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IJssel

The river IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. The Romans knew the river as Isala; the IJssel flows from Westervoort, east of the city of Arnhem, until it discharges into the IJsselmeer. The River IJssel is one of the three major distributary branches into which the Rhine divides shortly after crossing the German-Dutch border; the name includes the digraph ij, which behaves like a single letter in Dutch orthography—this explains why both letters appear capitalized. The name IJssel, is thought to derive from a Proto-Indo-European root *eis- "to move quickly". Before the early Middle Ages, the Zuiderzee had not yet formed, in its place there was an inland lake known as Vlies, the IJssel flowed through the surrounding lakelands. However, since the formation of the Zuiderzee and obstruction from the Afsluitdijk, the IJssel no longer flows into its estuary, the Vlie, now restricted in meaning and referring only to the strait separating the islands of Vlieland and Terschelling.

It is hypothesised that the now-poldered tidal inlets near Medemblik and the IJ once were branches of river IJssel. The river was a natural line of defence and in April 1945 had to be stormed by assault troops of the Allied armies liberating the Netherlands from the occupying forces of Nazi Germany. Canadian histories refer to the river in English as "Ijssel"; the IJssel was the lower part of the small river Oude IJssel, that rises in Germany and is now a 70 km long tributary of the IJssel. The connection between Rhine and IJssel was artificial dug by men under the Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus c. 12 BCE as a defence against Germanic tribes and to let Roman ships carry troops along it. The current Oude IJssel is now the second-largest contributor to the flow of the river, after the river Rhine; the source of the Oude IJssel is near Borken in Germany. First it flows south-west. After passing through Isselburg it crosses the border with the Netherlands; the river, called Oude IJssel from here flows through Doetinchem and joins the IJssel at Doesburg.

The average discharge of the IJssel can change significantly. The average discharge has been stated as 300 cubic meters per second; this can be as low as 140 and as high as 1800, depending on the Nederrijn locks west of Arnhem, which regulate the amount of water taken in by the Nederrijn and IJssel branches. As a lowlands river, the IJssel has a lot of bends and occurring dead branches; the occurring phenomenon of sedimental island-forming in the outside of bends has been regulated to the point of non-occurrence since the late nineteenth century. From the moment the connection between the Rhine and IJssel was dug, the Rhine became the largest contributor to the flow of the IJssel, although only a small amount of the total Rhine flow makes its way into the IJssel system. Various tributaries can sometimes add a considerable volume of water to the total flow of the IJssel, such as the Berkel and Schipbeek streams; the IJssel river is the only branch of the Rhine delta that takes up tributary rivers rather than giving rise to distributaries.

Only in the last few miles of the river's run, near the city of Kampen, distributaries form, resulting in the minor IJssel delta. Some of the branches have been dammed up to lower the risk of flooding. Several of the delta branches are, still connected without interruption. Most of the damming-up was done prior to 1932, when the Zuiderzee was turned into the freshwater IJsselmeer lake; the area had been prone to flooding in times of northwestern gales, pushing back the saline Zuiderzee water into the IJssel delta and preventing the water flowing from the mouths of the IJssel branches from discharging into the Zuiderzee. The modern-day names of the delta branches are, west to east, Kattendiep, Noorddiep and Goot. Of these, the Keteldiep and Kattendiep channels are the main navigational arteries. Another branch, De Garste, had completely silted up by the middle of the nineteenth century; until the beginning of the twentieth century, the Ganzendiep branch up to the Goot fork was known as IJssel proper.

Due to it being the historical main channel, with the present-day main channel being called Regtediep or Rechterdiep until well into the twentieth centuryThe IJssel, although now technically "merely" a Rhine branch, has retained most of the character of a distinct river in its own right, in no small part due to the fact that it has its own tributaries and, in river Oude IJssel a former headstream. The following canals and tributary streams connect to the IJssel, in downstream order: Apeldoorns Kanaal near the town of Dieren river Oude IJssel at the city of Doesburg the Berkel stream at the city of Zutphen the Twentekanaal between Zutphen and the village of Eefde the

Mirror (D'espairsRay album)

Mirror is the second album released by D'espairsRay on April 11, 2007 in Japan and on June 22 of the same year in Europe. The first press limited edition release from Japan came housed in a paper case along with one of five picture cards that feature one of the band members; the album was released in America on March 18, 2008. The album is composed of new songs released singles, "Closer to Ideal", a track published on the bonus CD of the Liquidize photo book; the European edition comes with an additional track and the music videos of "Squall" and "Trickster". The music in Mirror has a notably more variable sound than the previous Coll:set album, it retains some of the gothic influence, while introducing an experimental pop music sound. Most of the album has a fast tempo, only slowing for "Screen" and "Squall", however the band has called this unintentional. Hizumi – vocals Karyuguitar Zero - bass guitar Tsukasa – drums

The Sun Never Sets (TV series)

The Sun Never Sets is a 2000 Japanese television series. Starring Hideaki Takizawa, Yasuko Matsuyuki and Yūka, it aired from 13 April to 22 June 2000 on Fuji TV. Nao Masaki is a 17-year-old high school student. One day, his mother Teruko Masaki never return. Next morning, when the family hears news of an unidentified woman being taken to the hospital, they rush there only to find that his mother has died due to "death from overwork". With deep remorse, Nao presides over the cremation only to discover a surgeon's scalpel in her ashes that could only have come from her body. Suspecting medical malpractice, he decides to find out the truth of her death. With the help of a neighbourhood lawyer Setsu Kirino, will he succeed in finding the truth of her death when the hospital is determined to hide it until the end? Hideaki Takizawa as Nao Masaki Yasuko Matsuyuki as Setsu Kirino Yūka as Ami Isetani Keiko Takeshita as Teruko Masaki Ran Ito as Akiko Isetani Isao Bito as Shiro Masaki Ren Osugi as Keizo Isetani Hitomi Satō as Yuko Masaki Masaki Kyomoto as Etsushi Minami Official web site in Japanese Japanese Drama Database: Taiyou wa shizumanai