click links in text for more info


Hypnotic, or soporific drugs known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia, or for surgical anesthesia. This group is related to sedatives. Whereas the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep; because these two functions overlap, because drugs in this class produce dose-dependent effects they are referred to collectively as sedative-hypnotic drugs. Hypnotic drugs are prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders, with over 95% of insomnia patients being prescribed hypnotics in some countries. Many hypnotic drugs are habit-forming and, due to many factors known to disturb the human sleep pattern, a physician may instead recommend changes in the environment before and during sleep, better sleep hygiene, the avoidance of caffeine or other stimulating substances, or behavioral interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia before prescribing medication for sleep.

When prescribed, hypnotic medication should be used for the shortest period of time necessary. Among individuals with sleep disorders, 13.7% are taking or prescribed nonbenzodiazepines, while 10.8% are taking benzodiazepines, as of 2010. Early classes of drugs, such as barbiturates, have fallen out of use in most practices but are still prescribed for some patients. In children, prescribing hypnotics is not yet acceptable unless used to treat night terrors or somnambulism. Elderly people are more sensitive to potential side effects of daytime fatigue and cognitive impairments, a meta-analysis found that the risks outweigh any marginal benefits of hypnotics in the elderly. A review of the literature regarding benzodiazepine hypnotics and Z-drugs concluded that these drugs can have adverse effects, such as dependence and accidents, that optimal treatment uses the lowest effective dose for the shortest therapeutic time period, with gradual discontinuation in order to improve health without worsening of sleep.

Falling outside the above-mentioned categories, the neuro-hormone melatonin has a hypnotic function. Hypnotica was a class of somniferous drugs and substances tested in medicine of the 1890s and including: Urethan, Methylal, paraldehyde, Hypnon and Ohloralamid or Chloralimid. Research about using medications to treat insomnia evolved throughout the last half of the 20th century. Treatment for insomnia in psychiatry dates back to 1869 when chloral hydrate was first used as a soporific. Barbiturates emerged as the first class of drugs that emerged in the early 1900s, after which chemical substitution allowed derivative compounds. Although the best drug family at the time they were dangerous in overdose and tended to cause physical and psychological dependence. During the 1970s, quinazolinones and benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to replace barbiturates. Benzodiazepines are not without their drawbacks. Questions have been raised as to. Nonbenzodiazepines are the most recent development.

Although it's clear that they are less toxic than their predecessors, comparative efficacy over benzodiazepines have not been established. Without longitudinal studies, it is hard to determine. Other sleep remedies that may be considered "sedative-hypnotics" exist. Examples of these include mirtazapine, clonidine and the over-the-counter sleep aid diphenhydramine. Off-label sleep remedies are useful when first-line treatment is unsuccessful or deemed unsafe. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia, they are effective as anxiolytics and anticonvulsalgesic effects. They have dependence liability, both psychological. Barbiturates have now been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice – for example, in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia – because benzodiazepines are less dangerous in overdose. However, barbiturates are still used in general anesthesia, for epilepsy, assisted suicide.

Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid. The principal mechanism of action of barbiturates is believed to be positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. Examples include amobarbital, phenobarbital and sodium thiopental. Quinazolinones are a class of drugs which function as hypnotic/sedatives that contain a 4-quinazolinone core, their use has been proposed in the treatment of cancer. Examples of quinazolinones include cloroqualone, etaqualone, mebroqualone and methaqualone. Benzodiazepines can b

Alexander Falconbridge

Dr Alexander Falconbridge was a British surgeon who took part in four voyages in slave ships between 1780 and 1787. In time he became an abolitionist and in 1788 published An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa. In 1791 he was sent by the Anti-Slavery Society to Granville Town, Sierra Leone, a community of freed slaves, where he died a year in 1792. Falconbridge was born around 1760 in England or Scotland Prestonpans or Bristol; the British surgeon Alexander Falconbridge served as a ship's surgeon on four slave trade voyages between 1780 and 1787 before rejecting the slave trade and becoming an abolitionist. Falconbridge had taken part in four voyages on slave ships before he met the anti-slavery campaigner Thomas Clarkson following which he became a member of the Anti-Slavery Society. Clarkson was the author of a pamphlet entitled A Summary View of the Slave Trade and of the Probable Consequences of Its Abolition, published in 1787. Clarkson had a high regard for Falconbridge who on more than one occasion acted as his personal armed bodyguard whilst he gathered evidence against the slave trade.

After meeting Clarkson, Falconbridge published in 1788 An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa, an influential book in the abolitionist movement. In this book he talked about the trade from when the ships first acquired captives from the African coast, through their treatment during the Middle Passage, to the time they were sold into hereditary bondage in the West IndiesIn 1790 Alexander gave verbal evidence before a House of Commons Committee. Many of them were hostile toward him. In 1791, Falconbridge was selected by the Anti-Slavery Society to sail to Sierra Leone with his wife Anna Maria, his wife Anna Maria did not share his idealistic views about the settlement. The couple quarrelled. A number of Falconbridge's contemporaries were dismissed for vague reasons and it may be that the Company used them as scapegoats. Dismissals included Charles Horwood brother of Anna Maria, Isaac DuBois, Anna's second husband, Clarkson himself. Falconbridge died of drink a week before Christmas 1792.

Henry Thornton, chairman of the Sierra Leone Company, replaced him as the company's commercial agent only hours before his death. The Sierra Leone company refused to acknowledge the claim of his wife Anna Maria for monies owed to her late husband and conveniently, the company records went missing; the colony was named Freetown, it seems that Falconbridge Point in Freetown is named after Alexander Falconbridge. Both Alexander and his brother William, who died in Freetown the previous year, are most buried in the Freetown area, though the exact location is not recorded. John Clarkson

Mia Freedman

Mia Lavigne professionally known as Mia Freedman is an Australian journalist. She was the youngest editor of the Australian edition of Cosmopolitan in 1996, aged 24. Freedman began her career at Cleo, doing work experience at the age of 19, her first paid job in media was as Cleo's Beauty Editor and she stayed at Cleo for five years working her way up to the position of Features Editor. She left Cleo in 1995 and spent several months as a freelance features writer for magazines including Marie Claire, New Weekly and Who Weekly. In 1996 she became Editor of Australian Cosmopolitan magazine. At age 24, she was the youngest editor of Cosmopolitan's 58 international editions. Freedman is the founder and editorial director of Australian women’s website Mamamia. In 2012, Freedman launched an Australian edition of parenting website iVillage; this was rebranded as The Motherish in June 2015. All content for The Motherish was folded into Mamamia by November 2015. Freedman appears as a commentator on Today on the Nine Network and in 2009 was appointed Chair of the Federal Government's National Body Image Advisory Group by Minister for Sport and Youth, Kate Ellis.

Freedman has written 3 books, publishing her third, Work Strife Balance, in May 2017. Freedman was born to Kathy, a psychologist and art gallery owner, Laurence Freedman, who worked in finance and heads The Freedman Foundation. Freedman was raised Jewish, she attended the Ascham School. Freedman has 3 children. Mamamia website Mama Mia A Memoir of Mistake, Magazines & Motherhood

John McCarten

John McCarten was an American writer who contributed about 1,000 pieces for The New Yorker, serving as the magazine's film critic from 1945 to 1960 and Broadway theatre critic from 1960 to 1967. McCarten was born in Philadelphia to an Irish-American family. After serving in the Merchant Marine he started writing for American Mercury and Time during the 1930s. In 1934 he joined The New Yorker and began contributing satirical short stories and irreverent profiles, he became the magazine's regular film critic in 1945, employing a writing style that tended to be terse and was condescending. He gained a reputation as something of a nemesis of Alfred Hitchcock in particular, whose films McCarten panned; the screenplay for the 1956 British romantic comedy film The Silken Affair was adapted from an idea by McCarten. In 1960 McCarten switched to theatre criticism. In July 1967 McCarten quit reviewing and moved to Ireland; the following year he submitted the first of his "Irish Sketches", a series of light pieces about Irish art and culture that ran in The New Yorker between February 24, 1968 and November 20, 1971.

John McCarten died of cancer at the age of 63. He had two sons; the New Yorker's obituary remembered him as "a witty writer. Yet, given the force of the opinions he would pronounce in conversation, one marvelled to observe his comparative gentleness in print. For, much as he might deplore certain human failings, he could never bear to injure those who embodied them, he learned to tell the truth about people in such a way that, far from feeling savaged, they felt praised."

Passive margin

A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere, not an active plate margin. A passive margin forms by sedimentation above an ancient rift, now marked by transitional lithosphere. Continental rifting creates new ocean basins; the continental rift forms a mid-ocean ridge and the locus of extension moves away from the continent-ocean boundary. The transition between the continental and oceanic lithosphere, created by rifting is known as a passive margin. Passive margins are found at every ocean and continent boundary, not marked by a strike-slip fault or a subduction zone. Passive margins define the region around the Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, western Indian Ocean, define the entire coasts of Africa, Greenland and Australia, they are found on the east coast of North America and South America, in western Europe and most of Antarctica. East Asia contains some passive margins; this refers to whether a crustal boundary between oceanic lithosphere and continental lithosphere is a plate boundary or not.

Active margins are found on the edge of a continent. These are marked by uplift and volcanic mountain belts on the continental plate. Less there is a strike-slip fault, as defines the southern coastline of W. Africa. Most of the eastern Indian Ocean and nearly all of the Pacific Ocean margin are examples of active margins. While a weld between oceanic and continental lithosphere is called a passive margin, it is not an inactive margin. Active subsidence, growth faulting, pore fluid formation and migration are all active processes on passive margins. Passive margins are only passive in plate boundaries. Passive margins consist of both onshore coastal plain and offshore continental shelf-slope-rise triads. Coastal plains are dominated by fluvial processes, while the continental shelf is dominated by deltaic and longshore current processes; the great rivers drain across passive margins. Extensive estuaries are common on mature passive margins. Although there are many kinds of passive margins, the morphologies of most passive margins are remarkably similar.

They consist of a continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise, abyssal plain. The morphological expression of these features are defined by the underlying transitional crust and the sedimentation above it. Passive margins defined by a large fluvial sediment budget and those dominated by coral and other biogenous processes have a similar morphology. In addition, the shelf break seems to mark the maximum Neogene lowstand, defined by the glacial maxima; the outer continental shelf and slope may be cut by great submarine canyons, which mark the offshore continuation of rivers. At high latitudes and during glaciations, the nearshore morphology of passive margins may reflect glacial processes, such as the fjords of Norway and Greenland; the main features of passive margins lie underneath the external characters. Beneath passive margins the transition between the continental and oceanic crust is a broad transition known as transitional crust; the subsided continental crust is marked by normal faults.

The faulted crust transitions into oceanic crust and may be buried due to thermal subsidence and the mass of sediment that collects above it. The lithosphere beneath passive margins is known as transitional lithosphere; the lithosphere thins seaward. Different kinds of transitional crust form, depending on how fast rifting occurs and how hot the underlying mantle was at the time of rifting. Volcanic passive margins represent one endmember transitional crust type, the other endmember type is the rifted passive margin. Volcanic passive margins are marked by numerous dykes and igneous intrusions within the subsided continental crust. There are a lot of dykes formed perpendicular to the seaward-dipping lava flows and sills. Igneous intrusions within the crust cause lava flows along the top of the subsided continental crust and form seaward-dipping reflectors. Passive margins are characterized by thick accumulations of sediments. Space for these sediments is called accommodation and is due to subsidence of the transitional crust.

Subsidence is caused by gravitational equilibrium, established between the crustal tracts, known as isostasy. Isostasy controls the uplift of the rift flank and the subsequent subsidence of the evolving passive margin and is reflected by changes in heat flow. Heat flow at passive margins changes over its lifespan, high at the beginning and decreasing with age. In the initial stage, the continental crust and lithosphere is stretched and thinned due to plate movement and associated igneous activity; the thin lithosphere beneath the rift allows the upwelling mantle to melt by decompression. Lithospheric thinning allows the asthenosphere to rise closer to the surface, heating the overlying lithosphere by conduction and advection of heat by intrusive dykes. Heating elevates the lower crust and lithosphere. In addition, mantle plumes may cause prodigious igneous activity. Once a mid-oceanic ridge forms and seafloor spreading begins, the original site of rifting is separated into conjugate passive margins and migrates away from the zone of mantle upwelling and heating and cooling begins.

The mantle lithosphere below the thinned and faulted continental oceanic transition cools

Jarrod Kenny

Jarrod Daniel Kenny is a New Zealand professional basketball player for the Cairns Taipans of the National Basketball League. The 188 cm point guard attended Westlake Boys High School and has represented the New Zealand Tall Blacks multiple times. From 2002 to 2008, Kenny split time between playing for the Harbour Heat and earning his physiotherapy degree at the Auckland University of Technology. In December 2008, Kenny signed with the Hawke's Bay Hawks for the 2009 New Zealand NBL season, he became a staple with the Hawks. On 29 December 2014, Kenny signed with Licher BasketBären of the German ProB, he appeared in 12 games for Licher, averaging 6.3 points, 4.3 rebounds, 4.2 assists and 1.2 steals per game. He returned to New Zealand in early April for the start of the 2015 NBL season. On 2 November 2015, Kenny signed with the Nelson Giants for the 2016 season, he joined the Giants on 23 March 2016. He appeared in 14 games for the Giants in 2016, averaging 8.6 points, 3.8 rebounds, 4.4 assists and 1.1 steals per game.

On 20 September 2016, Kenny signed with the Hawke's Bay Hawks for the 2017 season, returning to the franchise after an injury-plagued 2016 season. On 1 April 2017, he recorded 22 points and 15 assists in the Hawks' 102–91 loss to the Wellington Saints. With the Hawks in 2017, Kenny averaged career-best numbers with 12.3 points, 4.5 rebounds and 7.5 assists over 15 games. On 14 November 2017, Kenny re-signed with the Hawks for the 2018 season, he returned to the Hawks for the 2019 season. On 21 April 2019, he recorded 15 assists and 10 rebounds to go with five points in a 105–95 win over the Southern Huskies. Kenny spent multiple seasons with the New Zealand Breakers as a practice squad player, but never got the callup to the top group. After impressing during the 2015 FIBA Oceania Championship, Kenny signed with the Perth Wildcats for the 2015–16 NBL season on 1 September 2015. On 6 November 2015, he scored a season-high 12 points in the Wildcats' 85–77 win over the Townsville Crocodiles. Kenny helped the Wildcats win the NBL Championship in March 2016 with a 2–1 grand final series win over the New Zealand Breakers.

He appeared in all 34 games for the Wildcats in 2015–16, averaging 4.6 points, 2.1 rebounds and 1.3 assists per game, earning the club's Coaches' Award at the end-of-season MVP Ball. On 11 May 2016, Kenny re-signed with the Wildcats on a three-year deal. On 25 October 2016, Kenny was ruled out for three to five weeks with a groin strain, he returned to action on 17 November 2016 against the Sydney Kings and recorded a career-high five assists. Despite his minutes decreasing in 2016–17, Kenny remained a crucial figure in the rotation; the Wildcats went on to win the NBL Championship in March 2017. In 30 games, he averaged 1.8 rebounds and 2.0 assists per game. In January of the 2017–18 season, Kenny began playing in career-best form. With the turn of the new year, Kenny's scoring improved by nearly six points per game, while his percentage from beyond the arc spiked by 30 per cent, he recorded season highs in scoring and rebounds from Round 14 onwards, while knocking down a career-high four triples against the Sydney Kings on 19 January.

He appeared in all 30 games for the Wildcats in 2017–18, averaging 5.2 points, 1.5 rebounds and 1.6 assists per game. On 22 April 2018, the Wildcats parted ways with Kenny after opting not to take the club option on his contract. On 26 April 2018, Kenny signed a two-year deal with the Cairns Taipans. Kenny began playing for the New Zealand Junior Tall Blacks in 2002 and went on to represent the New Zealand university national team at the 2007 World University Championships in Bangkok, he made his senior team debut in 2009 at the FIBA Oceania Championship, going on to represent the Tall Blacks at the 2011 FIBA Oceania Championship, 2012 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament, 2013 FIBA Oceania Championship, 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup and 2015 FIBA Oceania Championship. He was ruled out of the Tall Blacks' 2016 Olympic campaign due to injury. Kenny is the son of Liz Kenny, his wife, Ailbhe Madden, is Irish. Perth Wildcats player profile profile Kenny makes most of belated shot Jarrod Kenny: Leading from the point