Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Göteborg known as IFK Göteborg, IFK or Göteborg, is a Swedish professional football club based in Gothenburg. Founded in 1904, it is the only club in the Nordic countries that has won one of the main UEFA competitions, having won the UEFA Cup in both 1982 and 1987. IFK is play their home games at Gamla Ullevi; the club colours are blue and white, colours shared both with the sports society which the club originated from, Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna, with the coat of arms of the city of Gothenburg. Besides the two UEFA Cup titles, IFK have won 18 Swedish championship titles, second most in Swedish football after Malmö FF, have the third most national cup titles with seven; the team has qualified for four group stages of the UEFA Champions League, reached the semi-finals of the 1985–86 European Cup. IFK Göteborg is the only club team in any sport to have won the Radiosportens Jerringpris, an award for best Swedish sports performance of the year voted by the Swedish people, for the 1982 UEFA Cup victory.
IFK is the most popular football club in Sweden, with diverse country-wide support. IFK Göteborg play in the highest Swedish league, where they have played for the majority of their history, they have played in the Swedish first tier continuously since 1977, the longest ongoing top-flight tenure in Sweden. The club won its first Swedish championship in 1908, four years after the founding, has won at least one championship title in every decade since, except the 1920s, 1970s and 2010s. IFK Göteborg's most successful period was from 1982 to 1996, when the team prospered in European football and won 10 out of 15 Swedish championships. IFK Göteborg was founded on October 4, 1904, at Café Olivedal in the Annedal district of Linnéstaden in downtown Gothenburg, it was the third, but the only remaining, IFK association founded in Gothenburg, becoming the 39th overall. A committee for football was created at the historic first meeting; the foundation of IFK Göteborg was important for the development of football in the city, as until that point, Örgryte IS, the largest of Gothenburg clubs, were dominant, with IFK Göteborg offering some needed competition.
In 1907 IFK Göteborg became the first Swedish team in four years to beat Örgryte IS. They went on to win their first Swedish Championship in 1908 by winning the cup tournament Svenska Mästerskapet, three players from the club were selected to play for Sweden in the national team's first match; that year IFK played teams from outside Sweden for the first time, meeting the Danish clubs Østerbro BK and Boldklubben af 1893. In 1910, the team played in white striped jerseys for the first time. Two years the team drew 1–1 in a game against the 1912 Swedish Olympic team, the newspapers in Stockholm nominated IFK Göteborg as "the best Swedish football club ever". IFK Göteborg won Svenska Serien, the highest Swedish league at the time, but not the Swedish Championship deciding competition, for the fifth time in a row in 1917; the early IFK Göteborg team had no trainer. Bródy was appointed manager for IFK two years later; the first Swedish official national league, started in late 1924, the year the legendary Filip Johansson made his debut for IFK Göteborg.
The club finished second, but Johansson scored 39 goals in 22 games and was the league's top goalscorer. IFK won their first Allsvenskan title in 1934–35, the ten previous seasons of the league saw the club finish in the top four. Swedish football was dominated by teams from Gothenburg during these years, but IFK Göteborg were relegated in 1937–38, although the team was promoted back to Allsvenskan the next season. Back in the highest division, IFK finished second, with the league continuing despite the outbreak of World War II. IFK won another title in 1941 -- 42 with a strong team; the 1940s team included the talented Gunnar Gren, who became the top scorer in 1946–47. He was awarded Guldbollen as the best player in Sweden, won an Olympic gold medal with the Swedish team at the 1948 Olympics; when Gren left in 1949, IFK were relegated from Allsvenskan the following season. As happened the last time IFK played in a lower league, they were promoted directly back to Allsvenskan after one season in Division 2.
IFK went on to compete in a European Cup, the European Champion Clubs' Cup, for the first time in 1958, but were eliminated in the second round by SC Wismut. In 1959, the all-time Allsvenskan record attendance of 52,194 was set when IFK played Örgryte IS at Nya Ullevi. After an unglamorous decade, IFK were led by manager and retired footballer Bertil Johansson to a surprising championship title in 1969; the following season was one of the darkest in their history. IFK were relegated, unlike previous relegations they did not make an immediate return. After three seasons in the second league IFK had lost all signs of being a team from Allsvenskan, had still not managed to gain promotion, but after hard work from board member Anders Bernmar and others to get the club on the right track, IFK were promoted to Allsvenskan in 1976. In 1979, IFK hired Sven-Göran Eriksson as manager, he introduced the 4–4–2 system with "pressure and support", called the Swenglish model, which would give IFK great success on, his first season at the club ended with a second place in Allsvenskan and the club's first gold medal in Svenska Cupen.
After reinforcing the team with several expensive players, including Thomas Wernerson
824 Anastasia is a main belt asteroid orbiting the Sun. It is 34.14 km in diameter. It was discovered on March 1916, by Grigory Neujmin at Simeiz Observatory in Russian Empire, it is named in memory of an acquaintance of the discoverer. On April 6, 2010, 824 Anastasia had the distinction of causing the brightest asteroid occultation predicted for North America for an asteroid of its size; the asteroid occulted the naked-eye star ζ Ophiuchi over a path stretching from the Los Angeles area to Edmonton, Alberta. 824 Anastasia at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 824 Anastasia at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
The South Yorkshire Miners' Association was an early British trade union representing coal miners in the southern West Riding of Yorkshire and northern Derbyshire. The union was founded in 1858 at the White Bear Inn in Barnsley in response to a planned wage cut, with Richard Mitchell appointed a few weeks as its secretary. Following the formation of the union, colliery owners agreed not to impose cuts, but at the Oaks Colliery, the owner refused to re-employ union members. Following a lengthy strike, they were taken back, although they had to draw lots with blackleg workers for the seams of coal they had been working. Several more disputes took place over the next few years, the most important in 1859 at Wharncliffe Silkstone Colliery, where workers succeeded in keeping an elected checkweighman, John Normansell; the union took part in national conferences of miners in Leeds and Ashton-under-Lyne in 1858 and 1859, but these did not lead to any lasting national union. They did agree to send a delegation to Parliament, with Mitchell as its secretary, which succeeded in getting the Mines Regulation Act 1860 passed.
This permitted all miners to demand that they elect a checkweighman, although in practice this right was recognised by employers. The Miners' National Association was established in 1863, with the strong support of the SYMA, with Mitchell as its secretary. In 1864, miners at the Oaks went on strike; this was without the sanction of the union and they did not receive any union benefits. However, many other colliery owners feared that the demand would spread, pre-empted this by locking out miners across the district; this lasted for nineteen weeks. At this point, the owners reopened their mines, re-employing the miners under their former pay and conditions, although the Oaks held out until December; this action was considered a success for the union, membership rose to 2,279. The SYMA was reorganised under the new leadership of Normansell, introducing standard procedures across all branches, promoting the election of checkweighmen across the district. With his assistant Philip Casey, they rebuilt membership to over 20,000, began running annual South Yorkshire Miners' Galas.
The union was a prominent founder of the UK Association of Organised Trades, loaning it money on several occasions. Financial aid was sent to other miners' unions involved in disputes, local trade unions in other industries. In 1874, new offices were opened in Barnsley. In 1860, miners at Brightside in Sheffield formed a union and, in November, joined the SYMA, as its first branch in the city. However, they were victimised by their employer and the branch collapsed, it was only re-established in 1866, when miners in Tinsley joined, the union prioritising bringing their working conditions up to the standards enjoyed in the rest of the district. This was fiercely resisted by some mineowners, led to an eighteen-month strike in 1869/70 which spread across the district, with the union successful at some pits but defeated at others; the union long co-operated with the Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire Miners' Association, but this was defeated by 1868. As a result, the SYMA began building up branches in north Derbyshire.
However, membership remained low in the district, the SYMA leadership had little time to deal with disputes there, so little activity took place. In 1880, lodges in the county split away to form the new Derbyshire Miners' Association. Wages increased during the early 1870s, but from 1874 coal prices began falling, wages were cut. Normansell was criticised by some miners for not doing more to oppose this, resigned in 1875 in protest, he was replaced by John Frith, who invested much of the SYMA's capital in the Shirland Colliery, but lost this when the pit went into liquidation in 1877. Soon after, most of its members in Derbyshire left to form the Derbyshire Miners' Association; the SYMA began negotiating a merger with the West Yorkshire Miners' Association. 1858: Richard Mitchell 1864: John Normansell 1875: John Frith