SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

IBM 3270

The IBM 3270 is a class of block oriented computer terminals introduced by IBM in 1971 used to communicate with IBM mainframes. The 3270 was the successor to the IBM 2260 display terminal. Due to the text colour on the original models, these terminals are informally known as green screen terminals. Unlike a character-oriented terminal, the 3270 minimizes the number of I/O interrupts required by transferring large blocks of data known as data streams, uses a high speed proprietary communications interface, using coaxial cable. IBM no longer manufactures 3270 terminals, but the IBM 3270 protocol is still used via 3270 terminal emulation or web interfaces to access mainframe-based applications, which are sometimes referred to as green screen applications; the 3270 series was designed to connect with mainframe computers at a remote location, using the technology available in the early 1970s. The main goal of the system was to maximize the number of terminals that could be used on a single mainframe.

To do this, the 3270 was designed to minimize the amount of data transmitted, minimize the frequency of interrupts to the mainframe. By ensuring the CPU is not interrupted at every keystroke, a 1970s-era IBM 3033 mainframe fitted with only 16 MB of main memory was able to support up to 17,500 3270 terminals under CICS. 3270 devices are clustered, with printers connected to a control unit. Devices were connected to the control unit over coaxial cable. A local control unit attaches directly to the channel of a nearby mainframe. A remote control unit is connected to a communications line by a modem. Remote 3270 controllers are multi-dropped, with multiple control units on a line. In a data stream, both text and control are interspersed allowing an entire screen to be "painted" as a single output operation; the concept of formatting in these devices allows the screen to be divided into fields for which numerous field attributes can be set. A field attribute occupies a physical location on the screen that determines the beginning and end of a field.

Using a technique known as "read modified", a single transmission back to the mainframe can contain the changes from any number of formatted fields that have been modified, but without sending any unmodified fields or static data. This technique enhances the terminal throughput of the CPU, minimizes the data transmitted; some users familiar with character interrupt-driven terminal interfaces find this technique unusual. There is a "read buffer" capability that transfers the entire content of the 3270-screen buffer including field attributes; this is used for debugging purposes to preserve the application program screen contents while replacing it, with debugging information. Early 3270s offered three types of keyboards; the typewriter keyboard came in both a 66 key version, with no programmed function keys, a 78 key version with twelve. Both versions had two program attention keys; the data entry keyboard had two PA keys. The operator console keyboard had two PA keys. 3270s had twenty-four PF keys and three PA keys.

When one of these keys is pressed, it will cause its control unit to generate an I/O interrupt to the host computer and present a special code identifying which key was pressed. Application program functions such as termination, page-up, page-down, or help can be invoked by a single key press, thereby reducing the load on busy processors. A downside to this approach was that vi-like behaviour, responding to individual keystrokes, was not possible. For the same reason, a porting of Lotus 1-2-3 to mainframes with 3279 screens did not meet with success because its programmers were not able to properly adapt the spreadsheet's user interface to a "screen at a time" rather than "character at a time" device, but end-user responsiveness was arguably more predictable with 3270, something users appreciated. Following its introduction the 3270 and compatibles were by far the most used terminals on IBM System/370 and successor systems. IBM and third-party software that included an interactive component took for granted the presence of 3270 terminals and provided a set of ISPF panels and supporting programs.

Conversational Monitor System in VM/SP has support for the 3270. Time Sharing Option in OS/360 and successors has line mode command line support and has facilities for full screen applications, e.g. ISPF. Device independent Display Operator Console Support in Multiple Console Support for OS/360 and successors; the SPF and Program Development Facility editors for MVS and VM/SP and XEDIT editors for VM/SP make extensive use of 3270 features. Customer Information Control System has support for 3270 panels. Various versions of Wylbur have support including support for full-screen applications; the modified data tag is well suited to converting formatted, structured punched card input onto the 3270 display device. With the appropriate programming, any batch program that uses formatted, structured card input can be layered onto a 3270 terminal. IBM's OfficeVision office productivity software enjoyed great success with 3270 interaction because of its design understanding, and for many years the PROFS calendar was the most displayed screen on office terminals around the world.

A version of the WordPerfect word processor ported to System/370 was

Austrian Americans

Austrian Americans are Americans of Austrian descent, chiefly German-speaking Catholics and Jews. According to the 2000 U. S. census, there were 735,128 Americans of full or partial Austrian descent, accounting for 0.3% of the population. The states with the largest Austrian American populations are New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio; this may be an undercount, as many German Americans, Czech Americans, Polish Americans, Slovak Americans, Ukrainian Americans, other Americans with Central European ancestry can trace their roots from the Habsburg territories of Austria, the Austrian Empire, or Cisleithania in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, regions which were major sources of immigrants to the United States before World War I, whose inhabitants assimilated into larger immigrant and ethnic communities throughout the United States. Before World War I, Austrian migration to United States was difficult to determine, as until 1918, it was only a small part of a multicultural empire. However, after the initial wave of settlers, Austrian immigration was low during the first half of the 19th century.

During this period, fewer than 1,000 Austrians emigrated to the United States. The Austrians who settled in Illinois and Iowa received religious education thanks to the arrival of 100 to 200 Catholic priests from Germany and Austria by The Leopoldine Stiftung, an Austrian foundation that funded those priests for the newly emigrated and the Native Americans, they monitored their religious education. Most of the emigrants were Tyroleans in search of land and people who fled the oppressive Metternich regime; the political refugees were anticlerical and against slavery. They were liberals and adapted to their new country; the immigration of Austrians increased during the second half of 19th century, reaching 275,000 by 1900. Many Austrians worked in the United States as miners and common laborers. Many Austrians settled in New York City and Chicago. Since 1880, when a mass emigration started from all over Europe, Austrians emigrated massively to the United States, looking for new agricultural land on which to work because as the Austrian Empire was undergoing industrialization, fields were being replaced by cities.

However, the same was happening in the western United States. Many of the immigrants came from Burgenland. From 1901 to 1910 alone, Austrians were one of the ten most significant immigrant groups in the United States, with more than 2.1 million Austrians. Scholarly research on this topic is growing, in the Journal of Austrian-American History and elsewhere. Most of these newly immigrated Austrians were left-wing, they found employment in Chicago Pennsylvania cement and steel factories. Many of them, more than 35 percent, returned to Austria with the savings that they had made by their employment. In 1914-1938, Austrian immigration was low, until it slowed to a trickle during the years of the Depression. From 1919 to 1924, fewer than 20,000 Austrians arrived in the United States, most of them from Burgenland. Laws restricting immigration to the US, imposed by the Austrian government, limited Austrian emigration further, reducing it to only 1,413 persons per year. However, in the late 1930s, a new Austrian wave of immigrants began arriving in the United States.

Most of them were Jews fleeing the Nazi persecution which started with the Annexation of Austria in 1938. In 1941, some 29,000 Jewish Austrians had emigrated to the United States. Most of them were doctors, lawyers and artists. Much between 1945 and 1960, some 40,000 Austrians entered the United States. Since the 1960s, Austrian immigration has been negligible because Austria is now a developed nation, where poverty and political oppression are scarce. According to the 1990 U. S. census, 948,558 people claimed be of Austrian descent. In the 19th century, a total of 4.2 million Austrians had immigrated to the United States. Austrian immigrants adapted to American society because the Austrian Empire had been a melting pot of many cultures and languages. On the other hand, despite the rejection that Austrians feel toward the behavior of the Germans, regarded by Austrians as less tolerant and cosmopolitan, they have suffered the same damages and discrimination that German immigrants have faced in United States.

They were considered by Americans to be the same because of both world wars. Most Austrian Americans speak American German. Most Austrians are Roman Catholic; the Austrian contribution in the 19th century in evangelizing Native Americans is remarkable. However, in the 19th century, Austrians had to work with Irish Catholic priests, who spoke English, to baptize the Natives and convert them to Catholicism. Thus, the Leopoldine Society sent money and priests to North America and led to the creation of over 400 churches on the East Coast, in the Midwest, in the "Indian Country," farther west, it was prominent in cities such as in Cincinnati and St. Louis; the Benedictines and Franciscans built thousands of congregations. However, the expansion of Catholicism conducted by Austrian priests caused a rejection of American society, as it could alter the religious balance in the country. Therefore, for a long time, Austrians once again had to struggle to adapt to American life; the 20th century reduced the religiosity of the average Austrian American, as other Americans.

The emigration of other religious groups from A

Katya Chilly

Kateryna Petrivna Kondratenko, known professionally as Katya Chilly, is a Ukrainian singer and songwriter. Her style is a fusion of world and new-age music. Katya Chilly's debut album Rusalki in da House was released in 1998, she started preparing material for the album in 1996 when she changed her stage name to Katya Chilly. She became popular in Ukraine after Chervona Ruta when she toured all over the country with its participants. In 1999, Katya Chilly took part in the Scotland Edinburgh Festival Fringe. In March 2001, she performed at more than 40 concerts in the United Kingdom. A part of her performance was broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation throughout the country. In 2000, Katya started working on her second album Son, it was planned to be released in 2002 but the project was cancelled. However, this album has been informally distributed on the Internet. Katya's single "Pivni", in collaboration with Ukrainian Records/Andrey Dakhovsky, was released in June 2005, it included remixes made by prominent Ukrainian DJs.

Katya Chilly released her next album eight years after her first. On 10 March 2006 Ukrainian Records released Ya Molodaya. In October 2007, Katya visited seven Ukrainian cities. MTV's Ukrainian website announced that the fourth album, Prosto Sertse, would be released in October 2007. However, in an interview for galainfo.com.ua, Katya stated that the release would be postponed until 2008. It remains unreleased. In 2017, she participated in the seventh season of The Voice of Ukraine. In 2020 she participated in the Ukrainian National Selection for Eurovision Song Contest 2020 With the song “Pich” but she did not qualify for the final. 1998 - Rusalki in da House 2002 - Son 2006 - Ya – Molodaya|Ya Molodaya 2008 - Prosto Sertse Official website Katya Chilly page at myspace Katya Chilly community at livejournal Katya Chilly interview with Ukraina Moloda Katya Chilly - "U Zemli"