinerant campsites.

The Spanish needed solid dwellings, preferably surrounded by rock walls. Juan Ponce de León spent days searching for the best place to build a villa, the blueprint for a colonial city. Santo Domingo governor Nicolás de Ovando had appointed him to pacify and evangelize the nearby island, which Christopher Columbus had named "San Juan Bautista" during his second voyage to the Americas. A frontier with dreaded, reportedly-cannibalistic Caribs on its coast, it was an opportunity to demonstrate machismo and glorify God and country. Following de Ovando's recommendation, Ferdinand II of Aragon made Ponce de León an adelantado and authorized him to conquer the Taíno island. Boriquén, the indigenous name for Puerto Rico, would be the second Caribbean island to become part of the Spanish Empire. In 1508 Ponce de León sailed into the Bay of Guanica, on the west of the island, where local cacique Agüeybaná I welcomed his men as allies against the Caribs. However, the Spanish did not find a suitable place to settle there.

The adelantado and his small team of hidalgos traversed the island until they saw a spacious, almost-landlocked bay on the northeastern shore. No indigenous peoples seemed to claim the area. Ponce de León named the body of water the Bay of the Wealthy Port. Ponce de León pushed inland and ordered the first Spanish settlement on the island, 3 miles from the bay. Following de Ovando's suggestion, he named the settlement Caparra; the explorer chose the site because of its proximity to the sea and "to the gold mines and farms of the Toa Valley". Caparra proved to be an inauspicious venture. Mendicant friars appealed to Ponce de León to move the settlement closer to the bay, saying that its present location was lethal to children; the governor was adamantly opposed. In 1511 the crown appointed a new governor, Juan Cerón, who received royal permission to relocate the village. According to Rodrigo de Figueroa's map, the villagers resettled on a three-mile blustery, wooded islet at the bay's entrance. In 1521, the residents completed the resettlement and named the new village "Villa de Puerto Rico".

Several years after a royal upgrade, the settlement was renamed "Ciudad de Puerto Rico". Colonial engineers fortified the islet with walls and castles, connecting it to mainland Puerto Rico with the San Antonio Bridge, it came to be known as "the walled city". Sixteenth-century Spanish historian and indigenous activist Bartolomé de las Casas described the bay and its surrounding area names different from those presently used: La isla que llamamos de San Juan, que por vocablo de la lengua de los indios, vecinos naturales della, se nombraba Boriquén... tiene algunos puertos no buenos, si no es el que llaman Puerto-Rico. According to de las Casas, the Indians called their island "Boriquén". Over time, the island became its harbor San Juan. Although the Atlantic winds may have provided a healthier climate on the islet, moving the village from Caparra to the bay did not

Great Western Cities

Great Western Cities is an initiative launched jointly in February 2015 by the cities of Bristol, in England, Cardiff and Newport, in Wales, to improve cooperation across the area as a city region, to develop economic and environmental partnerships. The three cities are located on the Severn estuary and are linked by the M4 and M48 road bridges, by rail via the Severn Tunnel; the joint initiative followed publication of a report in 2014, Unleashing Metro Growth, which proposed greater collaboration between cities and identified the Severn region as a ‘power-house city region’ critical to the UK economy as a whole. At the launch of the Great Western Cities initiative on 4 February 2015, it was said that the cities had a combined economic output of £58 billion, but could improve their competitiveness by better joint working, it was said that "investment in the region must focus on improving connectivity, realising the energy potential of the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel and promoting the region as a high-quality destination for international business."Phil Bale of Cardiff City Council said that if the initiative did not go ahead "Cardiff would lose jobs and investment."

Bristol's mayor, George Ferguson, said that the cities were, together, "the best economic powerhouse outside London." The Welsh Secretary Stephen Crabb said that: "By working together our great cities can pack a bigger economic punch to support business and private enterprise." The toll on Severn Bridge was scrapped on 17th Dec 2018 onwards. While scrapping the toll, the Welsh secretary, Alun Cairns expressed his hope that: “Toll-free, free-flow journeys between both communities will drive further economic benefits to all areas surrounding the crossings and the key economic centres in Cardiff, Bristol and across to Swansea and west Wales.” Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts and Commerce - City Growth Commission City Growth Commission Unleashing Metro Growth - Final Recommendations, October 2014

Ali Vincent

Alison "Ali" Vincent is the winner of the fifth United States season of the fitness reality television show The Biggest Loser, which aired in early 2008. Vincent's in-competition weight loss of 112 pounds earned her a $250,000 prize, the first win by a female of a United States The Biggest Loser season. Vincent is to be featured as a spokeswoman in print and television advertisements for fitness center chain 24 Hour Fitness, Biggest Loser ProteinG manufactured by Designer Whey and Infinity Insurance. In September 2011, Ali Vincent began hosting her own show, Live Big with Ali Vincent, a half-hour series on the Live Well Network. Besides lifestyle and motivation, the show offers advice on shopping, working out, etc; the show is produced at ABC-owned KABC-TV in Los Angeles. Vincent revealed on December 5, 2016 that she had regained all of the weight she had lost. Vincent attributed this weight gain to emotional fallout from sexual assault. Ali Vincent married her girlfriend Jennifer Krusing in Oakland, California in May 2015.

Vincent revealed on an episode of Oprah: Where Are They Now? that she had been sexually assaulted while getting a massage. She cites it as a reason for her subsequent weight gain before winning The Biggest Loser in 2008

Karl Franz Otto Dziatzko

Karl Franz Otto Dziatzko was a German librarian and scholar, born in Neustadt, Silesia. From 1859 to 1863 he studied classical philology at the universities of Bonn. At Bonn, he was influenced by philologist Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl and worked as an assistant at the university library. In 1863 he received his doctorate with a thesis on the prologues of Terence. Following graduation, he worked as a schoolteacher in Opole and in Lucerne. In 1871 he became head librarian at the University of Freiburg, where he obtained his habilitation the same year. After a brief stint as a schoolteacher in Karlsruhe, he was appointed director of the university library at Breslau. Here, he headed a comprehensive reorganization of the library that included rules for a new alphabetical card catalog that became a model for the Preußische Instruktionen. From 1886 until his death, he was director of the university library and professor of library science at the University of Göttingen. With educator Friedrich Althoff, he strove for reforms pertaining to academic librarianship during the latter part of the 19th century.

At Göttingen, he was instrumental in the creation of a professional librarian association (initially a section within the Philologenverbande. He made significant contributions in the fields of "Gutenberg research" and incunabula studies, that included a complete incunabula catalogAmong his publications are a text edition of the comedies of Terence; the publication of 1886 is said to be the basis of K. A. Linderfelt's "Eclectic Card Catalog Rules". De prologis Plautinis et Terentianis quaestiones selectae Bonn 1863. Ausgewählte Komödien des P. Terentius Afer: zur Einführung in die Lektüre der altlateinischen Lustspiele. Teubner, Leipzig 1874ff. – Selected comedies of P. Terentius Afer: Introduction to the reading of Old Latin comedies. P. Terenti Afri Comoediae. Tauchnitz. Second edition, Leipzig 1884. Instruction für die Ordnung der Titel im Alphabetischen Zettelkatalog der Königlichen und Universitäts-Bibliothek zu Breslau. Asher, Berlin 1886 – Instruction for the order of titles in the alphabetical card catalog of the Royal Library and the University of Breslau.

Beiträge zur Gutenbergfrage. Asher, Berlin 1889 – Contributions to the Gutenberg question. Gutenbergs früheste Druckerpraxis. Asher, Berlin 1890.– Gutenberg's earliest printing practice. Entwickelung und gegenwärtiger Stand der wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken Deutschlands mit besonderer Berücksichtigung Preußens. Spirgatis, Leipzig 1893 – Development and current state of academic libraries: with special consideration to Prussia. Untersuchungen über ausgewählte Kapitel des antiken Buchwesens. Teubner, Leipzig 1900 – Studies on selected chapters of the ancient bibliology. Das neue Fragment der Περικειρομένη des Menander. Leipzig: Teubner, 1900 – A new fragment of Perikeiromene by Menander; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead