IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM since 1952. During the 1960s and 1970s, IBM dominated the large computer market. Current mainframe computers in IBM's line of business computers are developments of the basic design of the IBM System/360. From 1952 into the late 1960s, IBM manufactured and marketed several large computer models, known as the IBM 700/7000 series; the first-generation 700s were based on vacuum tubes, while the second-generation 7000s used transistors. These machines established IBM's dominance in electronic data processing. IBM had two model categories: one for engineering and scientific use, one for commercial or data processing use; the two categories and commercial used common peripherals but had different instruction sets, there were incompatibilities within each category. IBM sold its computers without any software, expecting customers to write their own. IBM provided compilers for the newly developed higher-level programming languages Fortran, COMTRAN and COBOL.
The first operating systems for IBM computers were written by IBM customers who did not wish to have their expensive machines sitting idle while operators set up jobs manually. These first operating systems were scheduled work queues, it is thought that the first operating system used for real work was GM-NAA I/O, produced by General Motors' Research division in 1956. IBM enhanced one of GM-NAA I/O's successors, the SHARE Operating System, provided it to customers under the name IBSYS; as software became more complex and important, the cost of supporting it on so many different designs became burdensome, this was one of the factors which led IBM to develop System/360 and its operating systems. The second generation products were a mainstay of IBM's business and IBM continued to make them for several years after the introduction of the System/360. Prior to System/360, IBM sold computers smaller in scale that were not considered mainframes, though they were still bulky and expensive by modern standards.
These included: IBM 650 IBM 305 RAMAC IBM 1400 series IBM 1620 IBM had difficulty getting customers to upgrade from the smaller machines to the mainframes because so much software had to be rewritten. The 7010 was introduced in 1962 as a mainframe-sized 1410; the Systems 360 and 370 could emulate the 1400 machines. A desk-size machine with a different instruction set, the IBM 1130, was released concurrently with the System/360 to address the niche occupied by the 1620, it used the same EBCDIC character encoding as the 360 and was programmed in Fortran, easy to adapt to larger machines when necessary. Midrange computer is a designation used by IBM for a class of computer systems which fall in between mainframes and microcomputers. All that changed with the announcement of the System/360 in April, 1964; the System/360 was a single series of compatible models for both commercial and scientific use. The number "360" suggested a "360 degree," or "all-around" computer system. System/360 incorporated features, present on only either the commercial line or the engineering and scientific line.
Some of the arithmetic units and addressing features were optional on some models of the System/360. However, models were upward compatible and most were downward compatible; the System/360 was the first computer in wide use to include dedicated hardware provisions for the use of operating systems. Among these were supervisor and application mode programs and instructions, as well as built-in memory protection facilities. Hardware memory protection was provided to protect the operating system from the user programs and user tasks from each other; the new machine had a larger address space than the older mainframes, 24 bits addressing 8-bit bytes vs. a typical 18 bits addressing 36-bit words. The smaller models in the System/360 line were intended to replace the 1400 series while providing an easier upgrade path to the larger 360s. To smooth the transition from the second generation to the new line, IBM used the 360's microprogramming capability to emulate the more popular older models, thus 360/30s with this added cost feature could run 1401 programs and the larger 360/65s could run 7094 programs.
To run old programs, the 360 had to be restarted in emulation mode. Many customers kept using their old software and one of the features of the System/370 was the ability to switch to emulation mode and back under operating system control. Operating systems for the System/360 family included OS/360, BOS/360, TOS/360, DOS/360; the System/360 evolved into the System/370, the System/390, the 64-bit zSeries, System z, zEnterprise machines. System/370 introduced virtual memory capabilities in all models other than the first System/370 models.
John Robinson Jeffers was an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast. Much of Jeffers' poetry was written in epic form. However, he is known for his shorter verse and is considered an icon of the environmental movement. Influential and regarded in some circles, despite or because of his philosophy of "inhumanism", Jeffers believed that transcending conflict required human concerns to be de-emphasized in favor of the boundless whole; this led him to oppose U. S. participation in World War II, a stance, controversial after the U. S. entered the war. Jeffers was born January 10, 1887, in Allegheny, the son of Reverend Dr. William Hamilton Jeffers, a Presbyterian minister and scholar of ancient languages and Biblical history, Annie Robinson Tuttle, his brother was a well-known astronomer who worked at Lick Observatory. Jeffers traveled through Europe during his youth and attended school in Germany and Switzerland. An outstanding student, he was instructed in the classics and Greek and Latin language and literature.
By age twelve, he was fluent in French as well as English. He earned his bachelor's degree from Occidental College at age 18. While attending college he was an avid outdoorsman and active in the school's literary societies. After he graduated from Occidental, Jeffers went to the University of Southern California to study at first literature, medicine, he met Una Call Kuster in 1906. Jeffers and Mrs. Kuster became lovers. Mr. Kuster discovered their affair in 1910. Jeffers dropped out of USC medical school and enrolled as a forestry student at the University of Washington in Seattle, a course of study that he abandoned after a semester, at which time he returned to Los Angeles. By 1912 the affair became a scandal. Una spent some time in Europe to quiet things down the lovers lived together by Lake Washington to await the completion of Una's divorce; the two were married in 1913 moved to La Jolla and Carmel, where Jeffers constructed Tor House and Hawk Tower. The couple had a daughter who died a day after birth in 1913, twin sons in 1916.
Una died of cancer in 1950. Jeffers died in 1962. In the 1920s and 1930s, at the height of his popularity, Jeffers was famous for being a tough outdoorsman, living in relative solitude and writing of the difficulty and beauty of the wild, he spent most of his life in Carmel, California, in a granite house that he had built himself called "Tor House and Hawk Tower". Tor is a term for a craggy lookout. Before Jeffers and Una purchased the land where Tor House would be built, they rented two cottages in Carmel, enjoyed many afternoon walks and picnics at the "tors" near the site that would become Tor House. To build the first part of Tor House, a small, two story cottage, Jeffers hired a local builder, Michael Murphy, he worked with Murphy, in this short, informal apprenticeship, he learned the art of stonemasonry. He continued adding on to Tor House throughout his life, writing in the mornings and working on the house in the afternoon. Many of his poems reflect the influence of building on his life.
He built a large four-story stone tower on the site called Hawk Tower. While he had not visited Ireland at this point in his life, it is possible that Hawk Tower is based on Francis Joseph Bigger's'Castle Séan' at Ardglass, County Down, which had in turn influenced Yeats' choice of a poets tower, Thoor Ballylee. Construction on Tor House continued into the late 1950s and early 1960s, was completed by his eldest son; the completed residence was used as a family home until his descendants decided to turn it over to the Tor House Foundation, formed by Ansel Adams, for historic preservation. The romantic Gothic tower was named after a hawk that appeared while Jeffers was working on the structure, which disappeared the day it was completed; the tower was a gift for his wife Una, who had a fascination for Irish stone towers. In Una's special room on the second floor were kept many of her favorite items, photographs of Jeffers taken by the artist Weston and dried flowers from Shelley's grave, a rosewood melodeon which she loved to play.
The tower included a secret interior staircase – a source of great fun for his young sons. During this time, Jeffers published volumes of long narrative blank verse that shook up the national literary scene; these poems, including Tamar and Roan Stallion, introduced Jeffers as a master of the epic form, reminiscent of ancient Greek poets. These poems were full of controversial subject matter such as incest and parricide. Jeffers' short verse includes "Hurt Hawks," "The Purse-Seine" and "Shine, Perishing Republic." His intense relationship with the physical world is described in brutal and apocalyptic verse, demonstrates a preference for the natural world over what he sees as the negative influence of civilization. Jeffers did not accept the idea that meter is a fundamental part of poetry, like Marianne Moore, claimed his verse was not composed in meter, but "rolling stresses." He believed. Many books followed Jeffers' initial success with the epic form, including an adaptation of Euripides' Medea, which became a hit Broadway play starring Dame Judith Anderson.
The Pecos River originates in north-central New Mexico and flows into Texas, emptying into the Rio Grande. Its headwaters are on the eastern slope of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range in Mora County north of Pecos, NM, at an elevation of over 12,000 feet feet; the river flows for 926 miles before reaching the Rio Grande near Del Rio. Its drainage basin encompasses about 44,300 square miles; the name "Pecos" derives from the Keresan term for the Pecos Pueblo. The river played a large role in the exploration of Texas by the Spanish. In the latter half of the 19th century, "West of the Pecos" was a reference to the rugged desolation of the Wild West; the Texas storekeeper and justice of the peace, Roy Bean, a native of Kentucky, was described as "The Only Law West of the Pecos", a phrase made popular from the 1956 syndicated television series, Judge Roy Bean, with Edgar Buchanan in the starring role. In the series narration, "West of the Pecos" is described as: the wildest spot in the United States... beyond the reach of the authorities, the railroads pushing their way west, attracted the most vicious characters in the country.
It was said that all law stopped at the east bank of the Pecos. It took one man, a lone storekeeper, sick of the lawlessness, to change all this, his name was Judge Roy Bean." New Mexico and Texas disputed water rights to the river until the U. S. government settled the dispute in 1949 with the Pecos River Compact. The Pecos River Settlement Agreement was signed between New Mexico and Texas in 2003. Multiple dams have been built along the Pecos River. Santa Rosa Lake is 117 miles/188 km east of Albuquerque. Sumner Lake, formed by the 1939 Sumner Dam, is located between Santa Rosa and Fort Sumner, NM. Two dams are located north of Carlsbad, New Mexico, at Avalon Dam and Brantley Dam, to help irrigate about 25,000 acres as part of the Carlsbad reclamation project. Texas has dammed the river at the Red Bluff Dam in the western part of that state to form the Red Bluff Reservoir; the portion of the reservoir that extends into New Mexico forms the lowest point in that state. On June 6, 1990, 20.5 miles of the Pecos River—from its headwaters to the townsite of Tererro—received National Wild and Scenic River designation.
It includes 13.5 miles designated "wild" and 7 miles designated "recreational". The Pecos River Flume is an aqueduct carrying irrigation water over the Pecos River. Construction was part of the Pecos River Reclamation Project, it was constructed of wood and spanned 145 feet. It carried water at a depth of 8 feet. In 1902, a flood destroyed the flume and it was subsequently rebuilt using concrete. In 1902, it was identified as the largest concrete aqueduct in the world; the flume and its surrounding area have been reclaimed by the city of Carlsbad and transformed into a tourist attraction, with park improvements along the river and spotlights to give a spectacular nightly view. List of longest rivers of the United States List of tributaries of the Rio Grande List of rivers of New Mexico List of rivers of Texas Patrick Dearen, author of novels and history of the Pecos River country Pecos River from the Handbook of Texas Online
Hildegarde Withers is a fictional character, an amateur crime-solver, who has appeared in several novels, short stories and films. She was created by Stuart Palmer. Miss Withers "whom the census enumerator had listed as'spinster, born Boston, age thirty-nine, occupation school teacher'" becomes an amateur sleuth in the first book of the series, her adventures are comic but are straightforward mysteries. She is a partial variation on Agatha Christie's Miss Marple. "A lean, angular spinster lady, her unusual hats and the black cotton umbrella she carries are her trademark.... Hildegarde collects tropical fish, abhors alcohol and tobacco, appears to have an irritable disposition. However, she is a romantic at heart and will extend herself to help young lovers." She collaborates, butts heads, with Inspector Oscar Piper, a high-ranking homicide detective in the New York Police Department. Edna May Oliver starred in the first three screen adaptations, produced by RKO Radio Pictures, is considered by fans of the film series the definitive Miss Withers.
When Oliver left RKO in 1935 to sign with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, RKO attempted to continue the series with Helen Broderick and ZaSu Pitts, but Oliver's presence was sorely missed and the films were poorly received. Author Palmer approved of Oliver's characterization so much that he gave the actress a mention in his Hollywood-based Withers novel The Puzzle of the Happy Hooligan. Stuart Palmer collaborated with fellow mystery writer Craig Rice on several short stories that teamed Hildegarde Withers with Rice's lawyer-sleuth John J. Malone; this collaboration led to a Hollywood film, but due to contractual problems, Withers' character wound up being omitted from the movie. She was replaced by a feisty widow known as "Mrs. O'Malley"; the film, a comic mystery released in 1950 as Mrs. O'Malley and Mr. Malone, starred James Whitmore and Marjorie Main as the title characters. In 1972, CBS made a Withers television movie with Eve Arden as Withers and James Gregory as Piper; the movie was well-received but there weren't any sequels.
The Penguin Pool Murder Murder on Wheels Murder on the Blackboard The Puzzle of the Pepper Tree The Puzzle of the Silver Persian The Puzzle of the Red Stallion The Puzzle of the Blue Banderilla The Puzzle of the Happy Hooligan Miss Withers Regrets Four Lost Ladies The Green Ace Nipped in the Bud Cold Poison Hildegarde Withers Makes the Scene, completed by Fletcher Flora after Palmer's death The Riddles of Hildegarde Withers The Monkey Murder and other Tales The People Vs. Withers and Malone, written with Craig Rice, crossover with Rice's John J. Malone character Hildegarde Withers: Uncollected Riddles'The Riddle of the Dangling Pearl"The Riddle of the Flea Circus"The Riddle of the Forty Costumes"The Riddle of the Brass Band"The Riddle of the Yellow Canary"The Riddle of the Blueblood Murders"The Riddle of Forty Naughty Girls"The Riddle of the Hanging Men"The Riddle of the Black Spade"The Riddle of the Marble Blade"The Riddle of the Whirling Lights"The Bill in the Saucer"The Riddle of the Doctor’s Double"The Riddle of the Jack of Diamonds"A Fingerprint in Cobalt"The Riddle of the Purple Postcards"The Riddle of the Beggar on Horseback"Miss Withers and the Unicorn"The Riddle of the Green Ice"The Puzzle of the Scorned Woman"The Hungry Hippo"To Die in the Dark"The Riddle of the Twelve Amethysts"SNAFU Murder"The Riddle of the Black Museum"The Monkey Murder"The Riddle of the Double Negative"The Long Worm"Fingerprints Don’t Lie"The Riddle of the Tired Bullet"Once Upon a Train"Where Angels Fear to Tread"Cherchez la Femme"The Jinx Man"Four Lost Ladies"Rift in the Loot"Hildegarde and the Spanish Cavalier"You Bet Your Life"Withers and Malone, Brain-Stormers"Who is Sylvia?"Withers and Malone, Crime-Busters"The Return of Hildegarde Withers"Hildegarde Withers Is Back"Hildegarde Plays It Calm' The Penguin Pool Murder, starring Edna May Oliver Murder on the Blackboard, starring Edna May Oliver Murder on a Honeymoon, starring Edna May Oliver Murder on a Bridle Path, starring Helen Broderick The Plot Thickens, starring ZaSu Pitts Forty Naughty Girls, starring ZaSu Pitts A Very Missing Person, starring Eve Arden, with Julie Newmar.
Based on Hildegarde Withers Makes the Scene, completed by Fletcher Flora after Palmer's death 1950s lost TV sitcom pilot Amazing Miss Withers, starring Agnes Moorehead and Paul Kelly Stuart Palmer and Hildegarde Withers: An Appreciation, an article by Steven Saylor
Son of Saul is a 2015 Hungarian drama film directed by László Nemes, in his feature directorial debut, co-written by Nemes and Clara Royer. It is set in the Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II, follows a day-and-a-half in the life of Saul Ausländer, a Hungarian member of the Sonderkommando; the film premiered at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival. It was shown in the Special Presentations section of the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival; the film won the award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards. It is the ninth Hungarian film to be nominated for the award, the first since István Szabó's Hanussen in 1988, it is the second Hungarian film to win the award, the first being Szabó's Mephisto in 1981. It won the Golden Globe for Best Foreign Language Film, becoming the first Hungarian film to win the award. In October 1944, Saul Ausländer works as a Sonderkommando Jewish–Hungarian prisoner in Auschwitz, his job is to salvage valuables from the clothing of the dead, drag bodies from the gas chambers and scrub the chambers before the next group arrives to be gassed.
He works stoically having been numbed by the daily horrors. Among the dead after a gassing is a boy, still alive, Saul witnesses a Nazi physician suffocate the boy and call for an autopsy. Saul steps forth and insists on carrying the body himself to the prison doctor, Miklós, a fellow Hungarian prisoner and a forced assistant to Josef Mengele, he asks Miklós to not cut up the boy, so he can give him a proper Jewish burial. Miklós says he can have five minutes alone with the boy tonight, before the cremation. Saul goes in search of a Rabbi to perform the funeral ritual, he goes to Rabbi Frankel in the crematorium, who dismisses Saul's concern and suggests that Saul perform the burial himself. Saul overhears Sonderkommando Abraham, talk about an uprising against the SS-guards with Oberkapo Biedermann. Biedermann first wants to photograph the camp's atrocities using a camera collected from the clothing of an earlier gassed caravan, smuggle the pictures outside to attract attention and help. Saul asks for another rabbi and Abraham tells him of "the Renegade," a Greek Rabbi who has lost his faith.
Saul in return offers his assistance in their plan and is instructed to go with a prisoner to repair a shack. When Saul and Katz arrive at the shack, Saul pretends to fix the front door's lock, while Katz takes out a camera from inside the shack and starts to take pictures of the cremation. Saul hears the hides the camera outside in a drain; the guards search the shack. Saul sneaks onto a truck for another Sonderkommando unit, heading to a nearby riverbank, where the ashes from the crematoria are dumped into the river. Saul finds the Renegade. Saul threatens to alert the Oberkapo of the unit, that the Renegade is a rabbi by reciting the Kaddish; when the Renegade refuses yet again Saul throws the man's shovel into the water. The rabbi jumps into the river to drown himself. Saul, who can't swim, manages to bring the Renegade back to the riverbank and both are taken to the SS-commandant of the unit. After an interrogation, the Renegade is executed and Saul is allowed to go back to the unit. Saul is confronted by Mietek, who realizes that he is from another unit.
To mollify Mietek, Saul gives him the piece of jewellery. Back at the camp, following roll call, Saul sneaks into Miklós's office where he is caught by a group of Nazi officers. One of them pushes Saul around like a puppet and makes a mockery of Jewish dances forcing him out of the room. After searching in vain for the boy's body, Saul confronts Miklós, who assures him that he has hidden it from the other doctors for safety. Saul takes the body back to his own barrack in a sack; that night Saul is summoned to clean the dinner tables by SS-commandant Moll. Biedermann is ordered to write up a list of seventy names; this leads Biedermann to believe. Biedermann discloses the information to Abraham, who instructs Saul to head to the women's camp, where he will pick up a smuggled package of gunpowder from a prisoner named Ella; when Saul finds himself face to face with Ella, he knows her. She calls him by name, clasps his hand, but he withdraws. After collecting the package, Saul deliberately falls into a line of newly arrived Hungarian Jews, who are being led into the woods for execution.
Saul again looks for a rabbi among the arrivals. A Frenchman named Braun convinces Saul that he is a rabbi. Saul disguises sneaks him into the camp; when Saul arrives at the camp he is confronted by Abraham and realizes that during the turmoil in the woods he has lost the package. On further questioning, he says that the dead boy is his illegitimate son, an assertion Abraham says is not true; the next morning during roll call, Miklós finds Saul and tells him that he needs a replacement body, similar to the one Saul has taken. The prisoners are summoned into the crematorium to get back to work, where they discover that Biedermann and his unit have been gassed by the SS. Abraham starts a riot with the other prisoners and they attack the SS guards, starting the rebellion. After managing to escape from the crematorium, Saul retrieves the boy's body and escapes to the woods with Braun and few other prisoners; when they reach a river, Saul finds a chance to bury the body, only to discover that Braun is a fraud when he can't recite the Kaddish.
When he hears the guards approaching
Batman and Robin is an American comic book ongoing series, created by Grant Morrison and featuring Batman and Robin. The debut of the series followed the events of "Batman R. I. P.", Final Crisis, "Battle for the Cowl" in which the original Batman, Bruce Wayne died at the hands of DC Comics villain Darkseid and features the winner of the "Battle for the Cowl" as the new Batman. The conclusion of Battle for the Cowl shows Dick Grayson ascending to the role of Batman, while Damian Wayne becomes the new Robin. Morrison returned to writing the characters after being the ongoing writer on Batman from issues #655–658 and #663–683. While writing for this title, Morrison wrote the miniseries The Return of Bruce Wayne and finished his run on the title with issue #16, before moving onto the next phase of his narrative in Batman Incorporated. Paul Cornell and Scott McDaniel created a three-issue arc before the new ongoing creative team, the former Green Lantern Corps duo of writer Peter Tomasi and artist Patrick Gleason, began their run with February 2011's issue #20.
In an interview with IGN before the release of the first issue, Morrison detailed that the tone of the series would be a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, bad ass Robin." Morrison divulged that this is a continuation of his previous work on the Batman character, although this is a different title than what he wrote previously. "This is the next book in what will be a 5-volume series beginning Batman and Son, but it can be read on its own too. Batman and Robin welcomes new readers!" Morrison said that though the series deals with familiar identities, the series features all new villains and situations, but revealed that some villains were glimpsed in Batman #666. When asked if the series would deal with the new Batman being unable to fill Bruce Wayne's proverbial shoes, Morrison answered, "When I started out I had that in mind, I thought we'd prove that nobody else could be Batman, but I do. I think with it's fun to start by seeing what happens when someone else tries.
Sometimes it goes wrong, sometimes it goes well. Some of the things these guys do are things that Bruce Wayne would never have thought to do." In regards to using Frank Quitely as the opening artist, Morrison described the difference between this particular collaboration with previous ones on JLA Earth-2 and All-Star Superman. For instance, Morrison asked Quitely to choreograph the flow of the action in his own way, rather than through Morrison's heavily detailed scripts. In regards to the style, Morrison said, "I've asked to re-introduce the much-maligned sound effects to superhero comics, but in a way that integrates them more with the art." He described Batman and Robin as, "a shorter, pacier collaboration so we've tried to keep it looser and more open than All-Star Superman. Morrison confirmed that following Quitely's run on the first three issues, Philip Tan would be the artist for the next three issues, an arc entitled "Revenge of the Red Hood", with Cameron Stewart as the artist for "Blackest Knight", the third arc, followed by Andy Clarke drawing the fourth arc titled "Batman vs. Robin" and Quitely coming back to the book sometime after.
Frazer Irving took over for the fifth arc "Batman and Robin Must Die!" starting in issue #13. In an interview with USA Today, Morrison outlined the future of the titles, saying "I'm doing at least another year of stories with Dick Grayson and Damian Wayne in the Batman and Robin book before that book starts to dovetail with Return and we rush headlong and screaming into the next big, earth-shattering, game-changing twist in the life of Batman."It was announced Peter Tomasi and Patrick Gleason would take over the title after Grant Morrison, while Morrison will go onto a different title. Dick Grayson will continue his role as Batman concurrently with Bruce Wayne, remain the star of Batman and Robin. With this title being Morrison's primary work in the Batman world for nearly two years, the writer has stated that this is a direct continuation of his Batman work: "With the collections out, we’ve got "Batman and Son",' we’ve got The Black Glove, we’ve got "Batman R. I. P.", we’ve got this one and Robin, hopefully, there will be a final volume, a fifth volume."In regards to the fate of Bruce Wayne, Morrison stated that he would be dealing with that in the future.
"Bruce is still out there. Final Crisis revealed Bruce is still out there and he’s got to make his way back in some way." Morrison made the case for fans that disapprove of having a Batman, not Bruce Wayne. "We’re not entertaining the notion that Bruce won’t be back at some time. This isn’t like Captain America with the Winter Soldier story and Cap’s gone; this is an ongoing story, another chapter in the life of Batman, so I think people who are fans of Bruce and who think no one else can be Batman will be entertained by this. And be intrigued to see who it is."Morrison brought Wayne back in a miniseries in which the title promised the character's return, as promised, dovetailed the conclusion of that series with his final issue of the Batman and Robin title, seeing Bruce Wayne create Batman Incorporated. The main story of the comic series was made up of a series of three-issue story arcs; the first one, "Batman: Reborn", was penciled by Frank Quitely. The second arc, "Revenge of the Red Hood", was penciled by Philip Tan.
The third arc, "Blackest Knight", is penciled by Cameron Stewart on issues # 7-9 of Robin. The fourth arc, "Batman vs. Robin", is penciled by Andy Clarke and contains issues #