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Hyrax

Hyraxes called dassies, are small, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. Hyraxes are rotund animals with short tails, they measure between 30 and 70 cm long and weigh between 2 and 5 kg. They are superficially similar to pikas and marmots, but are more related to elephants and manatees. Five extant species are recognised, their distribution is limited to Africa, except for Procavia capensis, found in the Middle East. Hyraxes have re-developed a number of primitive mammalian characteristics. Unlike most other browsing and grazing animals, they do not use the incisors at the front of the jaw for slicing off leaves and grass; the two upper incisors are large and tusk-like, grow continuously through life, similar to rodents. The four lower incisors are grooved'comb teeth'. A diastema occurs between the cheek teeth; the dental formula for hyraxes is 1.0.4.32.0.4.3. Although not ruminants, hyraxes have complex, multichambered stomachs that allow symbiotic bacteria to break down tough plant materials, but their overall ability to digest fibre is lower than that of the ungulates.

Their mandibular motions are similar to chewing cud, but the hyrax is physically incapable of regurgitation as in the even-toed ungulates and the merycism of some of the macropods. This behaviour is referred to in a passage in the Bible which describes hyraxes as “chewing the cud”; this chewing behaviour may be a form of agonistic behaviour. Hyraxes inhabit rocky terrain across the Middle East, their feet have rubbery pads with numerous sweat glands, which may help the animal maintain its grip when moving up steep, rocky surfaces. Hyraxes have stumpy toes with hoof-like nails, they have efficient kidneys, retaining water so that they can better survive in arid environments. Female hyraxes give birth to up to four young after a gestation period between seven and eight months, depending on the species; the young are weaned at one to five months of age, reach sexual maturity at 16 to 17 months. Hyraxes live in small family groups, with a single male that aggressively defends the territory from rivals.

Where living space is abundant, the male may have sole access to multiple groups of females, each with their own range. The remaining males live solitary lives on the periphery of areas controlled by larger males, mate only with younger females. Hyraxes have charged myoglobin, inferred to reflect an aquatic ancestry. Hyraxes share several unusual characteristics with mammalian orders Proboscidea and Sirenia, which have resulted in their all being placed in the taxon Paenungulata. Male hyraxes lack a scrotum and their testicles remain tucked up in their abdominal cavity next to the kidneys, the same as in elephants and dugongs. Female hyraxes have a pair of teats near their armpits, as well as four teats in their groin; the tusks of hyraxes develop from the incisor teeth. Hyraxes, like elephants, have flattened nails on the tips of their digits, rather than curved, elongated claws which are seen on mammals. All modern hyraxes are members of the family Procaviidae and are found only in Africa and the Middle East.

In the past, hyraxes were more diverse, widespread. The order first appears in the fossil record at a site in the Middle East in the form of Dimaitherium, 37 million years ago. For many millions of years, hyraxes and other afrotherian mammals were the primary terrestrial herbivores in Africa, just as odd-toed ungulates were in North America. Through the middle to late Eocene, many different species existed, the largest of them weighing the same as a small horse and the smallest the size of a mouse. During the Miocene, competition from the newly developed bovids, which were efficient grazers and browsers, displaced the hyraxes into marginal niches; the order remained widespread and diverse as late as the end of the Pliocene with representatives throughout most of Africa and Asia. The descendants of the giant'hyracoids' evolved in different ways; some became smaller, evolved to become the modern hyrax family. Others appear to have taken to the water giving rise to the elephant family and also the sirenians.

DNA evidence supports this hypothesis, the small modern hyraxes share numerous features with elephants, such as toenails, excellent hearing, sensitive pads on their feet, small tusks, good memory, higher brain functions compared with other similar mammals, the shape of some of their bones. Hyraxes are sometimes descri

State University of Farming

State University of farming called: Moscow State University of Land Management is a one the oldest Universities in Russia. The history of the University begin in 27 May 1779 when the Decree of the Governing Senate established the land survey school. Founder of the school is Sergey Ivanovich Rozhnov. In 1819, the land survey school was renamed the Konstantinovoye land survey school, in 1835 – the Constantine Land Institute. In 1849 the Konstantinovsky land surveying institute received the right of a first-rate university and was transferred to the position of a military institution that existed before 1867. During the period from 1835 to 1917, the Institute trained more than 2,000 specialists, including about 1500 surveying engineers. In 1945 the Moscow Land Management Institute was renamed the Moscow Institute of Land Use Engineers; the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR for the merits in the training of qualified personnel for agriculture, a significant contribution to the development of science and practice of land management and in connection with the 200th anniversary of the founding of the Moscow Institute of Land Use Engineers was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.

In accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of 18 January 1991, No. 30 "On the Republican Program for Land Reform in the Territory of the RSFSR" and Order No. 193 of 24 March 1992 on the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, University for Land Management with the training of specialists in land law, land management, soil science, geodesy and planning of villages. Faculty of Architectural Faculty of Urban cadastre Faculty of Land management Faculty of Real Estate Cadastre Faculty of Legal Institute for Advanced Studies Military Department The museum is located in the building of the State Unitary Enterprise, built in 1930–1935; until 1935. The hospital was located in the palace of NI Demidov. – Gorokhovyi per. 4 From 1835 to 1873, State University of farming was located in the palace of Prince Kurakin. Official website

STS-74

STS-74 was the fourth mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, the second docking of the Space Shuttle with Mir. Space Shuttle Atlantis lifted off from Kennedy Space Center launch pad 39A on 12 November 1995; the mission ended 8 days with the landing of Atlantis back at Kennedy. It was the second in a series of seven straight missions to the station flown by Atlantis; the shuttle delivered a pair of solar arrays along with the Russian-built Mir Docking Module to allow docking with the station by the space shuttle without moving Mir's Kristall module. During the three-day docking, the Russian and American crew transferred supplies and equipment between Atlantis and Mir, moved several long-term experiments, upgraded the station with new equipment during the installation of the docking module; the crew's preparation for the mission had begun some thirteen months earlier in 1994, with the crew being trained in the operation of the space shuttle, the mating and docking procedures that would be required as Atlantis approached Mir in the mission, the management of the various scientific experiments being carried on the orbiter during the mission.

Preparation of Atlantis itself for mission STS-74 began with the replacement of three thrusters in Atlantis's right-hand Orbital Maneuvering System pod in bay 2 of the Orbiter Processing Facility on 25 August 1995. Installation of the three Space Shuttle Main Engines on Atlantis was completed on 5 September 1995, as were closeout operations on the Russian docking module. On 7 November, engineers determined that there was no additional work needed to verify the solid rocket boosters for flight, following discovery of small cracks in the hold-down posts attached to boosters that had flown earlier that year. Close inspections of the STS-74 stack determined that no such cracks were present on the boosters to be used for the mission. Pad 39A was cleared on 9 November in preparation for loading of the onboard cryogenic tanks with the cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen reactants that provided electricity through the three onboard fuel cells, water for the flight as a by-product; the initial launch attempt, scheduled for 11 November 1995 at 7:56 am EST was postponed due to poor weather at the Transatlantic Abort site.

The original launch window was 6 min the countdown had begun on schedule. The crew was on board when the postponement was called at the T-minus 5 minute mark at 7:51 am EST. Following a poll of the mission management team at 7:12 am EST in which all stations returned a "go for launch" and the eventual clearance of the range for launch at 7:20 am EST, Atlantis raced into the sky at the beginning of a 10-minute, 9-second launch window following a flawless countdown with no unscheduled holds; the shuttle lifted off the pad at 7:30:43 am EST. About 43 minutes after launch, a 2-minute and 13 second engine firing changed the shuttle's path into a 162 nautical mile circular orbit. Once on orbit, the five crew members began configuring Atlantis for on-orbit operations. Atlantis's payload bay doors were opened about 90 minutes into the flight, followed by a "go" for on-orbit operations. Three hours into the flight, Commander Ken Cameron and Pilot Jim Halsell fired the orbiter's reaction control thrusters in the first of a series of rendezvous burns that refined Atlantis's path towards Mir.

Shortly after the burn, the first Canadian mission specialist, Chris Hadfield, activated the Russian-built docking module, housed in the shuttle's payload bay, ready for the docking of the module with Atlantis's Orbiter Docking System on flight day 2. The five-member crew aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis spent the bulk of their first full day in space readying the orbiter and its payloads for the 14 November mating of the Russian docking module to the Orbiter Docking System in advance of the 15 November docking to Mir. Both the module and the docking system were located in Atlantis's payload bay. Mission specialists Jerry Ross and Bill McArthur inspected the spacesuits they would don should a spacewalk become necessary during the mating or docking operations. Following the space suit inspection, Mission Specialist Chris Hadfield powered up the orbiter's robot arm in preparation for the next day's transfer of the docking module over to Atlantis's docking system. All systems affiliated with the robot arm operated as were ready to support the mating.

The crew members checked out the Advanced Space Vision System, a precise alignment system for the robot arm, tested on STS-74. The OSVS, used during the mating operation, consisted of a series of large dots placed on the exterior of the docking module and the docking system; the day's schedule included the installation and alignment of the centerline camera in the centre of the Orbiter Docking System. The camera assisted Commander Ken Cameron in final piloting tasks as Atlantis moved towards and docked with Mir. At 5:00 am CST on day 2, Atlantis was about 4,000 statute miles behind Mir, was closing in to the space station at a rate of about 380 statute miles per orbit. Cameron and other available crew members spent the morning answering questions posed by Canadian reporters located in Montreal and Toronto. Hadfield, a Canadian Space Agency astronaut, was the fourth Canadian astronaut to fly on the shuttle. With all of the systems that were to put the Russian Docking Module in place for a flight day 4 link-up with Mir checked out and ready to go, the STS-74 crew settled down for 8 hours of sleep that afternoon.

On flight day 3, the STS-74 crew members mated the 15-foot Russian built docking module with the shuttl