IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 is a family of mainframe computer systems, announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, delivered between 1965 and 1978. It was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific; the design made a clear distinction between architecture and implementation, allowing IBM to release a suite of compatible designs at different prices. All but the only compatible Model 44 and the most expensive systems use microcode to implement the instruction set, which features 8-bit byte addressing and binary and hexadecimal floating-point calculations; the launch of the System/360 family introduced IBM's Solid Logic Technology, a new technology, the start of more powerful but smaller computers. The slowest System/360 model announced in 1964, the Model 30, could perform up to 34,500 instructions per second, with memory from 8 to 64 KB. High performance models came later; the 1967 IBM System/360 Model 91 could execute up to 16.6 million instructions per second.

The larger 360 models could have up to 8 MB of main memory, though that much main memory was unusual—a large installation might have as little as 256 KB of main storage, but 512 KB, 768 KB or 1024 KB was more common. Up to 8 megabytes of slower Large Capacity Storage was available for some models; the IBM 360 was successful in the market, allowing customers to purchase a smaller system with the knowledge they would always be able to migrate upward if their needs grew, without reprogramming of application software or replacing peripheral devices. Many consider the design one of the most successful computers in history, influencing computer design for years to come; the chief architect of System/360 was Gene Amdahl, the project was managed by Fred Brooks, responsible to Chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr; the commercial release was piloted by another of Watson's lieutenants, John R. Opel, who managed the launch of IBM’s System 360 mainframe family in 1964. Application-level compatibility for System/360 software is maintained to the present day with the System z mainframe servers.

Contrasting with at-the-time normal industry practice, IBM created an entire new series of computers, from small to large, low- to high-performance, all using the same instruction set. This feat allowed customers to use a cheaper model and upgrade to larger systems as their needs increased without the time and expense of rewriting software. Before the introduction of System/360, business and scientific applications used different computers with different instruction sets and operating systems. Different-sized computers had their own instruction sets. IBM was the first manufacturer to exploit microcode technology to implement a compatible range of computers of differing performance, although the largest, models had hard-wired logic instead; this flexibility lowered barriers to entry. With most other vendors customers had to choose between machines they could outgrow and machines that were too powerful and thus too costly; this meant that many companies did not buy computers. IBM announced a series of six computers and forty common peripherals.

IBM delivered fourteen models, including rare one-off models for NASA. The least expensive model was the Model 20 with as little as 4096 bytes of core memory, eight 16-bit registers instead of the sixteen 32-bit registers of other System/360 models, an instruction set, a subset of that used by the rest of the range; the initial announcement in 1964 included Models 30, 40, 50, 60, 62, 70. The first three were low- to middle-range systems aimed at the IBM 1400 series market. All three first shipped in mid-1965; the last three, intended to replace the 7000 series machines, never shipped and were replaced with the 65 and 75, which were first delivered in November 1965, January 1966, respectively. Additions to the low-end included models 20, 22, 25; the Model 20 had several sub-models. The Model 22 was a recycled Model 30 with minor limitations: a smaller maximum memory configuration, slower I/O channels, which limited it to slower and lower-capacity disk and tape devices than on the 30; the Model 44 was a specialized model, designed for scientific computing and for real-time computing and process control, featuring some additional instructions, with all storage-to-storage instructions and five other complex instructions eliminated.

A succession of high-end machines included the Model 67, 85, 91, 95, 195. The 85 design was intermediate between the System/360 line and the follow-on System/370 and was the basis for the 370/165. There was a System/370 version of the 195; the implementations differed using different native data path widths, presence or absence of microcode, yet were compatible. Except where documented, the models were architecturally compatible; the 91, for example, was designed for scientific computing and provided out-of-order instruction execution, but lacked the decimal instruction set used in commercial applications. New features could be added without violating architectural definitions: the 65 had a dual-processor version with extensions for inter-CPU signalling. Models 44, 75, 91, 95, 195 were implemented with hardwired log

Universidad del Valle de México

The Universidad del Valle de México or UVM is a private multicampus university founded in 1960. UVM is the largest higher education institution in Mexico, it has a both traditional and bicultural high school program. UVM’s students belong to Mexico's growing upper and middle socioeconomic classes; the school enrolls more than 120,000 students, has 11,900 faculty members and 7,000 staff employees. UVM has more than 200,000 alumni and offers high school, undergraduate degree and graduate degree programs on 38 campuses from an international perspective, it manages programs. UVM has developed online and working adult career programs, oriented for working people who need an educational experience for a professional practice; the financial cost of studying at UVM’s campus in Mexico City is about $6,100 USD per year. It takes 4.5 years to finish a degree. A group of academics and businessmen led by Don José Ortega Romero, founded Universidad del Valle de México, it opened on November 16, 1960, with 212 students, 23 teachers and 14 administrative staff, offering elementary, secondary and the undergraduate programs in Accounting and Business Administration.

It soon quit its education in the first two levels to concentrate on the remaining. In 1968, the institution was consolidated. Since 1976, the Universidad started to expand by opening new campus located in Mexico City and the surrounding areas, in other places in Mexico. UVM's relationship with Laureate International Universities allowed the school to offer academic international exchanges, multiple country titles, a vast opportunity to Exchange knowledge and experiences among the 80 institutions in the Laureate network, others. Laureate expanded UVM to several cities in Mexico: Aguascalientes, Toluca, Guadalajara Sur, Saltillo e Hispano, Hermosillo y Torreon, Mexicali y Cuernavaca, Monterrey Norte, Guadalajara Norte, Ciudad Victoria, Nuevo Laredo, Tampico y Reynosa, Mérida, Zapopan y Monterrey Cumbres y Coyoacan y Chihuahua y Veracruz; the Nuevo Laredo campus was closed in 2015 due to gang threats. In 2019, Laureate reported. UVM enrolls more than 120,000 students, more than 11,900 faculty members and 6,900 administrative staff.

Laureate International Universities reports that UVM has 38 campuses located in 18 Mexican states, which makes it the largest private university in Mexico. San Rafael San Rafael Sede Marina Chapultepec Lago de Guadalupe Roma Santa Fe Texcoco Hispano Lomas Verdes San Ángel Sur Monterrey Cumbres Monterrey Norte Guadalajara Norte Guadalajara Sur Zapopan San Luis Potosí Querétaro Toluca Tuxtla Agusacalientes Puebla Saltillo Hermosillo Torreón Nogales Mexicali Cuernavaca Victoria Matamoros Nuevo Laredo Tampico Reynosa Mérida Veracruz Chihuahua Reconocimiento Global de Validez de Estudios. Acuerdo No.131, Secretario de Educación Publica, February 8, 1988. Reconocimiento de Excelencia Academica de Programas de Estudio de Nivel Licenciatura, granted by Secretaria de Educación Publica, 2006. Reconocimiento del Padron de Planes y Programas de Estudio de Excelencia Academica en el Medio Superior granted by Secretaria de Educación Publica. Certificación de Calidad Académica Lisa y Llana, given by Federación de Instituciones Mexicanas Particulares de Educación Superior.

QS Stars, an international standard assessing higher education institutions globally. QS Stars gives UVM 5 stars in the fields of education and access. Member of the Asociacion Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Nivel Superior. Member of the Asociacion de Facultades y Escuelas de Medicina, A. C.. Member of Federacion Mexicana de Facultades y Escuelas de Odontología. Registro Nacional de Instituciones y Empresas Cientificas y Tecnologicas. Convenio de Colaboración Académica con el Sistema Nacional de Investigadores According to Guía Universitaria 2015, UVM is ranked 4th among the best public and private universities in Mexico, being 2nd in the Bajio, North and Southeast. UVM is a Socially Responsible Company, distinguished as such by the Centro Mexicano para la Filantropía. 22 Libraries certified with ISO 9001: 2008. ISO 9001:2000 granted to the computing labs in at campus. UVM students receive a comprehensive education that combines academic preparation, ethical values and cultural activities.

They learn English and are prepared to be assessed for different certifications in the fields of IT. Students have the opportunity of acquiring an international experience to be more competitive, because they have access to the links and possibilities offered by other institutions within the Laureate network; the geographic dispersity of Laureate gives them access to more than 105 international programs at 80 universities worldwide. Some 14 thousand students are studying any of the international programs offered for prestigious institutions as Kendall, UEM, IEDE Business School, Walden & Santa Fe University. During the last year, some 2,700 students from UVM traveled abroad tu study a program within the network. UVM offers its students 575 exchange opportunities, including summer campus and double degrees. 145 options of Double Degrees and International Certificates, both in Mexico and abroad. More than 15 intensive schools with foreign teachers visiting our country. 5 English levels in


Fayolism was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized the role of management in organizations, developed around 1900 by the French management theorist Henri Fayol. It was through Fayol's work as a philosopher of administration that he contributed most to the theory and practice of organizational management. Fayol believed by focusing on managerial practices he could minimize misunderstandings and increase efficiency in organizations, he enlightened managers on how to accomplish their managerial duties, the practices in which they should engage. In his book General and Industrial Management, Fayol outlined his theory of general management, which he believed could be applied to the administration of myriad industries, his concern was with the administrative apparatus, to that end he presented his administrative theory, that is, principles and elements of management. His theories and ideas were ideally a result of his environment—a post revolutionized France with an emerging republic bourgeois.

A bourgeois himself, he believed in controlling workers to achieve greater productivity over all other managerial considerations. However, through reading General and Industrial Management, it is apparent that Fayol advocated a flexible approach to management, one he believed could be applied to any circumstance whether in the home, the workplace, or within the state, he stressed the importance and the practice of forecasting and planning in order to apply these ideas and techniques, which demonstrated his ability and emphasis in being able to adapt to any sort of situation. In General and Industrial Management he outlines an agenda whereby, under an accepted theory of management, every citizen is exposed and taught some form of management education and allowed to exercise management abilities first at school and on in the workplace. Everyone needs some concepts of management. Fayol has been regarded by many as the father of the modern operational management theory, his ideas have become a fundamental part of modern management concepts.

Fayol is compared to Frederick Winslow Taylor who developed Scientific Management. Taylor's Scientific Management deals with the efficient organization of production in the context of a competitive enterprise, concerned with controlling its production costs. Taylor's system of scientific management is the cornerstone of classical theory. Fayol was a classical theorist, referred to Taylor in his writing and considered him a visionary and pioneer in the management of organizations. However, Fayol differed from Taylor in his focus. Taylor's main focus was on the task. Another difference between the two theorists is their treatment of workers. Fayol appears to have more respect for the worker than Taylor had, as evidenced by Fayol's proclamation that workers may indeed be motivated by more than just money. Fayol argued for equity in the treatment of workers. According to Claude George, a primary difference between Fayol and Taylor was that Taylor viewed management processes from the bottom up, while Fayol viewed it from the top down.

In Fayol's book General and Industrial Management, Fayol wrote that Taylor's approach differs from the one we have outlined in that he examines the firm from the bottom up. He starts with the most elemental units of activity—the workers' actions—then studies the effects of their actions on productivity, devises new methods for making them more efficient, applies what he learns at lower levels to the hierarchy... He suggests that Taylor has staff analysts and advisors working with individuals at lower levels of the organization to identify the ways to improve efficiency. According to Fayol, the approach results in a "negation of the principle of unity of command". Fayol criticized Taylor’s functional management in this way. … the most marked outward characteristics of functional management lies in the fact that each workman, instead of coming in direct contact with the management at one point only, … receives his daily orders and help from eight different bosses… Those eight, Fayol said, were route clerks, instruction card men cost and time clerks gang bosses speed bosses inspectors repair bosses, the shop disciplinarian.

This, he said, was an unworkable situation, that Taylor must have somehow reconciled the dichotomy in some way not described in Taylor's works. Fayol's desire for teaching a generalized theory of management stemmed from the belief that each individual of an organization at one point or another takes on duties that involve managerial decisions. Unlike Taylor, who believed management activity was the exclusive duty of an organizations dominant class. Fayol's approach was more in sync with his idea of Authority, which stated, "...that the right to give orders should not be considered without the acceptance and understanding of responsibility." Noted as one of the early fathers of the Human Relations movements, Fayol expressed ideas and practices different from Taylor, in that they showed flexibility and adaptation, stressed the importance of interpersonal interaction among employees. During the early 20th century, Fayol developed 14 principles of management to help managers manage their affairs more effectively.

Organizations in technologically advanced countries interpret these principles quite differently from the way they were interpreted during Fayol's time as well. These differences in interpretation are in part a result of the cultu