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In Norse mythology, Iðunn is a goddess associated with apples and youth. Iðunn is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. In both sources, she is described as the wife of the skaldic god Bragi, in the Prose Edda as a keeper of apples and granter of eternal youthfulness; the Prose Edda relates that Loki was once forced by the jötunn Þjazi to lure Iðunn out of Asgard and into a wood, promising her interesting apples. Þjazi, in the form of an eagle, takes her to his home. Iðunn's absence causes the gods to grow old and grey, they realize that Loki is responsible for her disappearance. Loki promises to return her and, in the form of a falcon, finds her alone at Þjazi's home, he takes her back to Asgard. After Þjazi finds that Iðunn is gone, he furiously chases after Loki; the gods build a pyre in Asgard and, after a sudden stop by Loki, Þjazi's feathers catch fire, he falls, the gods kill him.

A number of theories surround Iðunn, including potential links to fertility, her potential origin in Proto-Indo-European religion. Long the subject of artworks, Iðunn is sometimes referenced in modern popular culture; the name Iðunn has been variously explained is meaning "ever young", "rejuvenator", or "the rejuvenating one". As the modern English alphabet lacks the eth character, Iðunn is sometimes anglicized as Idun, Idunn or Ithun. An -a suffix is sometimes applied to denote femininity, resulting in forms such as Iduna and Idunna; the name Iðunn appears as a personal name in several historical sources and the Landnámabók records that it has been in use in Iceland as a personal name since the pagan period. Landnámabók records two incidents of women by the name of Iðunn; the name Iðunn has been theorized as the origin of the Old English name Idonea. 19th century author Charlotte Mary Yonge writes that the derivation of Idonea from Idunn is "almost certain," noting that although Idonea may be "the feminine of the Latin idoneus, its absence in the Romance countries may be taken as an indication that it was a mere classicalizing of the northern goddess of the apples of youth."19th-century scholar Jacob Grimm proposed a potential etymological connection to the idisi.

Grimm states that "with the original form idis the goddess Idunn may be connected." Grimm further states that Iðunn may have been known with another name, that "Iðunn would seem by Saem. 89a to be an Elvish word, but we do not hear of any other name for the goddess." Iðunn appears in the Poetic Edda poem Lokasenna and, included in some modern editions of the Poetic Edda, in the late poem Hrafnagaldr Óðins. Iðunn is introduced as Bragi's wife in the prose introduction to the poem Lokasenna, where the two attend a feast held by Ægir. In stanzas 16, 17, 18, dialog occurs between Loki and Iðunn after Loki has insulted Bragi. In stanza 16, Iðunn says: Idunn said: I ask you, Bragi, to do a service to your blood-kin and all the adoptive relations, that you shouldn't say words of blame to Loki, in Ægir's hall. Loki said: Be silent, Idunn, I declare that of all women you're the most man-crazed, since you placed your arms, washed bright, about your brother's slayer. Idunn said: I'm not saying words of blame to Loki, in Ægir's hall I quietened Bragi, made talkative with beer.

In this exchange, Loki has accused Iðunn of having slept with the killer of her brother. However, neither this brother nor killer are accounted for in any other surviving source. Afterward, the goddess Gefjon speaks up and the poem continues in turn. In the poem Hrafnagaldr Óðins, additional information is given about Iðunn, though this information is otherwise unattested. Here, Iðunn is identified as descending from elves, as one of "Ivaldi's elder children" and as a dís who dwells in dales. Stanza 6 reads: In the dales dwells, the prescient Dís, from Yggdrasil's ash sunk down, of alfen race, Idun by name, the youngest of Ivaldi's elder children. Iðunn is introduced in the Prose Edda in section 26 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning. Here, Iðunn is described as Bragi's keeper of an eski within which she keeps apples; the apples are bitten into by the gods when they begin to grow old and they become young again, described as occurring up until Ragnarök. Gangleri states that it seems to him that the gods depend upon Iðunn's good faith and care.

With a laugh, High responds that misfortune once came close, that he could tell Gangleri about it, but first he must hear the names of more of the Æsir, he continues providing information about gods. In the book Skáldskaparmál, Idunn is mentioned in its first chapter as one of eight ásynjur sitting in their thrones at a banquet in Asgard for Ægir. In chapter 56, Bragi tells Ægir about Iðunn's abduction by the jötunn Þjazi. Bragi says. Loki is pulled further and further into the sky, his feet banging against stones and trees. Loki feels. Loki shouts and begs the eagle for a truce, the eagle responds that Loki would not be free unless he made a solemn vow to have Iðunn come outside of Asgard with her apples. Loki accepts Þjazi's conditions and returns to his friends Hœnir. At the time Þjazi and Loki agreed on, Loki lures Iðunn o

Palandöken Ski Center

Palandöken Ski Center is a ski resort for alpine skiing and snowboarding on the Palandöken Mountain in Erzurum Province, eastern Turkey. The ski center is situated 7 km southwest of Erzurum, it was established for the 2011 Winter Universiade. Its base is at 2,200 m, the top elevation is3,176 m. In addition to a gondola lift, five chairlift lines serving all the 22 pistes with different slope on a skiable area of 460 ha. Skiing season at the resort begins in average late October ending in the first weeks of May in the higher regions; the runs "Ejder" and "Kapıkaya" are the longest ones. They are suitable for slalom skiing and giant slalom disciplines; the total length of the runs are 28 km with the longest one being 12 km long and having an elevation difference of 1,100 m. The runs of Palandöken Ski Resort are served by aerial lifts such as eight chairlifts of various size and one gondola lift, all having a total hourly transport capacity of 8,100 skiers. Hotels at the ski resort provide accommodation in addition to the lodging establishments in the city.

The runs are illuminated so that skiing can be performed in the darkness that begins to fall at about 16:00 hours local time.. The illumination of the runs were intensified in January 2017. In December 2012, the operation rights were transferred from the Turkey Ski Federation to the Youth Services and Sports Directorate of Erzurum Province; the ski resort remained inactive. The ski resort's operation was transferred to the Erzurum Metropolitan Municipality in September 2016. 2011 Winter Universiade, 27 January – 6 February – snowboarding and freestyle skiing competitions. 2017 European Youth Olympic Winter Festival, 12 – 17 February – Alpine Skiing and snowboarding. Palandöken Kayak Merkezi

Drew County Courthouse

The Drew County Courthouse is located at 210 South Main Street in Monticello, Arkansas. The 3.5 story Classical Moderne building was designed by Arkansas architect H. Ray Burks and built in 1932, it is Drew County's fourth courthouse. It is an L-shaped building, topped by a flat tar roof, it consists of a central block, five bays wide, symmetrical flanking wings a single bay in width. The central section has a portico of six Ionic columns, which rise the full three and one half stories, are topped by a square pediment which reads "Drew County Courthouse" flanked by the date of construction; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. National Register of Historic Places listings in Drew County, Arkansas

Electoral district of Taylor

Taylor is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. This district is named after Doris Irene Taylor MBE, a leading force in the founding of Meals on Wheels, Labor activist. Taylor is a 318.7 km² semi-urban electorate in Adelaide's far northern suburbs and fringe farmland. A large portion of the district lives in its southern edges, corresponding to the northern fringes of Adelaide, it includes the suburbs and localities of Andrews Farm, Angle Vale, Buckland Park, Davoren Park, Edinburgh, Edinburgh North, Elizabeth North, Macdonald Park, Middle Beach, Penfield Gardens, Port Gawler, Smithfield Plains, Two Wells and Waterloo Corner. Taylor was created for the 1993 state election between the northern metropolitan seats of Ramsay and Goyder, was won by the defeated Labor Premier Lynn Arnold, he resigned in 1994, triggering a Taylor by-election which saw Trish White retain the seat for Labor. It is regarded as a safe Labor seat. ECSA profile for Taylor: 2018 ABC profile for Taylor: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Taylor: 2018

Metal spinning

Metal spinning known as spin forming or spinning or metal turning most is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part. Spinning can be performed by a CNC lathe. Metal spinning does not involve removal of material, as in conventional wood or metal turning, but forming of sheet material over an existing shape. Metal spinning ranges from an artisan's specialty to the most advantageous way to form round metal parts for commercial applications. Artisans use the process to produce architectural detail, specialty lighting, decorative household goods and urns. Commercial applications include rocket nose cones, gas cylinders, brass instrument bells, public waste receptacles. Any ductile metal may be formed, from aluminum or stainless steel, to high-strength, high-temperature alloys including INX, Grade 50 / Corten, Hastelloy; the diameter and depth of formed parts are limited only by the size of the equipment available. The spinning process is simple.

A formed block is mounted in the drive section of a lathe. A pre-sized metal disk is clamped against the block by a pressure pad, attached to the tailstock; the block and workpiece are rotated together at high speeds. A localized force is applied to the workpiece to cause it to flow over the block; the force is applied via various levered tools. Simple workpieces are just removed from the block, but more complex shapes may require a multi-piece block. Complex shapes can be spun over ice forms, which melt away after spinning; because the final diameter of the workpiece is always less than the starting diameter, the workpiece must thicken, elongate radially, or buckle circumferentially. A more involved process, known as reducing or necking, allows a spun workpiece to include reentrant geometries. If surface finish and form are not critical the workpiece is "spun on air". If the finish or form are critical an eccentrically mounted mandrel is used. "Hot spinning" involves spinning a piece of metal on a lathe while high heat from a torch is applied to the workpiece.

Once heated, the metal is shaped as the tool on the lathe presses against the heated surface forcing it to distort as it spins. Parts can be shaped or necked down to a smaller diameter with little force exerted, providing a seamless shoulder; the basic hand metal spinning tool is called a spoon, though many other tools can be used to effect varied results. Spinning tools can be made of hardened steel for use with aluminum, or from solid brass for spinning stainless steel or mild steel; some metal spinning tools are allowed to spin on bearings during the forming process. This reduces heating of the tool, extending tool life and improving surface finish. Rotating tools may be coated with thin film of ceramic to prolong tool life. Rotating tools are used during CNC metal spinning operations. Commercially, rollers mounted on the end of levers are used to form the material down to the mandrel in both hand spinning and CNC metal spinning. Rollers vary in thickness depending the intended use; the wider the roller the smoother the surface of the spinning.

Cutting of the metal is done by hand held cutters foot long hollow bars with tool steel shaped/sharpened files attached. In CNC applications, carbide or tool steel cut-off tools are used; the mandrel does not incur excessive forces, as found in other metalworking processes, so it can be made from wood, plastic, or ice. For hard materials or high volume use, the mandrel is made of metal. Several operations can be performed in one set-up. Work pieces may have re-entrant profiles and the profile in relation to the center line unrestricted. Forming parameters and part geometry can be altered at less cost than other metal forming techniques. Tooling and production costs are comparatively low. Spin forming done by hand, is automated and an effective production method for prototypes as well as high quantity production runs. Other methods of forming round metal parts include hydroforming, stamping and casting; these other methods have a higher fixed cost, but a lower variable cost than metal spinning. As machinery for commercial applications has improved, parts are being spun with thicker materials in excess of 1in thick steel.

Conventional spinning wastes a smaller amount of material than other methods. Objects can be built using one piece of material to produce parts without seams. Without seams, a part can withstand higher external pressure exerted on it. For example: scuba tanks and CO2 cartridges. One disadvantage of metal spinning is that if a crack forms or the object is dented, it must be scrapped. Repairing the object is not cost-effective. Curling Shear spinning Metal Spinning machines by DENN Innovative Metal Spinning by DMSDesignCo Metal Spinning Manufacturing Metal Spinning Applications Metal Spinning History

Natasha Wodak

Natasha Wodak is a Canadian long-distance runner. She competed in the 10,000 metres at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics in Beijing, placing 23rd. Wodak holds the national record in the 10,000m with a time of 31:41.59, set in Palo Alto in 2015. In July 2016, Wodak was named to the Canadian Olympic team for the upcoming Summer Olympic Games, where she finished 22nd. At the 2019 Pan American Games, Wodak won gold in the 10,000m with a time of 31:55.17, breaking the Games record by over 45 seconds. Outdoor 1500 metres - 4:15.27 5000 metres – 15:29.44 10,000 metres – 31:41.59 NR 10 kilometres – 31:59 20 kilometres – 1:07:41 Half marathon – 1:09:41 Marathon – 2:35:16 Indoor 3000 metres – 9:02.57 Official website Natasha Wodak at World Athletics