AIX is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms. Released for the IBM RT PC RISC workstation, AIX now supports or has supported a wide variety of hardware platforms, including the IBM RS/6000 series and POWER and PowerPC-based systems, IBM System i, System/370 mainframes, PS/2 personal computers, the Apple Network Server. AIX is based on UNIX System V with 4.3BSD-compatible extensions. It is one of five commercial operating systems that have versions certified to The Open Group's UNIX 03 standard; the AIX family of operating systems debuted in 1986, became the standard operating system for the RS/6000 series on its launch in 1990, is still developed by IBM. It is supported on IBM Power Systems alongside IBM i and Linux. AIX was the first operating system to have a journaling file system, IBM has continuously enhanced the software with features such as processor and network virtualization, dynamic hardware resource allocation, reliability engineering ported from its mainframe designs.
Unix started life at AT&T's Bell Labs research center in the early 1970s, running on DEC minicomputers. By 1976, the operating system was in use at various academic institutions, including Princeton, where Tom Lyon and others ported it to the S/370, to run as a guest OS under VM/370; this port would grow out to become UTS, a mainframe Unix offering by IBM's competitor Amdahl Corporation. IBM's own involvement in Unix can be dated to 1979, when it assisted Bell Labs in doing its own Unix port to the 370. In the process, IBM made modifications to the TSS/370 hypervisor to better support Unix, it took until 1985 for IBM to offer its own Unix on the S/370 platform, IX/370, developed by Interactive Systems Corporation and intended by IBM to compete with Amdahl UTS. The operating system offered special facilities for interoperating with PC/IX, Interactive/IBM's version of Unix for IBM PC compatible hardware, was licensed at $10,000 per sixteen concurrent users. AIX Version 1, introduced in 1986 for the IBM RT PC workstation, was based on UNIX System V Releases 1 and 2.
In developing AIX, IBM and Interactive Systems Corporation incorporated source code from 4.2 and 4.3 BSD UNIX. Among other variants, IBM produced AIX Version 3, based on System V Release 3, for their POWER-based RS/6000 platform. Since 1990, AIX has served as the primary operating system for the RS/6000 series. AIX Version 4, introduced in 1994, added symmetric multiprocessing with the introduction of the first RS/6000 SMP servers and continued to evolve through the 1990s, culminating with AIX 4.3.3 in 1999. Version 4.1, in a modified form, was the standard operating system for the Apple Network Server systems sold by Apple Computer to complement the Macintosh line. In the late 1990s, under Project Monterey, IBM and the Santa Cruz Operation planned to integrate AIX and UnixWare into a single 32-bit/64-bit multiplatform UNIX with particular emphasis on running on Intel IA-64 architecture CPUs. A beta test version of AIX 5L for IA-64 systems was released, but according to documents released in the SCO v. IBM lawsuit, less than forty licenses for the finished Monterey Unix were sold before the project was terminated in 2002.
In 2003, the SCO Group alleged that IBM had misappropriated licensed source code from UNIX System V Release 4 for incorporation into AIX. IBM maintains that their license was irrevocable, continued to sell and support the product until the litigation was adjudicated. AIX was a component of the 2003 SCO v. IBM lawsuit, in which the SCO Group filed a lawsuit against IBM, alleging IBM contributed SCO's intellectual property to the Linux codebase; the SCO Group, who argued they were the rightful owners of the copyrights covering the Unix operating system, attempted to revoke IBM's license to sell or distribute the AIX operating system. In March 2010, a jury returned a verdict finding that Novell, not the SCO Group, owns the rights to Unix. AIX 6 was announced in May 2007, it ran as an open beta from June 2007 until the general availability of AIX 6.1 on November 9, 2007. Major new features in AIX 6.1 included full role-based access control, workload partitions, enhanced security, Live Partition Mobility on the POWER6 hardware.
AIX 7.1 was announced in April 2010, an open beta ran until general availability of AIX 7.1 in September 2010. Several new features, including better scalability, enhanced clustering and management capabilities were added. AIX 7.1 includes a new built-in clustering capability called Cluster Aware AIX. AIX is able to organize multiple LPARs through the multipath communications channel to neighboring CPUs, enabling high-speed communication between processors; this enables multi-terabyte memory address range and page table access to support global petabyte shared memory space for AIX POWER7 clusters so that software developers can program a cluster as if it were a single system, without using message passing. AIX administrators can use this new capability to cluster a pool of AIX nodes. By default, AIX V7.1 pins kernel memory and includes support to allow applications to pin their kernel stack. Pinning kernel memory and the kernel stack for ap
Blade is the soundtrack to the 1998 film, Blade. It was released on August 25, 1998 through TVT Records and Epic Records and featured a wide range of musical genres including hip hop, techno and alternative rock. Instrumental film score by Mark Isham was released on September 1998 through Varèse Sarabande; the soundtrack managed to make it to #36 on the Billboard 200 and #28 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums and featured one charting single "Wrek Tha Discotek" which peaked at #42 on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart. The fourth singles of "Wrek Tha Discotek", "Reservations", "Deadly Zone" and "1/2 & 1/2"; the album was certified Gold by the RIAA on May 1999 for sales of over 500,000 copies. All music is composed by Mark Isham. Isham's score won the 1999 ASCAP Film and Television Music Award in the category "Top Box Office Films"
Jugend Rettet is a non-governmental organization from Berlin. Its goal is to save drowning persons at the Mediterranean Sea. Operations are conducted with a ship that sails under Dutch flag; this ship was seized in August 2017 after suspicion of cooperation with migrant smugglers. The organization is divided into three divisions. First there is the Iuventa crew; the name Iuventa originates from the Roman god of courage. Second, there is a department to encourage political awareness of certain issues. Third, there is a discussion platform for the right of asylum. During a session of the Italian parliament on 10 May 2017, a prosecutor accused Jugend Rettet of working together with migrant smugglers. Jugend Rettet denied the allegations; the organization Frontex criticized the behaviour of NGOs at the Libyan coast waters, reproached them unwillingness to cooperate with the official organizations. In August 2017, Jugend Rettet refused to sign the code of conduct for NGOs set up by the Italian government.
The Iuventa is a former 32.92-meter fishing vessel built in 1962 at the shipyard Scheepswerf Vooruit in Zaandam. Named Maria, named Waterman II in 1969 Jonas in 1971, the ship was used for fishing. In 1990, it was converted into an offshore support ship, now named Telco Suez, it was renamed Alk Explorer. In 2016, the ship became property of the Jugend Rettet group, was rebuilt for rescuing purposes under the new name Iuventa. In 2016 and 2017 it operated in the Mediterranean Sea assisting shipwrecked refugees and economic migrants. On 10 June 2018, the Biografilm Festival in Bologna, introduced Michele Cinque's 86-minute cinema documentary Iuventa about the ship and its missions, filmed between 2016 and 2017. On 10 May 2019 the crew of the Iuventa was honored by the Swiss Paul Grüninger Foundation with a human rights award for saving the lives of around 14000 people in the central Mediterranean Sea. On 2 August 2017 the public prosecutor of the Italian municipality of Trapani seized the Iuventa on allegation of cooperation with migrant smugglers and the encouraging of illegal immigration.
The confiscation was preceded by a year of investigations by the Italian police. The prosecutor produced witness reports, photo material, video material and sound recordings which should prove that the organization had not tried to rescue people, but taken over illegal immigrants at calm sea; the unimpaired vessels of the migrant smugglers subsequently would cruise back. However, presented at the Manifesta 12 in Palermo, Italy, a Goldsmiths, University of London-based Forensic Oceanography and Forensic Architecture team of researchers came to the conclusion that the crew of the Iuventa neither communicated with nor returned empty boats back to the traffickers. Jugend Rettet disputed the seizing, but on 23 April 2018 the supreme court of Italy confirmed the decision of the court in Trapani that the vessel stays seized awaiting further investigations. In July 2018, investigations were started against some members of Jugend Rettet, including the ship's captain, Pia Klemp, they could face up to 20 years in prison.
Karrasch, Tanja, ed.. "Tödliches Mittelmeer - Unterwegs mit freiwilligen Helfern". RP Online. Retrieved 2019-07-09. Behrendt, Carsten, ed.. "iuventa – Unterwegs mit Flüchtlingsrettern auf dem Mittelmeer". ZDF. Retrieved 2019-07-09