IBM 704

The IBM 704, introduced by IBM in 1954, is the first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware. The IBM 704 Manual of operation states: The type 704 Electronic Data-Processing Machine is a large-scale, high-speed electronic calculator controlled by an internally stored program of the single address type; the 704 at that time was thus regarded as "pretty much the only computer that could handle complex math." The 704 was a significant improvement over the earlier IBM 701 in terms of architecture and implementation. Like the 701, the 704 uses vacuum tube logic circuitry and 36-bit binary words. Changes from the 701 include the use of core memory instead of Williams tubes, floating-point arithmetic instructions, 15-bit addressing and the addition of three index registers. To support these new features, the instructions were expanded to use the full 36-bit word; the new instruction set, not compatible with the 701, became the base for the "scientific architecture" subclass of the IBM 700/7000 series computers.

The 704 can execute up to 12,000 floating-point additions per second. IBM sold 123 type 704 systems between 1955 and 1960; the programming languages FORTRAN and LISP were first developed for the 704, as was the SAP assembler—Symbolic Assembly Program distributed by SHARE as SHARE Assembly Program. MUSIC, the first computer music program, was developed on the IBM 704 by Max Mathews. In 1962 physicist John Larry Kelly, Jr created one of the most famous moments in the history of Bell Labs by using an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer vocoder recreated the song Daisy Bell, with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews. Arthur C. Clarke was coincidentally visiting friend and colleague John Pierce at the Bell Labs Murray Hill facility at the time of this speech synthesis demonstration, Clarke was so impressed that six years he used it in the climactic scene of his novel and screenplay for 2001: A Space Odyssey, where the HAL 9000 computer sings the same song. Edward O. Thorp, a math instructor at MIT, used the IBM 704 as a research tool to investigate the probabilities of winning while developing his blackjack gaming theory.

He used FORTRAN to formulate the equations of his research model. The IBM 704 at the MIT Computation Center was used as the official tracker for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Operation Moonwatch in the fall of 1957. IBM provided four staff scientists to aid Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory scientists and mathematicians in the calculation of satellite orbits: Dr. Giampiero Rossoni, Dr. John Greenstadt, Thomas Apple and Richard Hatch; the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory developed an early monitor named SLAM to enable batch processing. The IBM 704 has a 38-bit accumulator, a 36-bit multiplier quotient register, three 15-bit index registers; the contents of the index registers are subtracted from the base address, so the index registers are called "decrement registers". All three index registers can participate in an instruction: the three-bit tag field in the instruction is a bit map specifying which of the registers participate in the operation. However, when more than one index register is selected their contents are or'ed – not added – together before the decrement takes place.

This behavior persisted in scientific architecture machines until the IBM 7094. The IBM 7094, introduced in 1962, increased the number of index registers to seven and only selected one at a time. There are two instruction formats, referred to as "Type A" and "Type B". Most instructions were of type B. Type A instructions have, in sequence, a 3-bit prefix, a 15-bit decrement field, a 3-bit tag field, a 15-bit address field. There are conditional jump operations based on the values in the index registers specified in the tag field; some instructions subtract the decrement field from the contents of the index registers. The implementation requires that the second two bits of the instruction code be non-zero, giving a total of six possible type A instructions. One was not implemented until the IBM 709. Type B instructions have, in sequence, a 12-bit instruction code, a 2-bit flag field, four unused bits, a 3-bit tag field, a 15-bit address field. Fixed point numbers are stored in binary sign/magnitude format.

Single precision floating point numbers have a magnitude sign, an 8-bit excess-128 exponent and a 27-bit magnitude Alphanumeric characters were 6-bit BCD, packed six to a word. The instruction set implicitly subdivides the data format into the same fields as type A instructions: prefix, decrement and address. Instructions exist to modify each of these fields in a data word without changing the remainder of the word though the Store Tag instruction was not implemented on the IBM 704; the original implementation of Lisp uses the address and decrement fields to store the head and tail of a linked list. The primitive functions car and cdr were named after these fields. Controls are included in the 704 for: one 711 Punched Card Reader, one 716 Alphabetic Printer, one 721 Punched Card Recorder, five 727 Magnetic Tape Units and one 753 Tape Control Unit, one 733 Magnetic Drum Reader and Recorder, one 737 Magnetic Core Storage Unit. Weight: about 19,466 pounds; the 704 itself came with a control console which has 36 assorted control switches or buttons and 36 data input switches, one for each bit in a register.

The control console allows only setting

List of rulers of Galicia and Volhynia

List of rulers of Halychyna and its sister principality Volhynia. They were separate principalities until Roman the Great, Prince of Volhynia who conquered Halych but gave it to his son, they continued as separate states, but within the same dynasty and under vassalage to Knyaz of Halych until Lev, who annexed Volhynia to the principality. The royal crown lapsed and rulers dukes after Andriy Yuriyovych. Boris Vladimirovich Vsevolod I 987–? - brother of Boris Sviatoslav I 1036–1054 - ruler of Kievan Rus' Igor Yaroslavich, 1054–1056 Rostislav I 1056–1064 - ruler of Tmutarakan. Oleg I 1075–1076 - ruler of Chernigov. Yaropolk I Iziaslavich 1078–1087 David Igorevich 1087–1099 Mstislav I Sviatopolkovich 1099 Yaroslav 1100–1118 - brother of Mstislav I. Roman I Vladimirovich 1118–1119 Andrew I 1119–1135 - brother of Roman I. Iziaslav I Mstislavich 1135–1141 Sviatoslav II 1141–1146 - ruler of Kiev. Vladimir I Andriyovich 1146–1149 Sviatopolk Mstislavich 1149 Iziaslav II 1149–1151 - brother of Sviatopolk.

Sviatopolk Mstislavich 1151–1154 Vladimir II Mstislavich 1154–1157 Mstislav II 1157–1170 - ruler of Kiev. Sviatoslav III Mstislavich 1170–1173 Roman II the Great 1173–1188 Vsevolod II Mstislavich 1188 Roman II the Great 1188–1199 - ruler of Kiev Between 1199 and 1205: annexed by the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia Sviatoslav IV Igorevych 1206–1207 Alexander Vsevolodovich 1208, 1209–1215 Between 1215 and 1238: annexed by the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia Vasilko Romanovich 1238–1269 Vladimir III Ivan Vasilkovich 1269–1288 Mstislav III Danilovich 1288–1292 In 1293, Lev I centered all the power of the kingdom in his own hands, the principality ceased to exist. Volodar Rostislavich of Tmutarakan?–1084 Vasilko Romanovich 1084–? Yuriy Vasilkovich? Igor-Ivan Rostislavich?–1141 Vladimir I Volodarovich 1141–1153 Yaroslav Osmomysl 1153–1187 Oleg Yaroslavich 1187 Vladimir II Yaroslavych 1187–1189 Oleg Yaroslavich 1188 Roman the Great 1188 Andrew I 1188–1190 Vladimir II Yaroslavych 1190–1199 Between 1199 and 1206: annexed by the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia Vladimir III Igorevich 1206–1208 Roman II Ihorevych 1208–1210 Vladimir III Igorevich 1211Between 1211 and 1213: annexed by the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia Vladislav 1213 Coloman of Galicia-Lodomeria and Salomea of Poland 1213-1219 Andrew 1220–1221 Mstislav the Bold 1219–1228Between 1228 and 1264: annexed by the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia Svarn 1264–1269 In 1293, Lev I centered all the power of the kingdom in his own hands, the principality ceased to exist.

In 1399, Galicia-Volhynia merged in the Kingdom of Poland. Rulers of Kievan Rus' List of Ukrainian rulers List of Belarusian rulers Historical notes about political history of principality of Galicia - Volhynia - Королівство Русі: реальність і міфи

Illyricum sacrum

Illyricum sacrum is a multi-volume historical work written in Latin dealing with history of the Catholic Church in the Balkans. The work was published in eight volumes in the period 1751-1819, with the ninth tome printed in the period 1902-1919 as an appendix to Frane Bulić's Bulletino di archeologia e storia dalmata; the first five volumes were authored by Daniele Farlati. Volume I - Ecclesia Salonitana, ab ejus exordio usque ad saeculum quastum aerae Christianae Volume II - Ecclesia Salonitana, a quarto saeculo aerae Christianae usque ad excidium Salonae Volume III - Ecclesia Spalatensis olim Salonitana Volume IV - Ecclesiae suffraganeae metropolis Spalatensis Volume V - Ecclesia Jadertina cum suffraganeis, et ecclesia Zagabriensis Volume VI - Ecclesia Ragusina cum suffraganeis, et ecclesia Rhiziniensis et Catharensis Volume VII - Ecclesia Diocletana, Dyrrhachiensis, et Sirmiensis cum earum suffraganeis Volume VIII - Ecclesiae Scopiensis, Marcianopolitana, Achridensis et Ternobensis cum earum suffraganeis Accessiones et correctiones all'Illyricum sacrum del P. D. Farlati