The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland; the hypothalamus is part of the limbic system. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is the size of an almond; the hypothalamus is responsible for the regulation of certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland; the hypothalamus controls body temperature, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviours, fatigue and circadian rhythms. The hypothalamus derives its name under and θάλαμος, chamber; the hypothalamus is a divided into 3 regions in a parasagittal plane, indicating location anterior-posterior.
Hypothalamic nuclei are located within these specific areas. It is found in all vertebrate nervous systems. In mammals, magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus produce neurohypophysial hormones and vasopressin; these hormones are released into the blood in the posterior pituitary. Much smaller parvocellular neurosecretory cells, neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, release corticotropin-releasing hormone and other hormones into the hypophyseal portal system, where these hormones diffuse to the anterior pituitary; the hypothalamic nuclei include the following: See alsoventrolateral preoptic nucleus periventricular nucleus The hypothalamus is interconnected with other parts of the central nervous system, in particular the brainstem and its reticular formation. As part of the limbic system, it has connections to other limbic structures including the amygdala and septum, is connected with areas of the autonomous nervous system.
The hypothalamus receives many inputs from the brainstem, the most notable from the nucleus of the solitary tract, the locus coeruleus, the ventrolateral medulla. Most nerve fibres within the hypothalamus run in two ways. Projections to areas caudal to the hypothalamus go through the medial forebrain bundle, the mammillotegmental tract and the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus. Projections to areas rostral to the hypothalamus are carried by the mammillothalamic tract, the fornix and terminal stria. Projections to areas of the sympathetic motor system are carried by the hypothalamospinal tract and they activate the sympathetic motor pathway. Several hypothalamic nuclei are sexually dimorphic; some differences are apparent in gross neuroanatomy: most notable is the sexually dimorphic nucleus within the preoptic area, in which the differences are subtle changes in the connectivity and chemical sensitivity of particular sets of neurons. The importance of these changes can be recognized by functional differences between males and females.
For instance, males of most species prefer the odor and appearance of females over males, instrumental in stimulating male sexual behavior. If the sexually dimorphic nucleus is lesioned, this preference for females by males diminishes; the pattern of secretion of growth hormone is sexually dimorphic. Other striking functional dimorphisms are in the behavioral responses to ovarian steroids of the adult. Males and females respond to ovarian steroids in different ways because the expression of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus is sexually dimorphic. Estrogen and progesterone can influence gene expression in particular neurons or induce changes in cell membrane potential and kinase activation, leading to diverse non-genomic cellular functions. Estrogen and progesterone bind to their cognate nuclear hormone receptors, which translocate to the cell nucleus and interact with regions of DNA known as hormone response elements or get tethered to another transcription factor's binding site.
Estrogen receptor has been shown to transactivate other transcription factors in this manner, despite the absence of an estrogen response element in the proximal promoter region of the gene. In general, ERs and progesterone receptors are gene activators, with increased mRNA and subsequent protein synthesis following hormone exposure. Male and female brains differ in the distribution of estrogen receptors, this difference is an irreversible consequence of neonatal steroid exposure. Estrogen receptors are found in neurons in the anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus, notably: the preoptic area (where LHRH neurons are located, regulating dopamine responses and maternal behavior. In neonatal life, gonadal steroids influence the development of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. For instance, they determine the ability of females to exhibit a normal reproductive cycle, of males and females to display appropriate reproductive behaviors in adult life. If a female rat is injected once with testosterone in the
Moussa Bamba is an Ivorian footballer who plays for Victoria Wanderers Fc. Bamba was playing for Jeunesse Club d'Abidjan in Ivory Coast Premier Soccer League when he was scouted by Sheffield United F. C, he signed a 3-year contract with Sheffield United F. C in 2006. Due to work permit problems in the United Kingdom, he was loaned to Chengdu Blades F. C.. Bamba was in the Chinese Premier Soccer League for 2 seasons, went to Ferencvárosi TC in the 2008/2009 season, he was a regular player in the squad. He was signed from Chengdu Blades in 2008 alongside fellow Ivorians Dramane Kamate, Sékou Tidiane Souare and Kourouma Mohamed Lamine. Bamba Moussa with other colleagues helped Ferencvárosi TC to gain promotion to Hungarian premiership in June 2009. On 2 October 2009, he did not sign a contract. On 11 January 2010, Moussa joined Chimia Râmnicu Vâlcea; the club said they could not afford to acquire him, so he did not sign a contract. On 31 January 2010, Bamba joined to Sannat Lions FC of the Gozo First Division and signed a contract with the club.
His work was well appreciated because he helped them to win the relegation match and stay in the first division and helped them to win a cup. For the 2010-2011 season, he signed with a second division club in Romania. In 2014, Moussa joined FC Zagon. In July 2018, Moussa joined Victoria Wanderers, he played there until February 2019. Bamba married on 3 November 2009 his Romanian girlfriend. On 7 December 2009 he was granted an indefinite residence in Romania
The Islamic Centre Hamburg is one of the oldest mosques in Germany and Europe. Established in Hamburg, in northern Germany, in the late 1950s by a group of Iranian emigrants and business people it developed into one of the leading Islamic centres in the Western world. Many leading Iranian theologians and politicians have spent time here, have encountered and studied Western sciences and philosophy and contributed to the Western understanding of Islam. During a meeting at Atlantic Hotel in 1953, a group of Iranian residents of Germany discussed the need to establish their own religious center. A letter was sent to the late Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi asking him for help; the construction began in 1960 and by 1965 it was completed. In the same year Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti was appointed to lead the center. During the 1970s the centre played a significant role in bringing about the political rising of Iranian students in the West against the Shah and contributed to the Iranian Revolution.
In 2007, the center announced the launch of first Shia Union in Europe. Hojjatulislam Mohagheghi Hojjatulislam Mohammad Beheshti Hojjatulislam Mohammad Mojtahed Shabestari Hojjatulislam Mohammad Khatami Hojjatulislam Mohammad Reza Moghaddam Hojjatulislam Mohammad Bagher Ansari Hojjatulislam Reza Hosseini Nassab Hojjatulislam Seyyed Abbas Hosseini Ghaemmaghami Hojjatulislam Reza Ramezani Gilani Hojjatulislam Mohammad Hadi Mofatteh Islam in Germany List of mosques in Europe Official website Official website A brief history, Hamburg Islamic Center
Hawksbury known as Cherry Farm, is a small residential and industrial area in New Zealand, located beside State Highway 1 between Dunedin and Waikouaiti. Hawksbury was the site of Dunedin's Cherry Farm Psychiatric Hospital, the name Cherry Farm is still used within Otago for the hospital's former site; the name Hawksbury was an early English name for the settlement at Waikouaiti, is still applied to the nearby Hawksbury Lagoon and several businesses there. The developers of Hawksbury Village changed the name from Cherry Farm because of the social stigma attached to psychiatric hospitals; the area's association with mental health care is maintained in the name of the Hawksbury Community Living Trust, a service set up in 1992 to rehouse former hospital patients, which has since opened 10 further homes in Dunedin and Christchurch. Hawksbury is sometimes erroneously referred to as Evansdale, owing to the prominent signage on the Evansdale Cheese factory, which moved to Hawkesbury from Evansdale in the 1990s.
The nearby Matanaka Farm, which contains New Zealand's oldest surviving farm buildings, was first settled by the pioneer whaler Johnny Jones in 1840. Cherry Farm was named for the master of one of Jones's ships. Cherry Farm Hospital, a psychiatric hospital serving the Dunedin area, opened in 1952, patients from Seacliff Mental Hospital at Seacliff were relocated there soon afterwards. Cherry Farm Hospital epitomised the village-asylum atmosphere in name and design, contrasting with the harsh conditions in the fortress-like Seacliff Hospital; when the hospital closed in 1992, it was the consequence of new arrangements for the three groups of patients that remained. While at its peak Cherry Farm had many hundreds of patients, in latter years this number had dropped to below 400. Psychogeriatric and general adult psychiatric patients were either transferred to Wakari Hospital, or to residential care or supported accommodation in the community, people with intellectual disability moved to new lives in the community provided by a range of community agencies, one of, Hawksbury Community Living Trust.
The closure of Cherry Farm Hospital was a key milestone in the policy of successive governments to implement deinstitutionalisation. This process was completed nationwide in October 2006 with the closure of Kimberley Centre, the last large institution of its type. Hawksbury Village located in East Otago is a owned and managed Residential Village, it is run by a Board of Directors elected by the Shareholders of whom some own properties in the Village. Since the hospital site was converted to a residential village many modern homes have been built that now house local families. There are still a few owned buildings that were part of the hospital network and some of the bigger ones called "Villas" these have now been converted to residential homes. Amenities available in the Village include Hawksbury Christian Fellowship Church, Moana Gow Pool, Evansdale Cheese Factory and Matanaka Meats. Moana Gow Pool is a 20m, 4 lane heated pool which offers swimming lessons, adult lane swimming and more. A new bus shelter has been built for the children in Hawksbury Village who use the local school bus services.
This shelter houses a new Hawksbury Village information map so that visitors can find their way and locate the amenities in the village. Residents enjoy a peaceful village life and there is a recognizable sense of community spirit. Monthly Hawksbury Village newsletters are written and distributed monthly, containing information about what is going on in the village. Sea Container history. Seadog 1979. Hawksbury Community Living Trust
Are You Ready for Love? is a 2007 British romantic comedy film directed by Helen M. Grace and starring Lucy Punch, Andy Nyman, Ed Byrne, it was produced by Carnaby Films. A pair of American authors promise to find love for three single Londoners in just three days, as a publicity stunt for the UK launch of their book Are You Ready for Love?... How to Find Love in Three Days; the fictitious authors Randy Bush and Candy Connor offer "a fail-safe guide to instant romance" to their dating victims, Melanie and Luke. When Candy and Randy, celebrated Californian self-help gurus, come to London to launch their bestselling book ‘Are You Ready For Love? How To Find Love in Three Days’, they choose three single Brits for a publicity stunt to prove that their advice works. Luke and Melanie are the three unlucky-in-love hopefuls who pay good money to take part in Candy and Randy’s promotional promise. Luke, a self-confessed ‘Monster Lover’, is a 38-year-old ageing pop star who relies on his status as a one hit wonder to attract one night stands.
He is in desperate need of help to find a real relationship. Barry, a 35-year-old Jewish dentist is a perfectionist with high expectations for his perfect partner, he turns to Randy in a last attempt to avoid his domineering mother's match-making scheme. Melanie, a 32-year-old photographer, is a hopeless romantic looking for ‘The One’. Always seeming to find the wrong one, she believes that Candy and Randy will help her to find true love; these three single Brits have 72 hours to find love by following the advice given to them by the love gurus and their new book. Throughout this three-day period, their every move is filmed by roving cameras who are documenting their success for a promotional TV programme to be shown at a press conference after the three days are up. Michael Brandon... Randy Ed Byrne... Luke Andy Nyman... Barry Schneider Lucy Punch... Melanie Leigh Zimmerman... Candy Lucy Liemann... Rachel Craig Kelly... Leo Elizabeth Berrington... Debbie Denise Van Outen... Rita Lucy Danny... Becky Jodie Marsh...
Mandi Neil Newbon... Rob Olegar Fedoro... Lionel Juliette Kaplan... Barry's Mother Dean Davies... Bored Jeremy Swift... James Lauretta Lewis... Jill Anna Eccleston... Lee's Partner Winner: Audience award. Winner: Best Screenplay, Best Director, Best Ensemble Cast. Screened in California. Filming Are You Ready For Love? Commenced in September 2005 after 4 weeks of pre-production; the film was shot on location in London over 5 weeks and encompassed some of London’s most celebrated landmarks, shooting location included the streets of Soho, Central Hall in Westminster, Hampstead Heath, Streatham ice rink and the South Bank. The film includes a speed dating sequence that takes place on board the charter boat The Dixie Queen on the River Thames at Tower Bridge; the Bridge opened for the boat to pass through during the shoot. Amidst these organized events we have scenes set in the homes of the main characters and their workplaces; this took us from a vets in Barnes to music studios in Maida Vale, scenes set in a publishing house near Greenwich with stunning panoramic views across the city.
Filming finished on 24 October 2005 and the film was in post production until the end of March 2006. Are You Ready for Love? was released on DVD by Sony on 9 February 2009. Ventura County Reporter Official website Are You Ready for Love? on IMDb
Wikicollecting was a wiki-based open-source encyclopedia covering all areas of antiques and collectables. It was built through an international collaboration of collectors and experts, encouraged users to submit, edit and expand articles for future generations of collectors; the site included information about a wide variety of subjects ranging from art, postage stamps, classic cars, wine to comic books. Launched in February 2011, the site had amassed over 400,000 articles as of July 2013; the site was offline by the end of 2015. The types of pages include encyclopaedic entries on specific subjects, sales or items, information on museums, collectors’ clubs and organizations around the world. Articles can include notable sales and price histories. Articles can range from an overview of a collecting area including the subject's history and context, to the current market value of a particular collectible; these articles are written from a point of neutrality. It includes comprehensive free listings of antique and collectibles dealers, which allow businesses to submit and maintain their own pages and include contact information and external links to their own websites.
Business and dealer pages are written in a more subjective style, but the site is informally moderated by a number of volunteer users to maintain its accuracy. Wikicollecting operates on open source software and an open content licensing model allowing free use and community ownership of the content, it uses the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License List of Wikis Wikicollecting