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Hypersonic speed

In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that exceeds the speed of sound stated as starting at speeds of Mach 5 and above. The precise Mach number at which a craft can be said to be flying at hypersonic speed varies, since individual physical changes in the airflow occur at different speeds; the hypersonic regime can be alternatively defined as speeds where specific heat capacity changes with the temperature of the flow as kinetic energy of the moving object is converted into heat. While the definition of hypersonic flow can be quite vague and is debatable, a hypersonic flow may be characterized by certain physical phenomena that can no longer be analytically discounted as in supersonic flow; the peculiarity in hypersonic flows are as follows: Shock layer Aerodynamic heating Entropy layer Real gas effects Low density effects Independence of aerodynamic coefficients with Mach number. As a body's Mach number increases, the density behind a bow shock generated by the body increases, which corresponds to a decrease in volume behind the shock due to conservation of mass.

The distance between the bow shock and the body decreases at higher Mach numbers. As Mach numbers increase, the entropy change across the shock increases, which results in a strong entropy gradient and vortical flow that mixes with the boundary layer. A portion of the large kinetic energy associated with flow at high Mach numbers transforms into internal energy in the fluid due to viscous effects; the increase in internal energy is realized as an increase in temperature. Since the pressure gradient normal to the flow within a boundary layer is zero for low to moderate hypersonic Mach numbers, the increase of temperature through the boundary layer coincides with a decrease in density; this causes the bottom of the boundary layer to expand, so that the boundary layer over the body grows thicker and can merge with the shock wave near the body leading edge. High temperatures due to a manifestation of viscous dissipation cause non-equilibrium chemical flow properties such as vibrational excitation and dissociation and ionization of molecules resulting in convective and radiative heat-flux.

Although "subsonic" and "supersonic" refer to speeds below and above the local speed of sound aerodynamicists use these terms to refer to particular ranges of Mach values. This occurs because a "transonic regime" exists around M=1 where approximations of the Navier–Stokes equations used for subsonic design no longer apply because the flow locally exceeds M=1 when the freestream Mach number is below this value; the "supersonic regime" refers to the set of Mach numbers for which linearised theory may be used. NASA defines "high" hypersonic as any Mach number from 10 to 25, re-entry speeds as anything greater than Mach 25. Among the aircraft operating in this regime are the Space Shuttle and various developing spaceplanes. In the following table, the "regimes" or "ranges of Mach values" are referenced instead of the usual meanings of "subsonic" and "supersonic"; the categorization of airflow relies on a number of similarity parameters, which allow the simplification of a nearly infinite number of test cases into groups of similarity.

For transonic and compressible flow, the Mach and Reynolds numbers alone allow good categorization of many flow cases. Hypersonic flows, require other similarity parameters. First, the analytic equations for the oblique shock angle become nearly independent of Mach number at high Mach numbers. Second, the formation of strong shocks around aerodynamic bodies means that the freestream Reynolds number is less useful as an estimate of the behavior of the boundary layer over a body; the increased temperature of hypersonic flows mean that real gas effects become important. For this reason, research in hypersonics is referred to as aerothermodynamics, rather than aerodynamics; the introduction of real gas effects means that more variables are required to describe the full state of a gas. Whereas a stationary gas can be described by three variables, a moving gas by four, a hot gas in chemical equilibrium requires state equations for the chemical components of the gas, a gas in nonequilibrium solves those state equations using time as an extra variable.

This means that for a nonequilibrium flow, something between 10 and 100 variables may be required to describe the state of the gas at any given time. Additionally, rarefied hypersonic flows do not follow the Navier–Stokes equations. Hypersonic flows are categorized by their total energy, expressed as total enthalpy, total pressure, stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature, or flow velocity. Wallace D. Hayes developed a similarity parameter, similar to the Whitcomb area rule, which allowed similar configurations to be compared. Hypersonic flow can be separated into a number of regimes; the selection of these regimes is rough, due to the blurring of the boundaries where a particular effect can be found. In this regime, the gas can be regarded as an ideal gas. Flow in this regime is still Mach number dependent. Simulations start to depend on the use of a constant-temperature wall, rather than the adiabatic wall used

Franziska von Reitzenstein

Franziska Freifrau von Reitzenstein, née von Nyss, alias "Franz von Nemmersdorf" was a German novelist. Von Reitzenstein was born the daughter of a judicial counselor in Castle Härdenstein in Swabia, she was well educated and moved in aristocratic and noble circles. In 1849 she married the royal Bavarian Rittmeister Freiherr von Reitzenstein. After her husband died in 1853, she travelled to several places of Italy and was inspired to write by Karl Gutzkow, she randomized her male pen name "Franz" in a topographical, statistical lexicon, whereas Nemmersdorf was the former name of a settlement in East Prussia, today Mayakovskoye. Under her pen name she wrote novels in particular some with historical themes, she followed in Paolo Mantegazza's footsteps and dedicated her work Kampf der Geschlechter to him, which dealt with the relations between women and men and of the question of women's rights. She wrote for journals and newspapers, amongst them the "Allgemeine Zeitung" in Augsburg, the "Münchener Zeitung" as well as the appending "Unterhaltungsblatt" Keil's „Die Gartenlaube“ and several papers in Vienna.

Von Reitzenstein owned a house in Munich, where she lived with her cats, why she was called "cat baroness" by her neighbors She is buried in the Old Southern Cemetery in Munich. Her grave tomb was designed by Friedrich von Thiersch. Von der Newa an die Weichsel, in Unterhaltungen am häuslichen Herd published by Karl Gutzkow Unter den Ruinen, Leipzig, 1861, Moderne Gesellschaft, Leipzig, 1863 La Stella, Munich, 1863, prior published in Neue Münchener Zeitung Doge und Papst, Breslau, 1865 Gozzi’s Rache, published in the evening paper of the Bayerische Zeitung, 1865 Allein in der Welt, Berlin, 1868 Ein moderner Werther Späte Sühne in Julius Grosse's and Franz Grandauer's revue "Propyläen", 1869 Unter den Waffen, Berlin, 1869, reprinted in 1872 Ritter unserer Zeit, Nuremberg, 1873 Die Verworfene und Reine Ein dämonisches Weib, 1873 Ein Gentleman, Jena, 1874 Ein Ehestandsdrama, Jena 1876 Die Masken des Glückes, Berlin, 1876 Gebt Raum!, Dresden, 1880 Das Rätsel des Lebens, Leipzig, 1894 Der Kampf der Geschlechter - Eine Studie aus dem Leben und für das Leben ("The Battle of the Sexes - a Study from Life and for Life", Leipzig, 1891 Aus gärender Zeit - Studie aus dem Leben, Stuttgart, 1895 Nemmersdorf, Franz v. Lexikon deutscher Frauen der Feder.

Reitzenstein, Franziska von, Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon Franziska von Reitzenstein in the German National Library catalogue

Wolf Wilhelm Friedrich von Baudissin

Wolf Wilhelm Friedrich Graf von Baudissin was a German Protestant theologian, a native of Sophienhof, near Kiel. Baudissin studied theology and Oriental studies at Berlin, Erlangen and Kiel, earning his doctorate in 1870 at Leipzig, where he worked as privatdocent from 1874 to 1876. In 1876 he was appointed associate professor of theology at the University of Strassburg, where four years he gained a full professorship. In 1881 he became a professor of Old Testament exegesis at the University of Marburg, where he remained until 1900. From 1900 to 1921 he was a professor at the University of Berlin, he was rector of the university in 1912–1913. Theologian Franz Delitzsch and Orientalist Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer were major influences in his career. Baudissin was a prominent figure in the Religionsgeschichtliche Schule, he is remembered for his work involving analysis of various ancient Semitic faiths in order to clarify the religious meaning of the Biblical Old Testament. Baudissin is referenced in Harold Frederic's novel The Damnation of Theron Ware.

Translationis antiquæ arabicæ libri Jobi quæ supersunt nunc primum edita. Eulogius und ein Abschnitt spanischer Kirchengeschichte aus der Zeit der Maurenherrschaft. Jahve et Moloch, sive de ratione inter deum Molochum intercedente. Studien zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte. Die Geschichte des alttestamentlichen Priesterthums untersucht. August Dillmann – biography of August Dillmann. Einleitung in die Bücher des Alten Testaments. Esmun-Asklepios. New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Biography Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz. "Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm Graf von". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 1. Hamm: Bautz. Col. 415. ISBN 3-88309-013-1. English translation Gilman, D. C.. "Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm, Graf von". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm". Encyclopedia Americana

Elemental Master

Elemental Master is a top down shoot'em up video game developed by TechnoSoft for the Sega Mega Drive and released in 1990 in Japan, in 1993 in North America by Renovation Products. Long ago in the fantasy kingdom of Lorelei, the followers of an evil being called Gyra were sealed underneath the city's castle. However, a heroic sorcerer known as Aryaag betrayed the king's trust and unleashed the power of Gyra on the kingdom with the intention of letting the evil influence spread. Laden, the strongest sorcerer in the kingdom, was ready to attack Aryaag, but was stopped in shock when Aryaag revealed himself to be Laden's brother Roki. Backed by Gyra's most dedicated followers, Roki banished Laden from the conquered kingdom. However, Laden vows to stop Gyra's ambitions; the game is autoscrolling upwards. The player can choose to either shoot down. There are different weapons available, based on the elements. Of the seven levels the game has, the player can choose the order of the first four; the soundtrack was composed by Toshiharu Yamanishi, who worked on Thunder Force III, Thunder Force IV and Dragon's Fury.

The style of the soundtrack is synthrock with classical vibes. Illusionware gave it the grade A/92% and stated that "Elemental Master strikes the perfect balance between graphics and gameplay" and a "excellent piece of gaming history". Sega-16 writer Benjamin Galway gave the grade 9 out of 10 and hailed the game with the words "It's a terrific original take on the vertical scrolling shooter and yet another feather in Technosoft's cap". Elemental Master at MobyGames Elemental Master at GameFAQs

Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group

The IMF and World Bank meet each autumn in what is known as the Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group and each spring in the Spring Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Names of the two groups are alternated each year; the autumn meetings are customarily held in Washington, D. C. United States for two consecutive years, in another member country in the third year. At the spring and annual meetings there are meetings of the World Bank-IMF Development Committee and the International Monetary and Financial Committee; each committee is made of up central bank governors. There are equivalent numbers and the same constituency systems as is used at the Executive boards of the institutions. At the annual meetings, the governors of the World Bank and IMF meet in plenary sessions; until the 2008 financial crisis, both the spring and annual meetings were preceded by meetings of the G7 finance ministers. Amid an unfolding global financial crisis, for the first time the 2008 annual meetings included a meeting of G20 finance ministers.

The 2009 annual meetings witnessed the last meetings of the G7 finance ministers, with all future spring and annual meetings accompanied by G20 finance minister meetings. The spring and annual meetings include meetings of the finance ministers of the G-24 group of developing countries. Since the mid-1990s, these meetings have centerpoints for anti-globalization movement protests. There have been complete bans on outdoor protests in the 2003 meetings in Dubai, United Arab Emirates as well as the 2006 meeting in Singapore, where only indoor demonstrations within a designated area is permitted; some argue that such bans are out of safety concerns, while others consider them an effort to curb dissent. These measures have led to retaliatory actions by NGOs who targeted the organisers, as well as the IMF and World Bank for picking venues which are known to impose such restrictions. 1988 IMF/World Bank protests

Frederick Bligh Bond

Frederick Bligh Bond known by his second given name Bligh, was an English architect, illustrator and psychical researcher. Bligh Bond was the son of the Rev. Frederick Hookey Bond, he was born in the Wiltshire town of Marlborough. His family was related to William Bligh, through his nephew Francis Godolphin Bond, Bligh Bond's grandfather, he was a cousin of Sabine Baring-Gould. He was educated at home by his father, headmaster of the Marlborough Royal Free Grammar School, he practised as an architect in Bristol from 1888. His work includes schools, such as the board schools in Barton Hill and Southville, Greenbank Elementary School and St George's School, he designed the schools of medicine and engineering at Bristol University and the Music School of Clifton College. He undertook a number of domestic commissions for the King's Weston estate of Philip Napier Miles, including a number of substantial houses in Shirehampton, the Miles Arms public house in Avonmouth, the now-demolished King's Weston estate office and the public hall in Shirehampton.

Cossham Memorial Hospital is an example of his work. The style of his mature works in the Edwardian years might be described as English Baroque or Queen Anne Revival. In addition he oversaw the restoration of a number of churches, became an acknowledged authority on the history of church architecture, in 1909 published, with Dom Bede Camm, a two-volume treatise entitled Roodscreens and Roodlofts; as early as 1899 Bligh Bond had expressed his belief that the dimensions of the buildings at Glastonbury Abbey were based on gematria, in 1917 he published, with Thomas Simcox Lea, Gematria, A Preliminary Investigation of the Cabala contained in the Coptic Gnostic Books and of a similar Gematria in the Greek text of the New Testament, which incorporated his own published paper, The Geometric Cubit as a Basis of Proportion in the Plans of Mediaeval Buildings. In 1908 the Church of England appointed him director of excavations at Glastonbury Abbey. Before he was dismissed by Bishop Armitage Robinson in 1921, his excavations rediscovered the nature and dimensions of a number of buildings that had occupied the site.

Bond's work at Glastonbury Abbey is one of the first documented examples of psychic archaeology. Bond with the retired navy Captain John Allan Bartlett as a medium claimed to have contacted through automatic writing dead monks and the builder of the Edgar Chapel at Glastonbury, who advised him where to excavate. In 1919 he published The Gates of Remembrance, which revealed that he had employed psychical methods to guide his excavation of the Glastonbury ruins; as a consequence of these revelations his relations with his employers, who disapproved of spiritualism, deteriorated and he was sacked in 1921. Archaeologists and skeptics have found Bond's claims dubious. Joseph McCabe suggested that Alleyne and Bond had "steeped themselves, all through the year 1907, in the literature of the subject, they read all, known about Glastonbury, lived for months in the medieval atmosphere."In 1922 Rev. H. J. Wilkins published a detailed criticism of Bond's psychical claims. Wilkins concluded "there is nothing supermundane in the whole of the script...

All, true in the script could be gathered from historical data or reasonably conjectured by intelligent observation of existing facts and conditions."Archaeologist Kenneth Feder commented that the "tall church towers, whose existence and locations we are to believe were provided by spirits were recorded and located in a historical document Bond surely had seen. Beyond this, an early drawing of the abbey, structural remains visible on the surface, provided clues as to the location of these towers."Feder noted that "there was no scientific controls whatsoever" and that it is impossible to tell whether he was advised by spirits or whether his expertise in church architecture and information from early drawings helped him locate the chapels he discovered. Bligh joined the Freemasons in 1889, the Theosophical Society in 1895, the Society for Psychical Research in 1902, the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia in 1909 and the Ghost Club in 1925. From 1921 to 1926 he was editor of Psychic Science. In 1926 Bligh Bond emigrated to the USA, where he was employed as education secretary of the American Society for Psychical Research and worked as editor on their magazine, Survival.

Bligh Bond broke with the ASPR and returned to Britain in 1936 rejoining the Ghost Club in the process, after supporting accusations against the medium Mina Crandon that she had fraudulently produced thumbprints on wax that she presented as being produced by the spirit of her dead brother, Walter. During his time in the USA Bond was ordained, in 1933 consecrated as a bishop, in the Old Catholic Church of America, he returned to the United Kingdom in 1935, spending his time in London and Dolgellau, where he died of a heart attack. Bond is mentioned as part of the background to Deborah Crombie's mystery novel A Finer End. ISBN 0-553-57927-4 On 30 December 2008 Bligh Bond was the subject of a Channel 4 documentary, The Ghosts of Glastonbury, hosted by Tony Robinson, which examined Bligh Bond's claims that he received archaeological information through automatic writing from deceased monks. Authored by Bligh BondAn Architectural Handbook to Glastonbury Abbey The Gates of Remembrance The Hill of Vision The Company of Avalon The Gospel of Philip the Deacon The Secret of Immortality Co-authored by Bligh Bond Bligh Bond, F. & Camm, Rev. Dom Bede.

Rood screens and rood lofts - 2 vols