click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

IBM Personal Computer XT

The IBM Personal Computer XT shortened to the IBM XT, PC XT, or XT, is a version of the IBM PC with a built-in hard drive. It was released as IBM Machine Type number 5160 on March 8, 1983. Apart from the hard drive, it was the same as the original PC, with only minor improvements; the XT was intended as an enhanced IBM PC for business users. Floppy-only models would replace the original model 5150 PC. A corresponding 3270 PC featuring 3270 terminal emulation was released in October 1983. XT stands for eXtended Technology; the IBM Personal Computer XT came with 128 KB of RAM, a 360 KB double-sided 5¼ inch floppy disk drive, a 10 MB Seagate ST-412 hard drive with Xebec 1210 Modified Frequency Modulation controller, an Asynchronous Adapter, a 130-watt power supply. The motherboard had an Intel 8088 microprocessor running at 4.77 MHz, with a socket for an optional 8087 math coprocessor. IBM recognized soon after the IBM PC's release in 1981 that its five 8-bit "I/O channel" expansion slots were insufficient.

An internal IBM publication stated in October 1981 about the number that "In my opinion, it could be a problem", reporting that others within IBM advised swapping cards if necessary. InfoWorld observed in 1985 that "by the time you've installed all the'extras', which are necessities, you're lucky if you have one slot left open"; when IBM announced a successor product to the PC in early 1983, initial speculations were that it would be a next-generation machine based on the Intel 8086 or include other advanced features. When the XT was unveiled however, there was mild disappointment that the new machine was an incremental improvement of the PC based on the same 8088 CPU and would in fact not replace it at all. A BYTE Magazine article commented that "DOS 2.0 is more revolutionary and advanced than the computer itself." A Seagate ST-412 hard disk was standard equipment, the XT was not offered in a floppy-only model for its first two years on the market, although the standard ribbon cable with two floppy connectors was still included.

The only way to purchase an XT with factory-installed dual floppy drives was if the user bought the optional 5161 expansion chassis and placed the hard disk in that, which in effect amounted to purchasing two hard disks as the 5161 came with one standard. Unlike many hard disk systems on microcomputers at the time, the XT was able to boot directly off the drive and did not require a boot floppy. Aside from the hard disk, a serial port card was standard equipment on the XT, all other cards being optional. By the end of 1983, the XT was neck-and-neck with the original PC for sales and IBM were selling every one that they made; the XT had eight slots. Two were behind the floppy drive, shorter than the original PC's slots; the other six fit into the same space as the original PC's five slots. Most PC cards would not fit into the two short slots, some would not fit into the six standard-length, but narrower, slots cards with double boards on them; the floppy and hard drive adapters, the serial port card, nearly always a display adapter board occupied slots.

The basic specification was soon upgraded to have 256 KB of RAM as standard. Expansion slots could be used for memory expansion. Available Video cards were the Monochrome Display Adapter and Color Graphics Adapter, with Enhanced Graphics Adapter and Professional Graphics Controller becoming available in 1984; the XT had a desktop case similar to that of the IBM PC. It weighed 32 pounds and was 19.5 inches wide by 16 inches deep by 5.5 inches high. The power supply of the original XT sold in the US was configured for 120 V AC only and could not be used with 240 V mains supplies. XTs with 240 V-compatible power supplies were sold in international markets. Both were rated at 130 watts; the operating system sold with the XT was PC DOS 2.0 or, by the time the XT was discontinued in early 1987, DOS 3.2. Like the original PC, the XT came with IBM BASIC in its ROM. Despite the lack of a cassette port on XTs, IBM's licensing agreement with Microsoft forced them to include BASIC on all their PCs, the BASICA program, included with DOS depended on the BASIC ROM.

The XT BIOS displayed a memory count during the POST, unlike the PC. The XT was discontinued in the spring of 1987, replaced by the PS/2 Model 30. XT motherboards came in two different versions; the original had 64 KB of 4164 RAM socketed on it with further sockets to support up to 256 KB and any more RAM had to be put on an expansion card, of which the AST Research Six Pak was the most widespread and popular. XTs produced in 1983-84 shipped in 1985, 256k; the second version had 256 KB socketed on it and could accommodate the entire 640 KB. XTs used 4164 DRAMs only for the first 256k and the remainder of system memory consisted of larger 41256 DRAMs; as a result, it took only 44 RAM chips to reach 640 kB versus the 80 chips needed on the original model XT. There were two or three revisions of the motherboard with minor differences between them; the first version incorporates a 470 ohm resistor to fix a race condition between the CPU and

Legal status of psilocybin mushrooms

The legal status of unauthorised actions with psilocybin mushrooms varies worldwide. Psilocybin and psilocin are listed as Schedule I drugs under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Schedule I drugs are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse or drugs that have no recognized medical uses. However, psilocybin mushrooms have had numerous medicinal and religious uses in dozens of cultures throughout history and have a lower potential for abuse than other Schedule I drugs. Psilocybin mushrooms are not regulated by UN treaties. From a letter, dated 13 September 2001, from Herbert Schaepe, Secretary of the UN International Narcotics Control Board, to the Dutch Ministry of Health: As you are aware, mushrooms containing the above substances are collected and used for their hallucinogenic effects; as a matter of international law, no plants containing psilocine and psilocybin are at present controlled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Preparations made of these plants are not under international control and, not subject of the articles of the 1971 Convention.

Criminal cases are decided with reference to domestic law, which may otherwise provide for controls over mushrooms containing psilocine and psilocybin. As the Board can only speak as to the contours of the international drug conventions, I am unable to provide an opinion on the litigation in question. Many countries, have some level of regulation or prohibition of psilocybin mushrooms; the prohibition of psilocybin mushrooms has come under criticism, from the general public and from researchers who see therapeutic potential with regard to drug addictions and other mental instabilities, such as PTSD, anxiety and depression. Among regulated drugs, psilocybin mushrooms have few medical risks. In many national and provincial drug laws, there is a great deal of ambiguity about the legal status of psilocybin mushrooms, as well as a strong element of selective enforcement in some places, since psilocybin and psilocin are deemed illegal to possess without license as substances, but mushrooms themselves are not mentioned in these laws.

The legal status of Psilocybe spores is more ambiguous, as the spores contain neither psilocybin nor psilocin, hence are not illegal to sell or possess in many jurisdictions, though many jurisdictions will prosecute under broader laws prohibiting items that are used in drug manufacture. A few jurisdictions have prohibited the sale and possession of psilocybin mushroom spores. Cultivation of psilocybin mushrooms is considered drug manufacture in most jurisdictions and is severely penalized, though some countries and one US state has ruled that growing psilocybin mushrooms does not qualify as "manufacturing" a controlled substance. International Legal Status of Psilocybin Mushrooms Ananda Schouten, 2004

Bavarian pine vole

The Bavarian pine vole is a vole from the Austrian and Bavarian Alps of Europe. It lives in moist meadows at elevations of 600 to 1,000 meters. There are 23 museum specimens of this species; this rodent was known to live in only one location, Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, altered by the construction of a hospital in the 1980s. No specimens of this rodent were recorded after 1962 and it was thought to be extinct. However, a population belonging to this species was discovered in 2000 in Northern Tyrol, just across the German-Austrian border. An Austrian scientist, Friederike Spitzenberger, stumbled upon the species in a live trap, its species status was confirmed by genetic studies, it was found to be closely related to Liechtenstein's vole from the Eastern Alps. Further research is required to determine the size and range of the population and the species has been re-assessed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN. Lazarus taxon Spitzenberger, F.. "Microtus bavaricus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

IUCN. 2008: e. T13461A3985949. Doi:10.2305/IUCN. UK.2008. RLTS. T13461A3985949.en. Database entry includes justification for why this species is listed as critically endangered.'A Gap in Nature' by Tim Flannery and Peter Schouten, published by William Heinemann Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. Pp. 894–1531 in Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore; the Extinction Website, published by Peter Maas IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Microtus bavaricus

Joseph Victor von Scheffel

Joseph Victor von Scheffel was a German poet and novelist. He was born at Karlsruhe, his father, a retired major in the Baden army, was a civil engineer and member of the commission for regulating the course of the Rhine. Young Scheffel was educated at the lyceum at Karlsruhe and afterwards at the universities of Munich and Berlin. After passing the state examination for admission to the judicial service, he graduated Doctor juris and for four years held an official position at the town of Säckingen. Here he wrote his poem Der Trompeter von Säckingen, a romantic and humorous tale which gained extraordinary popularity, it has reached more than 250 editions and was made into an opera by Viktor Nessler in 1884. Scheffel next undertook a journey to Italy. Returning home in 1853 he found his parents more than anxious that he should continue his legal career, but in 1854, defective eyesight incapacitated him. His studies were, interrupted by eye disease, in search of health he proceeded to Switzerland and took up his abode on the Lake of Constance, elaborated the plan of his famous historical romance Ekkehard.

The first ideas for this work. It was hardly less popular than the Trompeter von Säckingen. In 1901 it reached the 179th edition. Scheffel next returned to Heidelberg, published Gaudeamus, Lieder aus dem Engeren und Weiteren, a collection of joyous and humorous songs, the subject- matter of, taken from German legends and from historical subjects. In these songs the author shows himself a friend of wine and song. One example is Im schwarzen Walfisch zu Askalon, the lyrics reflect an endorsement of the bacchanalian mayhem of student life; the song describes an'old assyrian' drinking binge with some references to the Classics. The large invoice is being provided in cuneiform on six brick stones; however the carouser has to admit that he left his money in Nineves' Lamb inn and gets kicked out. In typical manner of Scheffel, it contains an anachronistic mixture of various times and eras, parodistic notions on current science, as e.g. Historical criticism. There are various additional verses, including political parody and verses mocking different sorts of fraternities or one just and only one for mathematics.

The song has been used as name for e.g. in Heidelberg. Scheffel however had some melancholic notions as well, as for the unsuccessful German revolution of 1848 and his personal disappointment in vowing for the love of his live, Emma Heim, 1851 had him disappointed as well, he used natural science to mock the political environment, as he mocked Hegel with his Guano poem or referred to the course of time in his Ichthyosaurus poem. Indirectly, Scheffel coined the expression Biedermeier for the pre 1848 age, as two of Scheffel poems Biedermanns Abendgemütlichkeit and Bummelmaiers Klage, based on the poetry of teacher and poet Samuel Friedrich Sauter, published 1848, were used in satires about the reactionary petty bourgeois. For two years Scheffel was custodian of the library of Prince Egon von Fürstenberg at Donaueschingen, but giving up his appointment in 1850, visited Joseph von Laßberg, at Meersburg on the Lake of Constance, stayed for a while with the grand duke Charles Alexander of Saxe-Weimar at the Wartburg in Thuringia settling at Karlsruhe, he married in 1864 Caroline von Malzen, and, in 1872, retired to his Villa Seehalde near Radolfzell on the lower Lake of Constance.

On the occasion of his jubilee, celebrated all over Germany, he was granted a patent of hereditary nobility by the grand duke of Baden. He died at Karlsruhe on 9 April 1886. 1891 Joseph Stöckle founded the Scheffelbund in Schwetzingen, the largest literary society in Germany with about 7.000 members. The Scheffelprize is dedicated to excellent pupils. There are various Scheffel memorials and place names; the Scheffel Archive is at the Scheffelbund and in Badischen Landesbibliothek. His works, other than those mentioned, are: Frau Aventiure. Lieder aus Heinrich von Ofterdingens Zeit Juniperus, Geschichte eines Kreuzfahrers Bergpsalmen Waldeinsamkeit Der Heini von Steier Hugideo, eine alte Geschichte Volumes of Reisebilder. Scheffel's Gesammelte Werke have been published in six volumes. Ekkehard. A tale of the tenth century. Translated from the German by Sofie Delffs. In: German Authors. Collection of German Authors. Vol. 21, 22. 1867. Charles Godfrey Leland, Gaudeamus! Humorous Poems by Ebook-Nr. 35848 on gutenberg.org This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Scheffel, Joseph Viktor von". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this article in turn cites: A. Ruhemann: Joseph Victor von Scheffel G. Zernin: Erinnerungen an Joseph Victor von Scheffel J. Proelß: Scheffels Leben und Dichten L. von Kobell: Scheffel und seine Frau E. Boerschel: J. V. von Scheffel und Emma Heim. A

Doriprismatica sedna

Doriprismatica sedna is a species of colorful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Chromodorididae. This species was placed in the genus Glossodoris Ehrenberg, 1831, but it was transferred to genus Doriprismatica by Johnson & Gosliner in 2012 on the basis of molecular results. Described from the Eastern Pacific, records from the Caribbean are considered the result of a recent introduction human-introduced; the indigenous distribution of Doriprismatica sedna includes Eastern Pacific: from the Gulf of California to the Galapagos Islands and non-indigenous in Western Atlantic: Florida, Belize and Panama. The body is oval and the mantle margin is ruffled; the foot and mantle of this seaslug have three different colours at the border: white and yellow on the outer border. Background colour is white with two coloured bands bordering the mantle. Upper half of the rhinophoral clubs and tips of the branchial leaves of the gill are red, it is up to 65 mm long. This species was found on mangrove roots covered with sponges in Panama.

The minimum recorded depth for this species is 1 m. The diet of Doriprismatica sedna was studied by Verdín Padilla et al. on the Pacific coast of Mexico. By examining the stomach content and feces, they found that this species feeds on spiculated demosponges and exhibits a variable diet, which includes 17 different species: Mycale psila, Microciona sp. Myxilla incrustans, Lissodendoryx isodictialis, Haliclona caerulea, Haliclona turquoisia, Callyspongia californica, Cliona californiana, Cliona amplicavata, Cliona flavifodina, Cliona papillae, Pione mazatlanensis, Pione carpenteri, Tethya taboga, Aaptos niger, Geodia media and Dysidea uriae; this article incorporates Creative Commons text from the reference Photos of Doriprismatica sedna on Sealife Collection

South African Class 16DA 4-6-2 1928

The South African Railways Class 16DA 4-6-2 of 1928 was a steam locomotive. In 1928, the South African Railways placed six Class 16DA steam locomotives with a 4-6-2 Pacific type wheel arrangement in passenger train service. Eight more entered service in 1929. Further orders for locomotives similar to the Class 16D Pacific type locomotive were placed for the South African Railways in 1928; the design of the earlier engines was modified by the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Colonel F. R. Collins DSO, along the same lines as his design of the Class 15CA Mountain type; this consisted of a locomotive bar frame, shorter to end at the front of the firebox, with a bridle casting to create a widened frame extension below the firebox and the cab to the rear dragbox to gain more ashpan room under the firebox. These redesigned locomotives were designated Class 16DA and were built by two manufacturers in 1928 and 1929; the first six, numbered in the range from 868 to 873, were built in Germany by Hohenzollern Locomotive Works and entered service in 1928.

Another eight locomotives, numbered in the range from 843 to 850, were built in the United States of America by Baldwin Locomotive Works and entered service in 1929. The Hohenzollern and Baldwin-built Class 16DA locomotives differed from the predecessor Class 16D only by virtue of its shortened frame and bridle casting, the Class 16D having had a frame extending all the way from the front buffer beam to the rear dragbox, they used the same Type KT tenders with a coal capacity of 14 long tons and a water capacity of 6,000 imperial gallons. As delivered, they had 60 inches diameter coupled wheels and their cylinders were of 22 inches bore and 26 inches stroke, their boiler operating pressure was set at 195 pounds per square inch. During the 1940s six of these locomotives, three from each manufacturer group, were retyred with 63 inches diameter tyres on their coupled wheels. To not have their tractive effort reduced by the larger coupled wheels, their cylinders were reamed from a bore of 22 to 23 inches and their operating boiler pressure was raised to 205 pounds per square inch.

All the modified locomotives remained classified as Class 16DA. When the larger tyres were fitted, the old tyres were left in position and turned down on the wheel centres to serve as liners and the new tyres were shrunk on over the liners; the practice of increasing the diameter of coupled wheels, wheel spacing and other considerations permitting, was begun by A. G. Watson was continued by his successors; the reduction of tractive effort caused by the larger wheels was made up by increasing boiler pressures or by fitting larger cylinders or both, as required. This policy resulted in more mileage between heavy repairs, less cost-per-mile on repairs and locomotives capable of higher speeds; the Class 16DA Pacifics were placed in passenger service between Johannesburg and Kimberley where they worked trains like the Union Express and Union Limited, which became the Blue Train after the Second World War. From 1930 the new Henschel-built wide-firebox Class 16DA took over this duty. In 1939-1940, when new air-conditioned rolling stock was placed in service on the Union Limited and Union Express services between Cape Town and Johannesburg, all the Class 16DA and Class 16E locomotives were transferred to Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State.

From here, they continued to work passenger trains north and south, including the Orange Express, until the Class 15F replaced them and they were relegated to suburban and local passenger train work. By the early 1950s, the suburban trains to Lynchfield and Melorane were handled by narrow-firebox Class 16DA locomotives which only worked mainline passenger trains by then, they were withdrawn from service in 1973. Four of the Baldwin-built locomotives were sold into industrial service. No. 844 went to Hlobane Colliery in Natal and to Umgala Colliery. Numbers 845, 847 and 848 went to Wankie Colliery in Rhodesia, where they became numbers 5 to 7 in reverse order. After they were withdrawn in 1982, one of these three was plinthed alongside the main North road at Hwange. Another of the Baldwin-built locomotives, no. 850, is plinthed at Theunissen in the Free State. The table lists the Hohenzollern and Baldwin Class 16DA engine numbers, years built, works numbers and variations in coupled wheel sizes