The bolete eater, Hypomyces chrysospermus, is a parasitic ascomycete fungus that grows on bolete mushrooms, turning the afflicted host a whitish, golden yellow, or tan color. It is found in North America, as well as southwest Western Australia. Unlike the related Lobster mushroom, H. lactifluorum, the bolete eater and its afflicted host mushrooms are inedible. Hypomyces chrysospermus was first described by French mycologists, brothers Louis René and Charles Tulasne in 1860; the specific epithet is derived from the Ancient Greek chryse- "golden", sperma "seed". Common names include bolete eater, bolete mould; the bolete eater belongs to a genus of parasitic ascomycetes, each of which infects differing genera of fungi. For example, H. lactifluorum attacks mushrooms of the Russulaceae family, H. copletus and H. transformans infect Suillus species, H. melanocarpus prefers Tylopilus species, while other Hypomyces have a much broader host range. The bolete eater infects boletes with a thin whitish layer which becomes golden and a reddish-brown pimpled appearance.
The bolete's flesh is putrescent by the third stage. Single or multiple boletes may be infected, members of Paxillus and Rhizopogon are attacked; the spores are oval-shaped and smooth in the white stage and measure 10–30 by 5–12 μm, are warty and thicker-walled in the yellow stage and are 10–25 μm in diameter. These two stages are asexual. Hypomyces chrysospermus is found in North America, Europe, where it is common, it is common in the southwest of Western Australia, where it is found in forest and coastal plant communities. It is found in the Eastern Chinese provinces of Hebei, Jiangsu and Fujian; as mentioned earlier, H. chrysospermus may be poisonous. The bolete eater is used in Chinese herbal medicine to stop and heal external bleeding through application of the spore onto open wounds or cuts
Elias Magnus Fries
Elias Magnus Fries FRS FRSE FLS RAS was a Swedish mycologist and botanist. Fries was born at the son of the pastor there, he attended school in Wexiö. He acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants from his father. In 1811 Fries entered Lund University where he obtained a doctorate in 1814. In the same year he was appointed an associate professorship in botany, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in 1824, became a full professor. In 1834 he became Borgström professor in applied economics at Uppsala University; the position was changed to "professor of botany and applied economics" in 1851. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849; that year he was appointed director of the Uppsala University Botanical Garden. In 1853, he became rector of the University. Fries most important works were the three-volume Systema mycologicum, Elenchus fungorum, the two-volume Monographia hymenomycetum Sueciae and Hymenomycetes Europaei.
Fries is considered to be, after Christian Hendrik Persoon, a founding father of the modern taxonomy of mushrooms. His taxonomy of mushrooms was influenced by the German romantics, he utilized spore arrangement of the hymenophore as major taxonomic characteristics. He died in Uppsala on 8 February 1878; when he died, The Times commented: "His numerous works on fungi and lichens, give him a position as regards those groups of plants only comparable to that of Linnaeus". Fries was succeeded in the Borgström professorship by John Erhard Areschoug, after whom Theodor Magnus Fries, the son of Elias, held the chair. Monographia Pyrenomycetum Sueciae Systema Mycologicum Systema Orbis Vegetabilis Elenchus Fungorem Lichenographia Europaea Reformata Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici: seu synopsis hymenomycetum His son was Theodor Magnus Fries. "Elias Magnus Fries", Authors of fungal names, the Journal of Wild Mushrooming. Web site of the Descendants of Elias Fries Association "Fries, Elias Magnus". New International Encyclopedia.
An ascocarp, or ascoma, is the fruiting body of an ascomycete phylum fungus. It consists of tightly interwoven hyphae and may contain millions of asci, each of which contains four to eight ascospores. Ascocarps are most bowl-shaped but may take a spherical or flask-like form; the ascocarp is classified according to its placement. It is called epigeous if it grows above ground, as with the morels, while underground ascocarps, such as truffles, are termed hypogeous; the form of the hymenium is divided into the following types. Apothecia can be large and fleshy, whereas the others are microscopic—about the size of flecks of ground pepper. An apothecium is a wide, saucer-shaped or cup-shaped fruit body, it is fleshy. The structure of the apothecium chiefly consists of three parts: hymenium and excipulum; the asci are present in the hymenium layer. The asci are exposed at maturity. An example are the members of Dictyomycetes. Here the fertile layer is free; the morel, Morchella, an edible ascocarp, not a mushroom, favored by gourmets, is a mass of apothecia fused together in a single large structure or cap.
The genera Helvella and Gyromitra are similar. A cleistothecium is a globose closed fruit body with no special opening to the outside; the ascomatal wall is called peridium and consists of densely interwoven hyphae or pseudoparenchyma cells. It may be covered with hyphal outgrowth called appendages; the asci are globose and scattered throughout the interior cavity i.e. as in Eurotium or arising in tufts from the basal region of ascocarps as in Erysiphe. In this case the ascocarp is round with the hymenium enclosed, so the spores do not automatically get released, fungi with cleistothecia have had to develop new strategies to disseminate their spores; the truffles, for instance, have solved this problem by attracting animals such as wild boars, which break open the tasty ascocarps and spread the spores over a wide area. Cleistothecia are found in fungi that have little room available for their ascocarps, for instance those that live under tree bark, or underground like truffles. Similar to a cleistothecium, a gymnothecium is a enclosed structure containing globose or pear-shaped, deliquescent asci.
However, unlike the cleistothecium, the peridial wall of a gymnothecium consists of a loosely woven "tuft" of hyphae ornamented with elaborate coils or spines. Examples are the Gymnoascus and the dermatophyte Arthroderma. Perithecium: These are flask shaped structures opening by a pore or ostiole through which the ascospores escape; the ostiolar canal may be lined by hair-like structures called periphyses. The unitunicate asci are cylindrical in shape, borne on a stipe, released from a pore, developed from the inner wall of the perithecium and arise from a basal plectenchyma-centrum. Examples are members of Hypocreales. Perithecia are found in Xylaria, Nectria and neurospora; this is similar to a perithecium, but the asci are not organised into a hymenium and they are bitunicate, having a double wall that expands when it takes up water and shoots the enclosed spores out to disperse them. Example species are the horse chestnut disease Guignardia aesculi. Basidiocarp Conidium
In biological classification zoology, the type genus is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name. According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, "The name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon is a nominal genus called the'type genus'; the type genus for a family-group name is the genus that provided the stem to, added the ending -idae. Example: The family name Cricetidae has as its type genus the genus Cricetus Leske, 1779. In botanical nomenclature, the phrase "type genus" is used, unofficially, as a term of convenience. In the ICN this phrase has no status; the code uses type specimens for ranks up to family, types are optional for higher ranks. The Code does not refer to the genus containing that type as a "type genus". Example: "Poa is the type genus of the family Poaceae and of the order Poales" is another way of saying that the names Poaceae and Poales are based on the generic name Poa. Principle of Typification Type Type species
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya. Its members are known as the sac fungi or ascomycetes, it is the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species. The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus", a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota are asexual, meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores. Familiar examples of sac fungi include morels, brewer's yeast and baker's yeast, dead man's fingers, cup fungi; the fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. Ascomycota is a monophyletic group. Placed in the Deuteromycota along with asexual species from other fungal taxa, asexual ascomycetes are now identified and classified based on morphological or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa, by phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences.
The ascomycetes are of particular use to humans as sources of medicinally important compounds, such as antibiotics, for fermenting bread, alcoholic beverages and cheese. Penicillium species on cheeses and those producing antibiotics for treating bacterial infectious diseases are examples of ascomycetes. Many ascomycetes are pathogens, both of animals, including humans, of plants. Examples of ascomycetes that can cause infections in humans include Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and several tens of species that cause skin infections; the many plant-pathogenic ascomycetes include apple scab, rice blast, the ergot fungi, black knot, the powdery mildews. Several species of ascomycetes are biological model organisms in laboratory research. Most famously, Neurospora crassa, several species of yeasts, Aspergillus species are used in many genetics and cell biology studies. Ascomycetes: Ascomycetes are'spore shooters', they are fungi which produce microscopic spores inside special, elongated cells or sacs, known as'asci', which give the group its name.
Asexual reproduction: Asexual reproduction is the dominant form of propagation in the Ascomycota, is responsible for the rapid spread of these fungi into new areas. Asexual reproduction of ascomycetes is diverse from both structural and functional points of view; the most important and general is production of conidia, but chlamydospores are frequently produced. Furthermore, Ascomycota reproduce asexually through budding. 1) Conidia formation: Asexual reproduction may occur through vegetative reproductive spores, the conidia. The asexual, non-motile haploid spores of a fungus, which are named after the Greek word for dust, are hence known as conidiospores and mitospores; the conidiospores contain one nucleus and are products of mitotic cell divisions and thus are sometimes call mitospores, which are genetically identical to the mycelium from which they originate. They are formed at the ends of specialized hyphae, the conidiophores. Depending on the species they may be dispersed by animals. Conidiophores may branch off from the mycelia or they may be formed in fruiting bodies.
The hypha that creates the sporing tip can be similar to the normal hyphal tip, or it can be differentiated. The most common differentiation is the formation of a bottle shaped cell called a phialide, from which the spores are produced. Not all of these asexual structures are a single hypha. In some groups, the conidiophores are aggregated to form a thick structure. E.g. In the order Moniliales, all of them are single hyphae with the exception of the aggregations, termed as coremia or synnema; these produce structures rather like corn-stokes, with many conidia being produced in a mass from the aggregated conidiophores. The diverse conidia and conidiophores sometimes develop in asexual sporocarps with different characteristics; some species of Ascomycetes form their structures within plant tissue, either as parasite or saprophytes. These fungi have evolved more complex asexual sporing structures influenced by the cultural conditions of plant tissue as a substrate; these structures are called the sporodochium.
This is a cushion of conidiophores created from a pseudoparenchymatous stroma in plant tissue. The pycnidium is a globose to flask-shaped parenchymatous structure, lined on its inner wall with conidiophores; the acervulus is a flat saucer shaped bed of conidiophores produced under a plant cuticle, which erupt through the cuticle for dispersal. 2) Budding: Asexual reproduction process in ascomycetes involves the budding which we observe in yeast. This is termed a “blastic process”, it involves the blebbing of the hyphal tip wall. The blastic process can involve all wall layers, or there can be a new cell wall synthesized, extruded from within the old wall; the initial events of budding can be seen as the development of a ring of chitin around the point where the bud is about to appear. This stabilizes the cell wall. Enzymatic activity and turgor pressure act to extrude the cell wall. New cell wall material is incorporated during this phase. Cell contents are forced into the progeny cell, as the final phase of mitosis ends a cell plate, the point at which a new cell wall will grow inwards from, forms.
Ascomycota are morphologically diverse. The group includes organisms from unicellular yeasts to complex cup fungi. There are 30,000 species of Ascomycota; the unifying characteri
A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs. Fungi do not photosynthesize. Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores, which may travel through the water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems; these and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota, which share a common ancestor, an interpretation, strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. This fungal group oomycetes; the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology. In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more related to animals than to plants.
Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and parasites, they may become noticeable when fruiting, either as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment, they have long been used in the form of mushrooms and truffles. Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, more various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. Fungi are used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans; the fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies.
Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, become significant pathogens of humans and other animals. Losses of crops due to fungal diseases or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies; the fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, morphologies ranging from unicellular aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, estimated at 2.2 million to 3.8 million species. Of these, only about 120,000 have been described, with over 8,000 species known to be detrimental to plants and at least 300 that can be pathogenic to humans. Since the pioneering 18th and 19th century taxonomical works of Carl Linnaeus, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Elias Magnus Fries, fungi have been classified according to their morphology or physiology. Advances in molecular genetics have opened the way for DNA analysis to be incorporated into taxonomy, which has sometimes challenged the historical groupings based on morphology and other traits.
Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, ten subphyla. The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, used in the writings of Horace and Pliny; this in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos, which refers to the macroscopic structures and morphology of mushrooms and molds. The word mycology is derived from the Greek logos, it denotes the scientific study of fungi. The Latin adjectival form of "mycology" appeared as early as 1796 in a book on the subject by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon; the word appeared in English as early as 1824 in a book by Robert Kaye Greville. In 1836 the English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5. Refers to mycology as the study of fungi. A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota, e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland". Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are immobile, have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat.
Like plants, fungi grow in soil and, in the case of mushrooms, form conspicuous fruit bodies, which sometimes resemble plants such as mosses. The fungi are now considered a separate kingdom, distinct from both plants and animals, from which they appear to have diverged around one billion years ago; some morphological and genetic features are shared with other organisms, while others are unique to the fungi separating them from the other kingdoms: Shared features: With other euka
Trichoderma is a genus of fungi in the family Hypocreaceae, present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi. Many species in this genus can be characterized as opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts; this refers to the ability of several Trichoderma species to form mutualistic endophytic relationships with several plant species. The genomes of several Trichoderma species have been sequenced and are publicly available from the JGI; the genus was described by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1794, but the taxonomy has remained difficult to resolve. For a long time it was considered to consist of only one species, Trichoderma viride, named for producing green mold; the genus was divided into five sections in 1991 by Bissett based on the aggregate species described by Rifai: Pachybasium Longibrachiatum Trichoderma Saturnisporum HypocreanumWith the advent of molecular markers from 1995 onwards, Bissett's scheme was confirmed but Saturnisporum was merged with Longibrachiatum.
While Longibrachiatum and Hypocreanum appeared monophyletic, Pachybasium was determined to be paraphyletic, many of its species clustering with Trichoderma. Druzhina and Kubicek confirmed, they identified. The formal description of sections has been replaced by informal descriptions of clades, such as the Aureoviride clade or the Gelatinosum clade; the belief that Trichoderma was monotypic persisted until the work of Rifai in 1969, who recognised nine species. There are 89 accepted species in the genus Trichoderma. Hypocrea are teleomorphs of Trichoderma. Cultures are fast growing at 25–30 °C, but some species of Trichoderma will grow at 45 °C. Colonies are transparent at first on media such as cornmeal dextrose agar or white on richer media such as potato dextrose agar. Mycelium are not obvious on CMD, conidia form within one week in compact or loose tufts in shades of green or yellow or less white. A yellow pigment may be secreted into the agar on PDA; some species produce a characteristic sweet or'coconut' odor.
Conidiophores are branched and thus difficult to define or measure, loosely or compactly tufted formed in distinct concentric rings or borne along the scant aerial hyphae. Main branches of the conidiophores produce lateral side branches that may be paired or not, the longest branches distant from the tip and phialides arising directly from the main axis near the tip; the branches may rebranch, with the secondary branches paired and longest secondary branches being closest to the main axis. All primary and secondary branches arise near 90 ° with respect to the main axis; the typical Trichoderma conidiophore, with paired branches assumes a pyramidal aspect. The conidiophore terminates in one or a few phialides. In some species the main branches are terminated by long, simple or branched, straight or sinuous, thin-walled, sterile or terminally fertile elongations; the main axis may be the same width as the base of the phialide or it may be much wider. Phialides are enlarged in the middle but may be cylindrical or nearly subglobose.
Phialides may be held in whorls, at an angle of 90° with respect to other members of the whorl, or they may be variously penicillate. Phialides may be densely clustered on wide main axis or they may be solitary. Conidia appear dry but in some species they may be held in drops of clear green or yellow liquid. Conidia of most species are ellipsoidal. Conidia are smooth but tuberculate to finely warted conidia are known in a few species. Synanamorphs are formed by some species that have typical Trichoderma pustules. Synanamorphs are recognized by their solitary conidiophores that are verticillately branched and that bear conidia in a drop of clear green liquid at the tip of each phialide. Chlamydospores may be produced by all species, but not all species produce chlamydospores on CMD at 20 °C within 10 days. Chlamydospores are unicellular subglobose and terminate short hyphae. Chlamydospores of some species are multicellular. Trichoderma genomes appear to be in the 30–40 Mb range, with 12,000 genes being identifiable.
Teleomorphs of Trichoderma are species of the ascomycete genus Hypocrea. These are characterized by the formation of fleshy, stromata in shades of light or dark brown, yellow or orange; the stroma is discoidal to pulvinate and limited in extent but stromata of some species are effused, sometimes covering extensive areas. Stromata of some species are turbinate. Perithecia are immersed. Ascospores are bicellular but disarticulate at the septum early in development into 16 part-ascospores so that the ascus appears to contain 16 ascospores. Ascospores are hyaline or green and spinulose. More than 200 species of Hypocrea have been described but few have been grown in pure culture and fewer have been described in modern terms. Trichoderma species are isolated from forest or agricultural soils at all latitudes. Hypocrea species are most found on bark or on decorticated wood but many species grow on bracket fungi, Exidia or bird's nest fungi or agarics. Several strains of Trichoderma have been developed as biocontrol ag