England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Carmarthenshire is a unitary authority in the south-west of Wales and is the largest of the thirteen historic counties of Wales. The three largest towns are Llanelli and Ammanford, Carmarthen is the county town and administrative centre of Carmarthenshire, but the most populous settlement is Llanelli. Carmarthenshire has been inhabited since prehistoric times, the town of Carmarthen was founded by the Romans, and the region was part of the Principality of Deheubarth during the High Middle Ages. It saw turbulent times during the invasion by the Normans in the 12th and 13h centuries before it was subjugated, along other parts of Wales. There was further unrest in the early 15th century when the Welsh rebelled under Owain Glyndŵr, Carmarthenshire is mainly an agricultural county, apart from the southeastern part which at one time was heavily industrialised with coal mining, steel-making and tin-plating. In the north of the county the woollen industry was important in the 18th century. Nowadays the economy of the county depends on agriculture, fishing, with the decline in its industrial base and the low profitability of the livestock sector, Carmarthenshire is economically one of the worst-performing regions in the United Kingdom.
Although Carmarthenshire is less frequented as a tourist destination than some other counties in Wales, further west are the sandy beaches at Llansteffan and Pendine, and Dylan Thomas boathouse at Laugharne. Further inland there are a number of castles, hillforts. Humans have been living in Carmarthenshire since at least 40,000 years ago as evidenced by stone tools found in Coygan Cave, near Laugharne. The Romans established two forts in South Wales, one at Caerwent to control the southeast of the country, the fort at Carmarthen dates from around 75 AD, and there is a Roman amphitheatre nearby, so this probably makes Carmarthen the oldest continually occupied town in Wales. Carmarthenshire has its roots in the region formerly known as Ystrad Tywi and part of the Principality of Deheubarth during the High Middle Ages. After the Normans had subjugated England they tried to subdue Wales, Carmarthenshire was disputed between the Normans and the Welsh lords and many of the castles built around this time, first of wood and stone, changed hands several times.
Following the Conquest of Wales by Edward I, the region was reorganized by the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 into Carmarthenshire. Edward I made Carmarthen the capital of new county, establishing his courts of chancery and his exchequer there. The Normans transformed Carmarthen into a trading port, the only staple port in Wales. Merchants imported food and French wines and exported wool, leather, Carmarthen was particularly susceptible to plague as it was brought in by flea-infested rats on board ships from southern France. In 1405, Owain Glyndŵr captured Carmarthen Castle and several other strongholds in the neighbourhood, when his support dwindled, the principal men of the county returned their allegiance to King Henry V
Kingdom of Gwynedd
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. Based in northwest Wales, the rulers of Gwynedd repeatedly rose to preeminence and were acclaimed as King of the Britons before losing their power in civil wars or invasions and that realm lasted until the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1283. The sons of their leader, were said to have possessed the land between the rivers Dee and Teifi, the modern preserved county of Gwynedd and principal area of Gwynedd are both somewhat smaller. The 5th-century Cantiorix Inscription now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name and it is in memory of a man named Cantiorix and the Latin inscription is Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati, Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate, the use of terms such as citizen and magistrate maybe cited as evidence that Romano-British culture and institutions continued in Gwynedd long after the legions had withdrawn.
As early as the 2nd century, there may have been an Irish presence in the region as Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the Promontory of the Gangani which is a name he recorded in Ireland, the region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey. According to traditional pedigrees, Cuneddas grandfather was Padarn Beisrudd, Paternus of the red cloak, nennius recounts how Cunedda brought order to North Wales and after his death Gwynedd was divided among his sons, Dynod was awarded Dunoding, another son Ceredig received Ceredigion, and so forth. According to Professor John Davies, here is a determinedly Brythonic, there was generally quick abandonment of Roman political and ecclesiastical practices and institutions within Gwynedd and elsewhere in Wales. These early petty kings or princelings adopted the title rhi in Welsh, replaced by brenin, genealogical lists compiled around 960 bear out that a number of these early rulers claimed degrees of association with the old Roman order, but do not appear in the official royal lineages.
It may be assumed that the stronger kings annexed the territories of their weaker neighbors, other evidence supports Nenniuss claim that a leader came to north Wales and brought the region a measure of stability, although an Irish Gaelic element remained until the mid-5th century. During that peace he established a mighty kingdom, after Cadwallon, Gwynedd appears to have held a pre-eminent position amongst the petty Cambrian states in the post-Roman period. The great-grandson of Cunedda, Maelgwn Hir Maelgwn the Tall, was one of the most famous leaders in Welsh history, there are several legends about his life concerning miracles performed either by him or in his presence. Maelgwn was curiously described as the dragon of the island by Gildas which was possibly a title, Maelgwn eventually died in 547 from the plague leaving a succession crisis in his wake. His son in law, Elidyr Mwynfawr of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, claimed the throne and invaded Gwynedd to displace Maelgwns son, Elidyr was killed in the attempt but his death was avenged by his relatives who ravaged the coast of Arfon.
Rhun counter-attacked and exacted the same penalty on the lands of his foes in what is now central Scotland, Rhun returned to Gwynedd and the rest of his reign was far less eventful. He was succeeded by his son, Beli ap Rhun in c, on the accession of Belis son Iago ap Beli in c. 599, the situation in Britain had deteriorated significantly, most of the area today called northern England and been overrun by the invading Angles of Deira and Bernicia who were in the process of forming the Kingdom of Northumbria
Annals of Ulster
The Annals of Ulster are annals of medieval Ireland. The entries span the years from AD431 to AD1540, entries were added by others. Entries up to the mid sixth century are retrospective, drawing on earlier annalistic and historical texts, while entries were contemporary, based on recollection and oral history. Charles-Edwards has claimed that the source for its records of the first millennium AD is a now lost Armagh continuation of the Chronicle of Ireland. The Annals used the Irish language, with entries in Latin. Because the Annals copied its sources verbatim, the annals are useful not just for historians, a century later, the Annals of Ulster became an important source for the authors of the Annals of the Four Masters. It informs the Irish text Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, the Library of Trinity College Dublin possesses the original manuscript, the Bodleian Library in Oxford has a contemporary copy that fills some of the gaps in the original. There are two main modern English translations of the annals – Mac Airt and Mac Niocaill and MacCarthy, several kings are mentioned throughout the Annals of Ulster.
The Annals tend to follow the lives of the kings, including important battles, between the years of 847 and 879, three different kings are highlighted. For example, Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid, the king of the southern Ui Neill clan from 846–862,839.6 – First mentioned in the Annals of Ulster having killed Crunnmael son of Fiannamail. It reads “Aed son of Niall, king of Temair, fell asleep on the twelfth of the Kalends of 20 December Nov at Druim Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille. ” Just as with the Irish kings, the Annals of Ulster follow the lives of the Viking kings of Dublin. The Annals of Ulster documents the Viking invasions one year after the starting event of the Viking Period. The first mentioning of the Vikings is very brief,794.7 Devastation of all the islands of Britain by heathens, ” yet over the course of the annals their attacks become more specific 807.8 The heathens burned Inis Muiredaig and invade Ros Comáin. The Vikings are called different names throughout the annals, dark or fair-foreigners, Norsemen, Norse-Irish.
It is often unclear if these titles attribute nationalities or certain alliances as they are used intermixed throughout, the annals mention the foreigners’ beginnings in Ireland as one of plunder and slave taking. According to the annals, the Norsemen took many slaves in their raids,821.3 Étar was plundered by the heathens, and they carried off a great number of women into captivity. However, eventually they establish a permanent base in Áth Cliath or Dublin by 841, in 841.4 There was a naval camp at Linn Duachaill from which the peoples and churches of Tethba were plundered
Prestatyn /prɛˈstætɪn/ is a seaside resort and community in Denbighshire, Wales. Historically a part of Flintshire, it is located on the Irish Sea coast, at the 2001 Census, Prestatyn had a population of 18,496, increasing to 18,849 at the 2011 census. There is evidence that the current town location has been occupied since prehistoric times, prehistoric tools found in the caves of Graig Fawr, in the nearby village of Meliden, have revealed the existence of early human habitation in the area. The Roman bathhouse is believed to be part of a fort on the road from Chester to Caernarfon, much of Roman Prestatyn has been destroyed as houses have been built over unexcavated land. The name Prestatyn derives from the Old English preosta and tun, although the Domesday Book only extended to demesnes in England, Prestatyn was included since it was at that time under English control. The Banastre family moved to Bank Hall in Lancashire, the town appears to have been primarily a fishing village for hundreds of years.
The beginning and end of High Street today mark the location of two maenolau called Pendre and Penisadre, the towns population remained at less than 1,000 until the arrival of the railways and the holidaymakers in the 19th and 20th centuries. Sunny Prestatyn became famous for its beach, clean seas and promenade entertainers, during the Second World War the holiday camps were used as billets for British soldiers, many of whom were sent to live with locals. Prestatyn was the home of the first UK Kwik Save supermarket in 1965, the Kwik Save store was renamed Somerfield following a takeover in 2007, and was finally demolished in 2008 when surrounding land was bought by Tesco. The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm was opened in 2003, situated in Liverpool Bay,5 miles off the coast of Prestatyn, it was the UKs first major offshore wind farm. It has 30 wind turbines with a maximum capacity of 60 megawatts - enough to power 40,000 homes if it was sustained. Although Prestatyn remains a tourist destination and resort town, the town is diversifying in response to the decline of the British seaside holiday, merlin Cinemas have taken over the Scala cinema, a digital cinema with films and theatre venues.
Work is under way on the revival of the Ffrith Beach Festival Gardens, after a troubled few years when the seafront site has lain deserted, attractions are planned, such as tenpin bowling, quad bikes, dance studio and yoghurt bar. The town is at the end of the Offas Dyke Path. It marks the end of the North Wales Path, a long-distance coastal route to Bangor. Other attractions include the remains of Roman baths and the nearby Neolithic mound, Pontins Holiday Centre was the location for a 1973 film of the popular British TV series, On the Buses. The town was in the Delyn parliamentary constituency from 1983 to 1997, Prestatyn railway station is on the North Wales Coast Line which connects the town with Holyhead to the west and Chester to the east. Bus services are provided by Arriva Buses Wales, shrewsbury Town F. C. goalkeeper coach Danny Coyne was born in Prestatyn
Pembroke is a historic settlement and former county town of Pembrokeshire in West Wales. The town features a number of buildings and complexes and is one of the major population centres in the county. It was the birthplace of Henry Tudor, Henry VII of England, Pembroke Castle, the remains of a stone mediæval castle was the birthplace of King Henry VII of England. Gerald de Windsor was Constable of Pembroke, Pembroke town and castle and its surroundings are linked with the early Christian church. Later this was the site of the Knights of St John in the UK, Monkton Priory has very early foundations and was renovated by the Knights in the last century. The first stone building was a tower, now known as the Medieval Chapel, 69a Main Street. There are the remains of a hall to the north. The building was used as an early church, the layout is the same as St. Govans Chapel and it was used by John Wesley from 1764 to preach Methodism. In 1866 it became the brewery for the York Tavern which was Oliver Cromwells headquarters at the Siege of Pembroke during the English Civil War, on both banks of the Pembroke River to the west of the castle are many remains of early activities.
There is an early complete graving dock in what was Hancocks Yard. The bridge which crosses and constrains the millpond was constructed to house a tide mill, at Pennar Flats there was an early submarine base used for experiments in submarine warfare. Three of the houses on the foreshore, part of the shipyard before the Admiralty Dock Yard was built, are still standing but are heavily altered. The ferry port of Pembroke Dock is a town, which was established in 1814. It lies three miles to the north of Pembroke, the town and county derive their names from the cantref of Penfro, Pen = head or end, and bro = region, land, which has been interpreted to mean either Lands End or headland. Pembroke is on the south Pembrokeshire peninsula, by the estuary of the River Cleddau, Pembroke town is at the bottom of a small valley, flanked on all sides by woodland and arable farmland. The town is 8 miles south of the county town of Haverfordwest, the town is centred on Main Street, which is the only street that is inside the original town walls.
Outside of the walls, residential estates have been built to the north towards Pembroke Dock, to the east towards the village of Lamphey, to the west of the town lies the village of Monkton, which is included as part of the community of Pembroke. At the 2001 census, the community had a population of 7,214, the conurbation of Pembroke Dock and Pembroke has a combined population of 15,890 and as such is one of the major population centres of West Wales
House of Dinefwr
The House of Dinefwr was a royal house of Wales and refers to the descendants of Cadell ap Rhodri King of Seisyllwg, son of Rhodri the Great. With the death of Rhodri Mawr, the kingdom of Gwynedd passed to his eldest son Anarawd ap Rhodri, Cadell ap Rhodris descendants are designated Dinefwr after the citadel from which they would rule Dyfed. The Dinefwr dynasty under king Hywel Dda would unite Dyfed and Seisyllwg into the kingdom of Deheubarth in the early 10th century, the Dinefwr dynasty would rule in Deheubarth until their conquest by the Anglo-Normans in the 13th century. This branch would compete with House Aberffraw for supremacy and influence in Wales throughout the 10th, 11th, eventually, a cadet branch of Dinefwr would establish itself in Powys by the mid 11th century, designated Mathrafal after the castle there. The Tudor dynasty of Wales and England were female line descendants of the House of Dinefwr through their ancestor Owen Tudor and Diana Princess of Wales
Armes Prydein is an early 10th-century Welsh prophetic poem from the Book of Taliesin. The inclusion of the non-Celtic Vikings and the non-Brythonic Scots and Irish as full allies in a Welsh traditional poem is a remarkable oddity, the poem is commonly described as an expression of Welsh frustration with the pragmatic, peaceful policies of Hywel Dda towards the then-ascendant Kingdom of Wessex. Edward the Elder had gained acknowledged pre-eminence over almost all of the south of the Firths of Clyde and Forth, including the Gaels, English, Welsh. After he died and his son Æthelstan had become king, an alliance of the kingdoms of Dublin, the Armes Prydein is significant as one of the earliest mentions of the prophet Myrddin Wyllt. The Battle of Brunanburh, A Casebook
Edmund I, called the Elder, the Deed-doer, the Just, or the Magnificent, was King of the English from 939 until his death. He was a son of Edward the Elder and half-brother of Æthelstan, Æthelstan died on 27 October 939, and Edmund succeeded him as king. Shortly after his proclamation as king, he had to several military threats. King Olaf III Guthfrithson conquered Northumbria and invaded the Midlands, when Olaf died in 942, in 943, Edmund became the god-father of King Olaf of York. In 944, Edmund was successful in reconquering Northumbria, in the same year, his ally Olaf of York lost his throne and left for Dublin in Ireland. Olaf became the king of Dublin as Amlaíb Cuarán and continued to be allied to his god-father, in 945, Edmund conquered Strathclyde but ceded the territory to King Malcolm I of Scotland in exchange for a treaty of mutual military support. Edmund thus established a policy of safe borders and peaceful relationships with Scotland, during his reign, the revival of monasteries in England began.
One of Edmunds last political movements of which there is knowledge is his role in the restoration of Louis IV of France to the throne. Louis, son of Charles the Simple and Edmunds half-sister Eadgifu, had resided at the West-Saxon court for time until 936. In the summer of 945, he was captured by the Norsemen of Rouen and subsequently released to Duke Hugh the Great, the chronicler Richerus claims that Eadgifu wrote letters both to Edmund and to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in which she requested support for her son. Edmund responded to her plea by sending angry threats to Hugh, duke of the Franks, allying himself with Hugh the Black, son of Richard, and the other leading men of the kingdom, restored to the kingdom King Louis. On 26 May 946, Edmund was murdered by Leofa, an exiled thief, john of Worcester and William of Malmesbury add some lively detail by suggesting that Edmund had been feasting with his nobles, when he spotted Leofa in the crowd. He attacked the intruder in person, but in the event, Leofa was killed on the spot by those present.
A recent article re-examines Edmunds death and dismisses the accounts as fiction. It suggests the king was the victim of a political assassination, Edmunds sister Eadgyth, the wife of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, died earlier the same year, as Flodoards Annales for 946 report. Edmund was succeeded as king by his brother Eadred, king from 946 until 955, Edmunds sons ruled England as, King of England from 955 until 957, king of only Wessex and Kent from 957 until his death on 1 October 959. Edgar the Peaceful, king of Mercia and Northumbria from 957 until his brothers death in 959, Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Burial places of British royalty Edmund the Just, fictional king of Narnia Flodoard, Annales, ed. Philippe Lauer, Les Annales de Flodoard. Collection des textes pour servir à létude et à lenseignement de lhistoire 39, Edmund 14 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
John Peckham was Archbishop of Canterbury in the years 1279–1292. He was a native of Sussex who was educated at Lewes Priory and he studied at the University of Paris under Bonaventure, where he would teach theology. From his teaching, he came into conflict with Thomas Aquinas, known as a conservative theologian, he opposed Aquinas views on the nature of the soul. Peckham studied optics and astronomy, and his studies in those subjects were influenced by Roger Bacon, in around 1270, Peckham returned to England, where he taught at the University of Oxford, and was elected the provincial minister of England in 1275. After a brief stint in Rome, he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1279 and his time as archbishop was marked by efforts to improve discipline in the clergy as well as reorganize the estates of his see. Pluralism, or holding more than one benefice, was one of the abuses that Peckham combatted. He served King Edward I of England in Wales, where he formed a low opinion of the Welsh people and during his time as archbishop, he wrote a number of works on optics and theology, as well as writing hymns.
Numerous manuscripts of his works survive, on his death, his body was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, but his heart was given to the Franciscans for burial. Peckham came from a family, possibly from Patcham in Sussex. He was born about 1230 and was educated at Lewes Priory, about 1250, he joined the Franciscan order at Oxford. He went to the University of Paris, where he studied under Bonaventure and became regent master, or official lecturer, while at Paris, he wrote a Commentary on Lamentations, which sets out two possible sermons. For years Peckham taught at Paris, where he was in contact with many of the scholars of his time. He famously debated Aquinas on at least two occasions during 1269 and 1270, during which Peckham defended the conservative position. The Thomist doctrine of the unity of form was condemned after these debates and his theological works were used by his pupil Roger Marston who in turn inspired Duns Scotus. Peckham studied other fields and was guided by Robert Grosseteste, where Peckham met Bacon is not known, but it would have been at either Paris or Oxford.
Bacons influence can be seen in Peckhams works on optics and astronomy, about 1270, he returned to England to teach at Oxford, and was elected provincial minister of the Franciscans in England in 1275. He did not long remain in that post, being summoned to Rome as lector sacri palatii and it is likely that he composed his Expositio super Regulam Fratrum Minorum, a work that included information on preaching, a subject that Peckham felt was of great importance. In 1279 he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Nicholas III who had prohibited the election of Robert Burnell and he was provided on 25 January 1279 and consecrated on 19 February 1279
Ceredigion is a county in Mid Wales. In the Middle Ages, it was a minor kingdom known for a time as Seisyllwg, following its Norman conquest, the name was anglicised to Cardigan and Cardiganshire and it began to be administered as a county in 1282. The county had a population of 75,900 at the 2011 UK census and its largest town, Aberystwyth, is one of the two administrative centres, the other being Aberaeron. Aberystwyth houses Aberystwyth University, Bronglais Hospital and the National Library of Wales, the inland town of Lampeter houses part of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Ceredigion is considered to be a centre of Welsh culture and more than half the population speaks Welsh, the county is mainly rural with over 50 miles of coastline and a mountainous hinterland. The numerous sandy beaches, together with the long-distance Ceredigion Coast Path provide excellent views of Cardigan Bay, the economy became highly dependent on dairy farming and the rearing of livestock for the English market.
Ceredigion has been inhabited since prehistoric times,170 hill forts and enclosures have been identified across the county, around the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, the area was between the realms of the Demetae and Ordovices. The Sarn Helen road ran through the territory, with forts at Bremia, following the Roman withdrawal, Irish raids and invasions were repulsed, supposedly by the forces under a northerner named Cunedda. The 9th-century History of the Britons attributed to Nennius records that Cuneddas son Ceredig settled the area around the Teifi in the 5th century. The territory supposedly remained a kingdom under his dynasty until its extinction upon the drowning of Gwgon ap Meurig c. 871, after which it was administered by Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd before passing to his son Cadell. Many pilgrims passed through Cardiganshire on their way to St Davids, some came by sea and made use of the churches at Mwnt and Penbryn, while others came by land seeking hospitality at such places as Strata Florida Abbey.
Both the abbey and Llanbadarn Fawr were important monastic sites of scholarship, place names including ysbyty denote their association with pilgrims. In 1282, Edward I of England conquered the principality of Wales, one of thirteen traditional counties in Wales, Cardiganshire was a vice-county. Cardiganshire was split into the five hundreds of Genaur-Glyn, Moyddyn, every community built its own chapel or meeting house, and Cardiganshire became one of the centres of Methodism in Wales with the Aeron Valley being at the centre of the revival. Cardigan was one of the ports of southern Wales, but its harbour silted in the mid-19th century. In the uplands, wheeled vehicles were rare in the 18th century, on the coast, trade in herrings and corn took place across the Irish Sea. In the 19th century, many of the rural poor emigrated to the New World from Cardigan, Aberystwyth became the main centre for the export of lead and Aberaeron and Newquay did brisk coastal trade. The building of the railway from Shrewsbury in the 1860s encouraged visitors and this area of the county of Dyfed became a district of Wales under the name Ceredigion in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, and since 1996, has formed the county of Ceredigion