Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
Universal Product Code
The Universal Product Code is a barcode symbology, used in the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, in Europe and other countries for tracking trade items in stores. UPC consists of 12 numeric digits that are uniquely assigned to each trade item. Along with the related EAN barcode, the UPC is the barcode used for scanning of trade items at the point of sale, per GS1 specifications. UPC data structures are a component of GTINs and follow the global GS1 specification, based on international standards, but some retailers do not use the GS1 system. On the other hand, some retailers use the EAN/UPC barcode symbology, but without using a GTIN. Wallace Flint proposed an automated checkout system in 1932 using punched cards. Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland, a graduate student from Drexel Institute of Technology, developed a bull's-eye style code and applied for the patent in 1949. In the 1960s, railroads experimented with a multicolor barcode for tracking rail cars, but they abandoned it.
A group of grocery industry trade associations formed the Uniform Grocery Product Code Council which, with consultants Larry Russell and Tom Wilson of McKinsey & Company, defined the numerical format of the Uniform Product Code. Technology firms including Charegon, IBM, Litton-Zellweger, Pitney Bowes-Alpex, Plessey-Anker, RCA, Scanner Inc. Singer, Dymo Industries/Data General proposed alternative symbol representations to the council. In the end the Symbol Selection Committee chose to modify, changing the font in the human readable area, the IBM proposal designed by George J. Laurer; the first UPC marked item scanned at a retail checkout was at the Marsh supermarket in Troy, Ohio at 8:01 a.m. on June 26, 1974, was a 10-pack of Wrigley's Juicy Fruit chewing gum. The shopper was cashier Sharon Buchanan made the first UPC scan; the NCR cash register rang up 67 cents. The entire shopping cart had barcoded items in it, but the gum was the first one picked up; this item went on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington, D.
C. Around late 1969, IBM at Research Triangle Park in North Carolina assigned George Laurer to determine how to make a supermarket scanner and label. In late 1970, Heard Baumeister provided equations to calculate characters per inch achievable by two IBM bar codes, Delta A and Delta B. In February, 1971, Baumeister joined Laurer. In mid 1971, William "Bill" Crouse invented a new bar code called Delta C, it achieved four times the characters per inch as Delta B. Delta B compared bar widths to space width to code bits; this was sensitive to ink spread where too much ink or pressure would cause both edges of a bar to spread outward and too little to cause them to shrink. To make it worse as bars spread spaces shrink and vice versa. Delta C achieved its higher performance by only using leading to leading or trailing to trailing edges, unaffected by uniform ink spread; the code provided best performance when it had a defined character set with a fixed reference distance that spanned most or preferably all the character.
In August, 1971, Crouse joined the scanner effort. After several months they had made no progress, they were aware of the RCA bull’s eye label that could be scanned with a simple straight line laser scanner, but a readable label was far too large. Although Litton Industries proposed a bull’s eye symbol cut in half to reduce the area, it was still too large and presented the same ink smear printing problems as the RCA symbol; the redundancy and checking ability were removed completely. They were aware of the many proposals from around the world, none of which were feasible. In the spring of 1972, Baumeister announced a breakthrough, he proposed a label with bars that were longer than the distance across all bars that needed to be read in a single pass. This label could be scanned with a simple “X” scanner only more complex than the straight line laser scanner; the next day Baumeister suggested if the label were split into two halves the bar lengths could be cut nearly in half. These two proposals reduced the area from the bull’s eye by one third and one sixth.
The image to the right shows the label proposed by Baumeister. He did not specify any specific bar code as, well understood. Except for the bar coding and ten digits the UPC label today is his proposal. Shortly after that Baumeister transferred to another area of RTP. Laurer proceeded to write a proposal. N. J. Woodland was aided Laurer with writing his proposal. Laurer’s first attempt with a bar code used Delta B; the resulting label size was about six inches by three inches, too large. Crouse suggested that Laurer use his Delta C bar code and provided a copy of his patent that had a sample alphanumeric character set and rules to generate other size alphabets; this reduced the label size to about 1.5” x 0.9”. Laurer asked Crouse for assistance in how the scanner could detect a label. Together they defined a definition of how to detect the label; the guard bars provided identification for half label discrimination and training bars for the scanner threshold circuits. Laurer proceeded to write his proposal.
Crouse had an idea for a simple wand worn like a ring and bracelet. He decided to develop. On December 1, 1972, IBM presented Laurer's proposal to the Super Market Committee in Rochester, the
Automated teller machine
An automated teller machine is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff. ATMs are known by a variety of names, including automatic teller machine in the United States redundantly ATM machine, automated banking machine. Although ABM is used in Canada, ATM is still commonly used in Canada and many Canadian organizations use ATM over ABM. In British English, the terms cash point, cash machine, "hole in the wall" are most used. Other terms include any time money, nibank, tyme machine, cash dispenser, bankomat or bancomat. Many ATMs have a sign above them, indicating the name of the bank or organisation that owns the ATM, including the networks to which it can connect. In Canada, ABMs that are not operated by a financial institution are known as "white-label ABMs". According to the ATM Industry Association, there are now close to 3.5 million ATMs installed worldwide.
However, the use of ATMs in Australia is declining – most notably in retail precincts. On most modern ATMs, customers are identified by inserting a plastic ATM card into the ATM, with authentication being by the customer entering a personal identification number, which must match the PIN stored in the chip on the card, or in the issuing financial institution's database. Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of financial transactions such as cash withdrawals, check balances, or credit mobile phones. ATMs can be used to withdraw cash in a foreign country. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that in which the bank account is denominated, the money will be converted at the financial institution's exchange rate; the idea of out-of-hours cash distribution developed from bankers' needs in Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States. Little is known of the Japanese device other than that it was called "Computer Loan Machine" and supplied cash as a three-month loan at 5% p.a. after inserting a credit card.
The device was operational in 1966. Adrian Ashfield invented the basic idea of a card combining the key and user's identity in February 1962; this was granted UK Patent 959,713 for "Access Controller" in June 1964 and assigned to W. S. Atkins & Partners who employed Ashfield, he was paid ten shillings for the standard sum for all patents. It was intended to dispense petrol but the patent covered all uses. In the US patent record, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing a "prior art device", his 132nd patent, first filed on 30 June 1960. The roll-out of this machine, called Bankograph, was delayed by a couple of years, due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc. being acquired by Universal Match Corporation. An experimental Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the City Bank of New York, but removed after six months due to the lack of customer acceptance; the Bankograph did not have cash dispensing features. It is accepted that the first cash machine was put into use by Barclays Bank in its Enfield Town branch in North London, United Kingdom, on 27 June 1967.
This machine was inaugurated by English comedy actor Reg Varney. This instance of the invention is credited to the engineering team led by John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De La Rue, awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year Honours. Transactions were initiated by inserting paper cheques issued by a teller or cashier, marked with carbon-14 for machine readability and security, which in a model were matched with a six-digit personal identification number. Shepherd-Barron stated "It struck me there must be a way I could get my own money, anywhere in the world or the UK. I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash."The Barclays–De La Rue machine beat the Swedish saving banks' and a company called Metior's machine by a mere nine days and Westminster Bank's–Smith Industries–Chubb system by a month. The online version of the Swedish machine is listed to have been operational on 6 May 1968, while claiming to be the first online ATM in the world; the collaboration of a small start-up called Speytec and Midland Bank developed a fourth machine, marketed after 1969 in Europe and the US by the Burroughs Corporation.
The patent for this device was filed in September 1969 by John David Edwards, Leonard Perkins, John Henry Donald, Peter Lee Chappell, Sean Benjamin Newcombe, Malcom David Roe. Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher, retained by the machine, while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic stripe at the back, they used principles including Carbon-14 and low-coercivity magnetism in order to make fraud more difficult. The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by a group of engineers working at Smiths Group on the Chubb MD2 in 1965 and, credited to James Goodfellow; the essence of this system was that it enable
Frances E. Allen
Frances Elizabeth "Fran" Allen is an American computer scientist and pioneer in the field of optimizing compilers. Allen in 2006 became the first woman to win the Turing Award, her achievements include seminal work in compilers, program optimization, parallelization. Allen grew up on a farm in New York, she graduated from The New York State College for Teachers with a B. Sc. in mathematics in 1954 and began teaching school in Peru, New York. After two years, she enrolled at the University of Michigan and earned an M. Sc. degree in mathematics in 1957. In debt, she joined IBM Research in Poughkeepsie, NY, as a programmer in 1957, where she taught incoming employees the basics of Fortran, she planned to return to teaching once her student loans had been paid but ended up staying with IBM for her entire 45-year career. Allen was assigned to the Harvest project for code breaking with the National Security Agency in 1959 and worked on a programming language called Alpha, she managed the compiler-optimization team for the Stretch project.
In the 1960s she contributed to the ACS-1 project and in the 1970s to PL/I. From 1970 to 1971 she spent a sabbatical at New York University and acted as adjunct professor for a few years afterwards. Another sabbatical brought her to Stanford University in 1977. Allen became the first female IBM Fellow in 1989, she remains affiliated with the corporation as a Fellow Emerita. In 2007, the IBM Ph. D. Fellowship Award was created in her honor, her A. M. Turing Award citation reads: Fran Allen's work has had an enormous impact on compiler research and practice. Both alone and in joint work with John Cocke, she introduced many of the abstractions and implementations that laid the groundwork for automatic program optimization technology. Allen's 1966 paper, "Program Optimization," laid the conceptual basis for systematic analysis and transformation of computer programs; this paper introduced the use of graph-theoretic structures to encode program content in order to automatically and efficiently derive relationships and identify opportunities for optimization.
Her 1970 papers, "Control Flow Analysis" and "A Basis for Program Optimization" established "intervals" as the context for efficient and effective data flow analysis and optimization. Her 1971 paper with Cocke, "A Catalog of Optimizing Transformations," provided the first description and systematization of optimizing transformations, her 1973 and 1974 papers on interprocedural data flow analysis extended the analysis to whole programs. Her 1976 paper with Cocke describes one of the two main analysis strategies used in optimizing compilers today. Allen developed and implemented her methods as part of compilers for the IBM STRETCH-HARVEST and the experimental Advanced Computing System; this work established the feasibility and structure of modern machine- and language-independent optimizers. She went on to establish and lead the PTRAN project on the automatic parallel execution of FORTRAN programs, her PTRAN team developed new parallelism detection schemes and created the concept of the program dependence graph, the primary structuring method used by most parallelizing compilers.
Allen is a Fellow of the IEEE and the ACM. In 2000, she was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for her contributions to program optimization and compiling for parallel computers." She was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1987, to the American Philosophical Society in 2001, to the National Academy of Sciences in 2010. She was named Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994, she received the IEEE Computer Society Charles Babbage Award in 1997 and the Computer Pioneer Award of the IEEE Computer Society in 2004. In 1997, Allen was inducted into the WITI Hall of Fame, she won the 2002 Augusta Ada Lovelace Award from the Association for Women in Computing. In 2004, Allen was the winner of the ABIE Award for Technical Leadership from the Anita Borg Institute. Allen was recognized for her work in high-performance computing with the 2006 Turing Award, she became the first woman recipient in the forty-year history of the award, considered the equivalent of the Nobel Prize for computing and is given by the Association for Computing Machinery.
In interviews following the award she hoped it would give more "opportunities for women in science and engineering". In 2009 she was awarded an honorary doctor of science degree from McGill University for "pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution." Allen married NYU professor Jacob T. Schwartz in 1972, they divorced ten years later. She has no children. Allen, Frances E. and John Cocke. “A catalogue of optimizing transformations,” in Randall Rustin and Optimization of Compilers, 1-30. Allen, Frances E. “Interprocedural data flow analysis,” Proceedings of Information Processing 74, IFIP, Elsevier / North-Holland, 398-402. Allen, Frances E. and J. Cocke, “A program data flow analysis procedure,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 19, Num. 3, 137-147. Allen, Frances E. et al. “The Experimental Compiling System,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 24, Num. 6, 695-715.
Allen, Frances E. “The history of language processor technology at IBM,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 25, Num. 5, 535-548. List of pioneers in computer science Women in computing Timeline of women in science Frances Allen: 2000 Fellow Awards Recipient via Computer History Museum Fran Allen on Compilers and Parallel Computing Systems Notes from her
International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM produces and sells computer hardware and software, provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is a major research organization, holding the record for most U. S. patents generated by a business for 26 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, dynamic random-access memory; the IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets.
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo, acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting, SPSS, The Weather Company, Red Hat. In 2014, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries. Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 380,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, the country with the largest number of IBMers is India. IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology and five National Medals of Science. In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would form the core of International Business Machines. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885. On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company based in Endicott, New York.
The five companies had offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York. C.. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR. Watson joined CTR as General Manager 11 months was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies, he implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees. During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America and Australia.
Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924 chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines". By 1933 most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U. S. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act, the tracking of persecuted groups by Hitler's Third Reich through the German subsidiary Dehomag. In 1949, Thomas Watson, Sr. created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations. In 1952, he stepped down after 40 years at the company helm, his son Thomas Watson, Jr. was named president. In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience.
In 1957, the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the successful Selectric typewriter. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped. A year it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York; the latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights and 1969 lunar mission. On April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360, it spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. It was followed by the IBM System/370 in 1970. Together the
Nanotechnology is manipulation of matter on an atomic and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers; this definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.
Because of the variety of potential applications, governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Through 2012, the USA has invested $3.7 billion using its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the European Union has invested $1.2 billion, Japan has invested $750 million. Nanotechnology as defined by size is very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, molecular engineering, etc; the associated research and applications are diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale. Scientists debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, biomaterials energy production, consumer products.
On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted; the concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not known. Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control.
In 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications. Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. Since the popularity spike in the 1980s, most of nanotechnology has involved investigation of several approaches to making mechanical devices out of a small number of atoms. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era. First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, was used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989; the microscope's developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.
Binnig and Gerber invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year. Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. C60 was not described as nanotechnology. In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003. Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging; these products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U. S
IBM Q Experience
The IBM Q Experience is an online platform that gives users in the general public access to a set of IBM's prototype quantum processors via the Cloud, an online internet forum for discussing quantum computing relevant topics, a set of tutorials on how to program the IBM Q devices, other educational material about quantum computing. It is an example of cloud based quantum computing; as of May 2018, there are three processors on the IBM Q Experience: two 5-qubit processors and a 16-qubit processor. This service can be used to run algorithms and experiments, explore tutorials and simulations around what might be possible with quantum computing; the site provides an discoverable list of research papers published using the IBM Q Experience as an experimentation platform. IBM's quantum processors are made up of superconducting transmon qubits, located in a dilution refrigerator at the IBM Research headquarters at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center. Users interact with a quantum processor through the quantum circuit model of computation, applying quantum gates on the qubits using a GUI called the quantum composer, writing quantum assembly language code or through Qiskit.
In May 2016, IBM launched the IBM Q Experience, with a five qubit quantum processor and matching simulator connected in a star shaped pattern, which users could only interact with through the quantum composer, with a limited set of two-qubit interactions, a user guide that assumed background in linear algebra. In July 2016, IBM launched the IBM Q Experience community forum. In January 2017, IBM made a number of additions to the IBM Q Experience, including increasing the set of two-qubit interactions available on the five qubit quantum processor, expanding the simulator to custom topologies up to twenty qubits, allowing users to interact with the device and simulator using quantum assembly language code. In March 2017, IBM released Qiskit to enable users to more write code and run experiments on the quantum processor and simulator, as well as introduced a user guide for beginners. In May 2017, IBM made an additional 16 qubit processor available on the IBM Q Experience. In January 2018, IBM launched a quantum awards program.
The Quantum Composer is a graphic user interface designed by IBM to allow users to construct various quantum algorithms or run other quantum experiments. Users may see the results of their quantum algorithms by either running it on a real quantum processor and using "units" or by using a simulator. Algorithms developed in the Quantum Composer are referred to as a "quantum score", in reference to the Quantum Composer resembling a musical sheet; the IBM Q Experience contains a library teaching users how to use the Quantum Composer. The library consists of two guides: Full User Guide. There are additional tutorials about using the IBM Q Experience machines in the github repo for Qiskit accessed from qiskit.org. The composer can be used in scripting mode, where the user can write programs in the QASM-language instead. Below is an example in the QASM-language of a small program, built for IBMs 5-qubit computer; the program instructs the computer to generate the state | Ψ ⟩ = 1 2, a 3-qubit GHZ state, which can be thought of as a variant of the Bell state but with three qubits instead of just the classical two.
It measures the state, forcing it to collapse to one of the two possible outcomes. Every instruction in the QASM language is the application of a quantum gate, initialization of the chips registers to zero or measurement of these registers; the Beginner's Guide introduces users to the terminology and conceptual knowledge of quantum mechanics needed to compose quantum scores. The beginners guide introduces readers to the elementary concepts of quantum computing: behavior of qubits, quantum entanglement, quantum gates; the full user guide is more in depth and analytical compared to the beginner's guide, is recommended for those with experience in linear algebra or quantum computing. Unlike the beginners guide, the full user guide contains quantum algorithm examples, with explanations comparing quantum algorithms to their classical counterparts. Both of the Beginner and Full User Guides can be updated by anyone via the Qiskit github repository. IBM reports that there are over 80,000 users of the IBM Q Experience, who have collectively run over 3 million experiments.
Many of these users are active researchers who have collectively published at least 72 academic papers using the platform. University professors are integrating examples and experiments based on the IBM Q Experience into their educational curricula. Dr. Christine Corbett Moran, a postdoctoral fellow at the California Institute of Technology, used the IBM Q Experience while she was doing research in Antarctica. People have used the IBM Q Experience for various non-academic purposes. One user has begun developing games using the IBM Q Experience, including one titled "quantum battleships". IBM Quantum Experience